• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maillard

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EFFECTS OF MAILLARD-TYPE PRODUCTS ON SERUM ENZYMES IN RATS AND ON MUTAGENICITY IN SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM

  • Yang, Kwang-Kyu;Moon, Ja-Yeong;Park, Ki-Hyun
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 1987
  • The Maillard reaction products between amino acids and sugars are used effectively as flavors for processed foods and tobacco. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the toxicological effects of maillard browned compounds. Therefore, we have tested the safety on the three-types of Maillard products (KG-19, KG-24 and KG-32) prepared from this Research Institute. Throughout the observation period of the acute toxicity study in rats and the mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100), the test articles did not show any sigificant toxic or mutagenic signs.

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A Study on the Reaction Rates of Maillard Browning Reaction of Dipeptides with Xylose (Dipeptide류와 당에 의한 Maillard 갈색화반응의 반응속도에 관한 연구)

  • 김희주;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1996
  • The study was carried out to compare the reaction rate of Maillard browning reaction of 2 dipeptides (Leucylglycine, Tryptophylglycine) and 4 amino acids (Lysine, Glycine, Leucine, Tryptophan) with xylose heated for 0∼24 hours at 60∼100$^{\circ}C$. 1. The color intensity of the browning mixture heated at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours was the highest in tryptophanxylose, and in order to tryptophylglycine-xylose > lysine-xylose > leucylglycine-ylose > leucine-xylose > glycine-xylose. 2. The reaction rate constants (k) determined from the browning pigment concentrate with time were similar to the result of the color intensity, that is, the k were the highest in the tryptophan-xylose. 3. The residual amounts of dipeptides, amino acids and xylose in the browning mixture diminished as the browning temperature increase. 4. The activation energies (Ea) calculated from k were the highest in leucine-xylose (143.72 J/mol) and the lowest in tryptophan-xylose (117.45 J/mol). The range of Q$\sub$10/ values were 2.84∼3.58.

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Maillard Browning Reaction of D-Psicose as Affected by Reaction Factors

  • Baek, Seung-Hee;Kwon, So-Young;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu;Baek, Hyung-Hee
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.1349-1351
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the effects of temperature, D-psicose concentration, pH, and various amino acids on the Maillard browning reaction of D-psicose and glycine mixture and compared browning color intensity with those of other sugars, such as sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-tagatose. When D-psicose (0.1 M) and glycine (0.1 M) mixture was heated at $70-100^{\circ}C$ for 5 hr, the absorbance at 420 nm increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The Hunter a, b values, and color difference (${\Delta}E$) increased with increasing D-psicose concentration and pH within the range of pH 3-7 except at pH 6, while the L value decreased. The rate of Maillard browning reaction was in order of D-tagatose>D-psicose $\fallingdotseq$ D-fructose>D-glucose>sucrose. The browning color intensity of the D-psicose-basic and non-polar amino acids mixtures was higher than that of the D-psicose-acidic amino acids.

Desmutagenic Effects of Seaweed and Vegetable Extracts against Mutagenicity of Maillard Reaction Products (Maillard 반응생성물의 돌연변이원성에 대한 해조 및 야채추출물의 억제효과)

  • KIM In-Soo;KIM Seon-Bong;PARK Yeung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 1994
  • The desmutagenic effects of seaweed and vegetable extracts were investigated on the mutagenicity of Maillard reaction products (MRP) obtained from equimolar amounts of glucose and amino acid (arginine and lysine${\cdot}$HCl) for Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 without S9 mix. The mutagenicities were inhibited by water-soluble extracts of seaweeds(laver, sea-straghorn, sea-mustard and tangle) and vegetables(ginger, garlic, onion, chinese-pepper, green-onion and cabbage). Cabbage, chinese-pepper, green-onion and sea-straghorn exhibited especially high desmutagenic effects. The desmutagenicities of these extracts(cabbage, green-onion and sea-straghorn) except for sea-straghorn were decreased by heat treatment at $100^{\circ}C$ for 10 min. It is assumed that the desmutagenic effect of seaweed and vegetable extract is due to the reducing power and action of enzyme such as peroxidase and catalase.

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Comparison of the Antioxidant Effects of Ethyl Alcohol Extracts of a Maillard-type and a Caramelization-type Browning Reaction Mixtures (Maillard 형(形) 및 Caramelization 형(形) 갈색화(褐色化) 반응물(反應物)에서 얻어진 알콜 추출물(抽出物)들의 항산화(抗酸化) 효과(效果)의 비교(比較))

  • Lee, Dong-Ill;Heo, Tae-Ryeon;Kim, Dong-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 1975
  • The antioxidant effects of the alcohol extracts obtained from a Maillard-type and a caramelization-type browning reaction mixtures were determined and compared. The Maillard-type reaction mixtrue contained 0. 2 M glucose and 0. 2 M glycine while the caramelization-type reaction mixture contained only 0. 2 M glucose and both were heated at $100^{\circ}C$. The results obtained are as follows. 1. The color intensity of the Maillard-type reaction mixture appeared to increase in proportion to the length of reaction time. However, the antioxidant activity of the extracts did not seem to increase in proportion to the length of reaction time. The antioxidant activity of the extracts from the reaction mixture heated for 16 hours was not much greater than that of the extracts from reaction mixture heated for 2 hours. 2. The color intensity of the caramelization-type browning reaction appeared to increase in proportion to the length of reaction time. The antioxdant activity of the extracts did not seem to increase in proportion to the length of reaction time. 3. It appeared that the antioxdant effects of the alcohol extracts from the Maillard-type browning reaction mixture were far greater than those from the caramelization-type browning reaction mixture, compared on the basis of the same length of reaction time. Substrates, containing the alcohol extracts of the caramelization reaction mixture taken after 4 and 120 hours, developed peroxide values of 88. 9 and 33. 0 after a 20 day storage period (control, 135. 0) whereas substrates, containing the alcohol extracts of the Maillard-type reaction mixture taken after 1 and 16 hours, developed peroxide value of 9. 5 and 7. 5 after the same storage period.

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Formation of Meatlike Flavors by Maillard Reaction Using Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP) (HVP를 이용한 Maillard 반응에 의한 Meatlike Flavor의 생성)

  • Yoon, Suk-Hwan;Lee, Jung-Keun;Nam, Hee-Sop;Lee, Hyung-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.781-786
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    • 1994
  • Meatlike flavors were manufactured using hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) with several reactive precursors at different reaction conditions. Both pH and temperature affected significantly on brown colority of reaction product, whose velocity became fast with increasing pH and temperature. Drastic decrease in residual reducing sugars and free amino acids appeared until 1 hour, being little affected by reaction temperature. Glutamic acid and cysteine were decreased with reaction time, whereas glycine and methionine remained constant. Forty nine aroma compounds formed through Maillard reaction were isolated and identified with GC/MSD, including 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl tetrahydrothiophen-3-one, 3,4-dimethylthiophene and 2,4-dimethyl thiazole previously known as natural meat flavors. The sensory evaluation showed that one-hour reaction product was the highest in savory taste and the lowest in nasty taste on the level of 5% significant difference among all reaction products tested in this experiment. From the results above, it could be speculated that the initial stage of Maillard reaction in this experimental system occured until one hour, thereafter, savory taste decreased accompanied by increasing nasty taste with elapsed reaction time.

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Desmutagenic Effects of Maillard Reaction Products against Mutagenic Heterocyclic Amines (변이원성 Heterocyclic Amine에 대한 Maillard 반응생성물의 변이원성 억제효과)

  • KIM Seon-Bong;PARK Yeung-Ho;HAYASE Fumitaka;KATO Hiromichi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 1986
  • Each molecular weight (Mw) fraction of melanoidins prepared from a D-glucose and glycine system, i. e., Mw below 1,000, Mw between 1,000 to 5,000 and Mw above 5,000 and nondialyzable and ozone-treated melanoidins were reacted with heat-induced mutagens such as Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2 and IQ at $37^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. The inhibitory effects of the melanoidins on the mutagens increased with increasing molecular weight. The reducing ability ana antioxidative activity of melanoidins also increased in proportion to the increase in molecular weight, whereas the mutagenic inhibitory effect decreased on reduction of the melanoidins with sodium borohydride. It was also observed that a part of Trp-P-1 was adsorbed to melanoidin molecules. On modification of amino groups of these mutagens with carbonyl compounds derived through the Maillard reaction such as diacetyl and glyceraldehyde, their mutagenic activities were remarkably suppressed. Accordingly, it is speculated that the mutagenic inhibitory action of melanoidins is due to their reducing ability and antioxidative activity, and electrostatic binding and carbonyl groups of the melanoidin molecules.

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Effect of Maillard Reaction Products on Growth of Bacillus sp. (Maillard 반응생성물이 Bacillus sp.의 생육특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.309-313
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    • 1997
  • Maillard reaction products (MRPs) added into a culture and the resultant bacterial growth were investigated using response surface methodology. The coefficients of determination $(R^{2})$ of response surface regression equations for bacteria were 0.9544 and 0.9578 in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus natto, respectively. The MRPs produced at higher reaction temperature and for longer reaction time showed greater antimicrobial effect for Bacillus subtilis. Especially, the MRPs produced at temperature above $150^{\circ}C$ for 8 to 12 hrs showed the strongest antimicrobial effect. The MRPs produced at lower reaction temperature and for shorter reaction time showed greater microbial growth effect for Bacillus natto, but those produced at the reaction temperature higher than $160^{\circ}C$ showed the greatest antimicrobial effect. In the ridge analysis, the growth of Bacillus subtilis was the most significantly inhibited in the presence of MRPs prepared at $159.10^{\circ}C$ and pH 12.21 for 9.67 hrs, and the growth of Bacillus natto was the most significantly inhibited in the presence of MRPs prepared at $169.94^{\circ}C$ and pH 9.66 for 9.22 hrs.

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Effects of Various Sugars Including Tagatose and Their Molar Concentrations on the Maillard Browning Reaction (Tagatose 등 여러 가지 당류와 그 몰농도가 Maillard 갈변반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, So-Young;Roh, Hoe-Jin;Noh, Bong-Soo;Kim, Sang-Yong;Oh, Deok-Kun;Lee, Won-Jong;Yoon, Jung-Ro;Kim, Suk-Shin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.898-904
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe the effect of various kinds of sugars and their molar concentrations on the Maillard browning reaction. To observe the effects of various kinds of sugar, glucose, fructose, tagatose, xylose, and sucrose were employed. A model solution consisting of 0.2 M sugar and 0.2 M glycine was prepared and heated at $100^{\circ}C$ for 5 hr. The model solution with adjusted concentrations of either tagatose or glycine was also heated at $100^{\circ}C$ for 5 hr. Tagatose showed the fastest Maillard reaction, followed by xylose, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. After glycine concentration of the model solution was fixed, the model solution showed more browning with an increase in tagatose concentration. When the tagatose concentration of the model solution was fixed, the model solution showed more browning with an increase in glycine concentration. The model solution with a fixed concentration of glycine showed more more browning than that with a fixed concentration of tagatose, since the former had higher amounts of the reactant.