• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maillard

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A Study of Coffee Bean Characteristics and Coffee Flavors in Relation to Roasting (커피원두의 배전강도에 따른 품질특성 및 향기성분에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Moon Jo;Kim, Sang Eun;Kim, Jong Hwan;Lee, Sang Won;Yeum, Dong Min
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated changes in the physicochemical characteristics and coffee flavors of coffee beans under different roasting conditions. Four different kinds of roasted coffees were analyzed using a headspace gas chromatographic technique. The moisture content and total acidity of roasted coffee decreased whereas the pH and weight loss (%) increased, as coffee beans were roasted at higher temperatures. The Hunter's color values of the roasted coffee (indicating L (lightness) and b (yellowness)) decreased as the roasting temperature of the coffee beans increased, but a (redness) value only increased with light roasting. We also noted that the color of the Arabica coffee was darker than that of the Robusta coffee. The aroma compounds, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-methylfuran, 2-methylbutanol, 2-methylpyrazine, furfural, 2-propanone, furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and furfuryl acetate were mainly analyzed. A sensory evaluation of all light-roasted coffees had flavor and sourness and those of all medium-roasted coffees had heaviness and finishness.

Stability of the Fat Ingredients of Deep Fried Instant Noodles, Biscuits, and Cookies (라면, 비스킷, 및 쿠키속의 유지성분(油脂成分)의 안전성(安定性)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Hu, Tae-Ryun;Kim, Dong-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 1974
  • Deep fried instant noodles, biscuits, and cookies were prepared, using the same beef tallow as their fat ingredient. In addition to wheat flour and beef tallow, the common and major ingredients, the deep fried instant noodle contained 1.5% salt before frying, the biscuits 20.0% sucrose and 10.0% nonfat milk solid before baking, and the cookies 20.0% sucrose before baking. The three products and a portion of beef tallow, which was to be used as control, were stored in an incubator at $47.0{\pm}1.5^{\circ}C$. The peroxide value and the free fatty acid value of the control and the extracted fat were determined regularly during the storage period. The fat incorporated in the biscuits exhibited far greater stability to rancidity development than that of the control with regard to both peroxide value and free fatty acid value development. However, the fat incorporated in the deep fried instant noodles and the cookies showed much poorer stability than that of the control. Factors like a deep frying process and/or the presence of a significant amount of salt in the deep fried instant noodles appeared to promote the rancidity development of the fat incorporated in the product. On the other hand, Maillard type browning reaction products in the biscuits seemed to retard effectively the rancidity development of the fat incorporated in the product.

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A study on the antioxidant activity of products of caramel-type-browning reaction (Caramel 갈색화 반응 생성물의 항산화성에 관한 연구)

  • 신민자;안명수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.629-639
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    • 2000
  • The study was carried out to compare the antioxidant activities of products from caramel-type-browning reaction of xylose(XY), glucose(GL), sucrose(SU), glucose + citric acid (GLCA), glucose + sodium citrate(GLSC), glucose + glycine(GLGC) heated at 80, 120 or 140$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hr. 1. The hydrogen donating ability (HDA) of browning reaction products was generally enhanced as the browning temperature and time increased. The HDAs of the browning reaction products heated at 80$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hr were in the order of GLSC (0.387) > GLSC (0.362) > GLCA (0.301) > GL (0.299) > XY (0.290) > SU (0.281). But they were in the order of GLSC (0.543) > SU (0.328) > GL (0.309) > GLGC (0.325) > XY (0.298) > GLCA (0.275) under the condition of heating at 140$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hr. 2. The antioxidant activities of the anhydrous ethanol extracts of the browning mixtures were inferior to that of TBHQ as measured in com oil, but SU was superior to tocopherol in its antioxidant activity. All the browning mixtures showed antioxidant activities when heated at 80$^{\circ}C$; however, only SU and GLCA showed the activites at 120 or 140$^{\circ}C$. And the antioxidant activity of the SU extract was higher than that of TOCO. The antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts were in the order of TBHQ > GLCA > GLGC > TOCO > SU > XY > GL > GLSC > control at 80$^{\circ}C$, TBHQ > SU > TOCO > GLCA > control > GLSC> XY > GL > GLGC at 120$^{\circ}C$, and TBHQ > SU > TOCO > GLCA > control > GLSC > GLGC > XY > GL at 140$^{\circ}C$.

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Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Hot Water Extract of Liriope Tubers treated at Various Preprocess (전처리방법에 따른 맥문동 열수 추출물의 항산화성과 관능 특성)

  • Yang, Mi-Ok
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.645-653
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    • 2013
  • The results of examining total soluble solid, reducing sugar, antioxidant and sensory properties regarding LTD (Liriope Tuber Dried), LTSD (Liriope Tuber Steamed and Dried), LTASD (Liriope Tuber Alcohol-Steamed and Dried), LTDR (LTD Roasted), LTSDR (LTSD Roasted) and LTASDR (LTASD Roasted) are as follows : Total soluble solid content of the roasted samples (LTDR, LTSDR and LTASDR) was more than those of all dried samples (LTD, LTSD and LTASD). According to roasting conditions, total sugar and reducing sugar are significantly greater than the raw and dried sample (LTD) in all heat-treated samples. The browning index was significantly higher in all roasted samples. In particular, LTASDR had a high browning index. Further, the antioxidative activity of the roasted LT samples were higher than that of all dried LT samples. In particular, the LTASDR sample showed significantly high figures in DPPH scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity, Nitrite scavenging activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Sensory properties showed an increased acceptance in all evaluation items among roasted samples. In this study, hot water extracts of steamed or alcohol-steamed roasted LT samples had a higher antioxidative effect than that of LTD or LTDR and attained positive results by getting high scores in the overall sensory evaluation. Therefore, when using Liriope tuber in making beverages or herbal recipes, it is appropriate to dry and roast before steaming or spreading with alcohol when treating LT.

Influences of Roasted or Non-roasted Brown Rice Addition on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties and Oxidative Stability of Sunsik, Korean Heated Cereal Powder (현미의 볶음 처리 유무와 첨가량이 선식의 영양적 관능적 특성 및 산화안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Byung-Yong;O, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Jang, Ki-Hyo;Lee, Jae-Cheol;Surh, Jeong-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.872-886
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    • 2010
  • Six kinds of sunsik containing different contents of brown rice(BR; 20, 30, and 50%) were prepared and subjected to various processing conditions(with or without roasting at $200^{\circ}C$ for 20 min e.g., designated as RBR50 or BR50) to assess their functionality as ready-to-eat foods. They were also assessed for their nutritional and sensory properties and oxidative stability. Dietary fiber contents were proportionate to the levels of added BR. Protein was highest in RBR50 (p<0.001), which also had the highest amounts of free and structural amino acids. The amount of free amino acids tended to increase with roasting, although most amino acids were present in structural form. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the predominant fatty acids in all prepared sunsik, and RBR50 presented noticeably higher peroxidability index due to its higher amount of linoleic acid(p<0.05). Nevertheless, RBR50 showed good oxidative stability; this phenomenon was observed in all sunsik with roasted BR but not in those with non-roasted BR. It is implied that potential antioxidants might have been newly formed or converted from their precursors while BR was roasted. Roasting process also had an impact on the sensory properties of sunsik, e.g., sunsik with added roasted BR showed lower dissolution and darker color intensity compared to its counterpart sunsik.

Changes of acid value of lipid, chlorogenic acid content and anti-oxidative activities in roasted coffee for short term storage (단기저장 기간 중 커피원두의 지방산가, chlorogenic acid 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Lim, Jinkyu;Kim, Min-Yeol;Kim, Sung-Hee;Ma, Jin-Sung;Oh, Jisun;Kim, Jong Sang
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.383-390
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    • 2017
  • Regarding the facts that fat, which is easily oxidized, is one of the major responsible factors affecting the quality of aroma, and polyphenol compounds including chlorogenic acid (CGA) contribute the anti-oxidative activities to coffee, we investigated fat oxidation, conversion of CGA, and changes of anti-oxidative activities according to the degree of roasting and storage of 60 days. We found that the amount of extractable fat by diethyl ether is increased as the coffee beans are roasted longer. Furthermore, the acidity values of the fat are increased from $8.91{\pm}0.16$ to $17.81{\pm}0.11$, and $10.37{\pm}0.27$ to $17.93{\pm}0.09$ in the medium and dark roasted coffee beans, respectively, while it is increased from $4.47{\pm}0.11$ to $11.89{\pm}0.18$ in the green coffee bean after 60 days. The CGA contents in the coffee beans were decreased from $310{\pm}8.2$ to $282{\pm}11.2$, then to $58{\pm}0.0mg$ in 10 gr of the green, medium and dark beans, respectively, and were not changed significantly during the storage period. However, the anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging assays were not significantly different among the green, medium, and dark coffee beans during the storage period. Furthermore, antioxidant reactive element-luciferase assay showed that biological anti-oxidative activities were increased as coffee beans were more roasted and stored longer. As the total polyphenolic contents in the beans were significantly decreased by roasting, the results suggests that other molecules, such as, Maillard reaction products might play substantial role in anti-oxidative activity and influence cup quality of coffee.

Effects of Salt and Soysauce Condiment on Lipid Oxidation in Broiled Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) (소금과 간장 양념이 고등어 구이의 지질산화 안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryu, Seung-Hee;Lee, Young-Soon;Moon, Gap-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1030-1035
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    • 2002
  • Despite health benefits derived from fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contained in fish oil are susceptible to lipid oxidation. To determine the optimum condition for maintaining good quality cooked fish during storage, mackerels were broiled with salt or soysauce condiments, and the lipid oxidation during 12 days of storage at refrigerated condition was measured. Peroxide value of broiled mackerel group with salt significantly increased after immediate cooking and maintained higher value throughout the storage period compare to the soysauce-added group, but showed similar value to the control group. Conjugated diene content in the soysauce-group was lower than the control and salt-added groups. Malondialdehyde content of broiled mackerel increased twofold and showed similar values in soysauce-added and the control groups during storage, whereas increased in the salt-added group significantly. Fatty acid compositions of the three mackerel groups changed after cooking, whereas that of the control group was almost stable during storage. In comparison with raw mackerel, the ratio of PUFA and saturated fatty acids decreased significantly, and the content of n-3 family fatty acid decreased from 25.53 to 20.63% in salted broiled mackerel. Soysauce group showed no reduction of PUFA with increasing storage time and showed the highest ratio of n-3/n-6 among the three groups at 10 days storage. Results reveal soysauce condiment protects against lipid peroxidation of broiled mackerel. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) found in soysauce might be responsible for the inhibitory effect and is a good condiment for extending storage life of cooked fish containing high amount of PUFA.

Antioxidant Activities and Quality Characteristics of Germinated Rough Rice Tea according to Roasting Temperature, Time and Leaching Condition (볶음 조건 및 침출 조건에 따른 발아 벼차의 항산화 활성 및 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Youn-Ri;Hwang, In-Guk;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kim, Kyoung-Ho;Kim, Kee-Jong;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.386-391
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    • 2009
  • To verify the possibility of manufacturing a germinated rough rice tea, germinated rough rice was roasted at 200, 220, and $250^{\circ}C$ for 10, 20, and 30 min. The treated rice powder was then put into tea bags and leached for 1, 3, and 5 min, after which their antioxidant, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics were compared. The total polyphenol content and 2,2'-Azino-bis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the germinated rough rice tea increased as the roasting temperature increased as well as in response to increased roasting and leaching times. Furthermore, the greater the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time, the greater the increase in total soluble solid contents. Moreover, the turbidity and browning index of the germinated rice tea rose as the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time increased. Additionally, the pH tended to decrease as the roasting temperature, roasting time, and leaching time increased. Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of the germinated rice tea revealed that the formation of a Maillard reaction product in the course of heating the rice added a unique flavor, which led to increase preference for the color, flavor, and taste, and therefore, the overall preference.

Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Baekseolgi Prepared with Different Combinations of Xylitol and Sucralose (자일리톨·수크랄로스 혼합 첨가 백설기의 이화학적·관능적 품질 특성)

  • Jo, Hyeri;Surh, Jeonghee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.1339-1346
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    • 2015
  • In a previous study, baekseolgi with xylitol or sucralose was comparable to baekseolgi with sugar in terms of all sensory characteristics. However, the hardness of sucralose baekseolgi increased considerably during storage while that of xylitol baekseolgi remained unchanged. To improve the physical limitations observed in sucralose baekseolgi, a combination of sucralose and xylitol were substituted for sugar when preparing baekseolgi (SL0~SL100, SLn; baekseolgi where sugar was replaced with n% sucralose and 100-n% xylitol based on relative sweetness to sugar). All SLn baekseolgi samples were not significantly different from sugar baekseolgi in terms of sensory properties. The moisture content was not different between sugar and xylitol baekseolgi (SL0), but decreased significantly as the amount of sucralose increased (P<0.01), which correlated with cohesiveness of baekseolgi. Texture profile analysis revealed that hardness of SLn baekseolgi increased without any noticeable change in moisture content after storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. In addition, the hardness after storage was the highest in sucralose baekseolgi (SL100), which was comparatively lower in SL0~SL80 containing xylitol presumably due to the hygroscopic characteristics of xylitol. In particular, SL20 was found to be comparable to sugar baekseolgi in terms of moisture and cohesiveness during storage. The results showed that the combination of xylitol and sucralose could be a potential sugar substitute in terms of not only sensory characteristics but also physicochemical properties.

Chromaticity and Brown Pigment Patterns of Soy Sauce and UHYUKJANG, Korean Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce (간장과 어육장의 색도 및 갈색색소 패턴)

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Moon, Gap-Soon;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.642-649
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    • 2006
  • The browning of soy sauce is caused by the reaction of amino-carbonyl between amino-compounds and reducing sugar. Only a few studies have investigated the formation of melanoidins in UHYUKJANG. The objectives of this study were to analyze the brown pigment of UHYUKJANG and to investigate the characteristics of UHYUKJANG in comparison with soy sauce and model melanoidins. The samples were ripened for 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 20$^{\circ}C$. The pH, absorbance at 420 nm absorbance ratio of 400 to 500 nm and UV-VIS spectra as an index of color intensity were measured. Additionally, L, a and b values of the samples and the amount of 3-Deoxyglucosone(3DG) in the samples were measured. The pH of both soy sauce (from 6.26 to 5.52) and UHYUKJANG (from 6.13 to 5.11) rapidly decreased during the first 60 days of aging and was also affected by storage temperature. The absorbance of samples at 420 nm increased during the aging process, reaching its maximum after 180 days, regardless of sample and temperature. On the other hand, the intensity of brown color in the samples increased with increasing aging period according to the results of absorbance ratio (soy sauce: 1.37 to 5.29, UHYUKJANG: 1.37 to 5.02). The L value of soy sauce increased during the aging process and was maximized after 240 days at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 180 days at 20$^{\circ}C$, but decreased thereafter. There was no significant difference in L value of UHYUKJANG, regardless of aging period and temperature. On the other hand, the b value did not reveal any significant change during aging, but the a value increased until 120 days of aging in the other samples except for UHYUKJANG at 20$^{\circ}C$. The average amount of 3DG separated from soy sauce was 5.65 mg%, and from UHYUKJANG was 3.74 mg%. These results indicated that the browning of UHYUKJANG was also caused by melanoidins produced by the reaction of amino-carbonyl during the fermentation process.