• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maillard

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Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution

  • Ganesan, Palanivel;Benjakul, Soottawat;Baharin, Badlishah Sham
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.403-407
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    • 2014
  • Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with $A_{294}$, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% $ZnCl_2$ or 0.2% $CaCl_2$ up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and $A_{294}$ of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p<0.05), irrespective of treatments. At wk 6, pidan white treated with 0.2% $ZnCl_2$ and 0.2% $CaCl_2$ showed slightly higher browning intensity, fluorescence intensity and $A_{294}$ than those treated with divalents together with Chinese black tea (p<0.05). Free amino group and sugar contents showed continuous decrease during pickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white.

Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Crown Daisy by Maillard Reaction Products (마이얄반응생성물(Maillard reaction product)에 의한 쑥갓의 효소적갈면 억제)

  • Kim, Ji-Hae;Song, Hyeon-Seung;Park, Inshik
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1451-1455
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    • 2012
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) on enzymatic browning of crown daisy (Chrysanthmum coronarium var. spatiosum). The MRPs prepared by heating various amino acid and sugar at $90^{\circ}C$ caused a strong inhibitory effect on crown daisy polyphenol oxidase (PPO, ${\sigma}$-diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.1). As the reaction time of the solution containing glycine and glucose increased at $90^{\circ}C$, the production of MRPs was increased, whereas the amounts of glycine and glucose were decreased. Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of crown daisy PPO activity by MRPs was increased as the amounts of synthesized MRPs were increased. The MRPs synthesized from the various amino acids and sugars significantly reduced the PPO activity, particularly MRPs prepared by glutamine and xylose. The Michealis-Menten constant value ($K_m$) of crown daisy PPO with catechol as a substrate was 22.0 mM, and MRPs were a noncompetitive inhibitor against crown daisy PPO.

The Effect of pH on the Formation of Acrylamide and Acrylate from Glucose and Fructose with Amino Acid Enantiomers in the Maillard Reaction

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.134-137
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pH on the formation of acrylamide and acrylate from glucose and fructose reacting with amino acid enantiomers by the Maillard reaction. The acrylamide content was increased with increasing pH, except for Fru/D-Asn system. Both acrylamide and acrylate contents were higher in the glucose-based system compared to the fructose-based system at pH 10.0. However, according to amino acid enantiomers, only the acrylamide content showed a difference in the fructose-based system. In addition, the acrylate content was increased with increasing pH except in the Glc/L-Asn system. Acrylate formation was observed specifically at pH 4.0 for both the Glc/D-Asn and Fru/D-Asn systems.

FT-IR and X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of Melanoidins Formed from Glucose and Fructose with Amino Acid Enantiomers in the Maillard Reaction

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.546-551
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to investigate Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of melanoidins formed from glucose and fructose with amino acid enantiomers in the Maillard reaction. Before dialysis, FT-IR spectroscopy of all the samples showed that the characteristic absorption intensities appeared as a broad and intense band of the stretching vibration of the -OH group at 3,400/cm for a high pH. The absorption bands of the melanoidins sharply decreased in intensity after dialysis as compared to those before dialysis. In particular, the absorption bands at 992 and 575/cm disappeared. The XRD confirmed that the crystal structure of the melanoidins disappeared after dialysis and a new crystal structure was formed at 9 and $28^{\circ}$ ($2{\theta}$. In particular, broad diffraction peaks were formed in the $10-21^{\circ}$ ($2{\theta}$) range for a high pH, while other sharp diffraction peaks disappeared.

Model System Study for the Mutagenicity of Sugar-Glycine Systems

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Shin, Han-Seung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.839-841
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    • 2008
  • The mutagenicity after heating of different sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, and tagatose) on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in different sugars and glycine model system was investigated. The model system containing 0.2 M glycine and 0.2 M of different sugars in 10 mL water was heated at $150{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. After heating, degree of non-browning reaction intensity and mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 were examined. Heated glycine model systems containing different sugars increased their mutgenicity ranged from 30 to 372 revertant colonies. After heating for 40 min, mutagenicity was achieved with glycine model systems containing 4 different sugars with by 145, 356, 206, and 369 revertants per plate, respectively. The glycine model systems containing fructose or tagatose were significantly (p<0.05) higher mutagenic activity than glycine model systems containing glucose or galactose after 40 min of heating. The linear regression between Maillard reaction intensity and mutagenic activities (slope=32.38, $R^2=0.93$) indicates that mutagenicity could be fully ascribed to Maillard reaction products.

Polysulfone/nanocomposites mixed matrix ultrafiltration membrane for the recovery of Maillard reaction products

  • Basu, Subhankar;Mukherjee, Sanghamitra;Balakrishnan, Malini;Deepthi, M.V.;Sailaja, R.R.N.
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.105-113
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    • 2018
  • Maillard reaction products like melanoidins present in industrial fermentation wastewaters are complex compounds with various functional properties. In this work, novel ultrafiltration (UF) mixed matrix membrane (MMM) composed of polysulfone (PSF) and nanocomposites was prepared through a phase inversion process for the recovery of melanoidins. Nanocomposites were prepared with acid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the reinforcing filler for chitosan-thermoplastic starch blend. Higher nanocomposites content in the PSF matrix reduced the membrane permeability and melanoidins retention indicating tighter membrane with surface defects. The membrane surface defects could be sealed with dilute polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution. The best performing membrane (1% nanocomposites in 18% PSF membrane sealed with 0.25% PVA coating) resulted in uniform melanoidins retention of 98% and permeability of 3.6 L/m2 h bar over a period of 8h. This demonstrates a low fouling PSF membrane for high melanoidins recovery.

The Chemical and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 by Maillard Reaction

  • Yamabe, Noriko;Lee, Jin-Gyun;Lee, Yong-Jae;Park, Chan-Hum;Kim, Hyun-Young;Park, Jeong-Hill;Yokozawa, Takako;Kang, Ki-Sung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2011
  • The chemical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity changes of ginsenoside $Rb_1$-glycine and ginsenoside $Rg_1$-glycine mixtures by Maillard reaction were investigated to identify the role of Maillard reaction in the increased antioxidant activity of ginseng by heat-processing. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of $Rg_1$-glycine mixture was more strongly increased by heat-processing than that of $Rb_1$-glycine mixture. From the analyses of ginsenosides, $Rb_1$ was gradually changed into 20(S)-$Rg_3$, 20(R)-$Rg_3$, $Rk_1$ and $Rg_5$ by heat-processing. $Rg_1$ was gradually changed into 20(S)-$Rh_1$, 20(R)-$Rh_1$, $Rk_3$ and $Rh_4$ by heat-processing. However, the generation of these less-polar ginsenosides was not related to the increased DPPH radical scavenging activity of $Rb_1$-glycine and $Rg_1$-glycine mixtures because their DPPH radical scavenging activities were already significantly increased when dried at $50^{\circ}C$, which temperature induce no structural changes of ginsenosides. In the comparison of browning compound levels of $Rg_1$-glycine and $Rb_1$-glycine mixtures, the extents of Maillard reaction were positively correlated with their increased free radical scavenging activities. Based on the chemical and DPPH radical scavenging activity changes of $Rg_1$-glycine and $Rb_1$-glycine mixtures by heat-processing, we clearly identified that the increased free radical scavenging activity of ginsenoside is mediated by the Maillard reaction between sugar moiety of ginsenoside and amino acid.

Effect of Phenolic Acids on Inhibition of Browning of Maillard Reaction Model Solutions (Phenolic acid가 Maillard 반응 모델액의 갈변억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Eun-Jung;Lim, Seong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.20-24
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    • 2007
  • The effects of phenolic acids on inhibition of browning by the Maillard reaction were investigated with a glucose-glutamic acid model for doenjang with citric acid as the antibrowning agent and phenolic acid as its synergist. Five phenolic acids, cinnamic, coumaric, caffeic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids, were used. In order to investigate the antibrowning capacity, 0.1M glucose, 0.1M glutamic acid, 50mM citric acid, and 1mM phenolic acid were dissolved in 1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), heated at $50^{\circ}C$ for 24hr in the presence of 0.2mM $FeCl_{2}$, and stored at $4^{\circ}C$ or $30^{\circ}C$ for four weeks. Phenolic acid addition more efficiently inhibited browning during storage at $30^{\circ}C$ than at $4^{\circ}C$, without changes in pH. Hydroxybenzoic acid was the most efficient and increased the antibrowning capacity by 13% compared to sample without phenolic acids. Although caffeic and protocatechuic acids inhibited most the formation of 3-deoxyglucosone or fluorescence, they increased browning by forming colored complexes between two hydroxy groups of phenolic acids and iron ions. Hydroxybenzoic acid will be able to be a useful synergist of citric acid, an antibrowning agent in doenjang, since it is permitted for doenjang.

Role of Active Oxygens on DNA Damage by Low Molecular Carbonyl Compounds Derived from Maillard Reaction (Maillard 반응에서 유래되는 저분자 Carbonyl 화합물의 DNA손상작용에 대한 활성산소종의 역할)

  • 김선봉;박성준;강진훈;변한석;박영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.565-570
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    • 1990
  • The role of the active oxygens on plasmid DNA damage by carbonyl compounds derived from Maillard reaction was investigated. Plasmid DNA extracted from E. coli Hb1O1 was reacted with carbonyl compounds, such as glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, dihydroxyacetone, diacetyl, glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde and furfural with and without the active oxygen scavengers at 37$^{\circ}C$ for 6 hours, and then the degree of damage was determined by using 1 % agarose gel electro-phoresis. All of the carbonyl compounds except furfural caused to damage of DNA. Among these, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal and dihydroxyacetone markedly induced the damage of DNA. On the other hand, the DNA damage by the carbonyl compounds was greatly inhibited by catalase, superoxide dismutase and $\alpha$-tocopherol it is considered that the damage of DNA is due to active oxygens, such as singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion generated during the autoxidation of carbonyl compounds.

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