• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maillard

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Chemical and Free Radical-scavenging Activity Changes of Ginsenoside Re by Maillard Reaction and Its Possible Use as a Renoprotective Agent

  • Yamabe, Noriko;Song, Kyung-Il;Lee, Woo-Jung;Han, Im-Ho;Lee, Ji-Hwan;Ham, Jung-Yeob;Kim, Su-Nam;Park, Jeong-Hill;Kang, Ki-Sung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2012
  • Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.

The Effect of pH on the Formation of Furfural Compounds in the Glucose and Fructose with Amino Acid Enantiomers in Maillard Reaction

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.54-59
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pH on the formation of furfural compounds from glucose and fructose reacting with amino acid enantiomers in the Maillard reaction. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was highest at pH 4.0, and decreased with increasing pH. HMF was significantly higher in glucose-based systems than fructose-based systems. Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) and 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (MF) were not increased with increasing pH, and only small amounts were formed. In addition, 2-furaldehyde (F) was found to increase in the systems, as pH increased. However, the content was small and variable. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) was only found in Glc/D-Asn, Glc/L-Lys and Fru/D-Lys system, but the content was not increased with increasing pH. 2-acetylfuran (AF) was higher in Glc (or Fru)/L-Lys and Glc (or Fru)/D-Lys systems at pH 7.0. However, at pH 4.0, the content of AF was higher in the Glc (or Fru)/Gly and Glc (or Fru)/L-Asn systems. Therefore, this study aimed to observe the effect of pH, sugars and amino acid enantiomers on the production of furfural and related compounds by the Maillard reaction. A clear tendency was observed for some classes of compounds to be more easily formed at higher or lower pH. HMF was more readily formed at lower pH, while FFA, F, DMHF and MF were inhibited by acidic conditions. Particularly, compounds like FFA, F and MF were not affected by pH changes. In addition, DMHF and MF were only formed in L-Lys and D-Lys system.

Tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity by mixtures of ultrasonicated chitosan and Maillard reaction products (초음파 처리 키토산과 메일라드 반응액 혼합물에 의한 tyrosinase 억제 활성 및 항균력 분석)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ja;Yang, Yong-Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.2522-2527
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antimicrobial activity by mixtures of ultrasonicated chitosan and Maillard reaction products. Analysis of tyrosinase was purified from potato and confirmed by active staining after SDS-PAGE. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were formed from various sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose, arabinose or ribose) and cystein. MRPs inhibited the tyrosinase purified from potato. The highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity was shown by MRP from glucose and cystein. Ultrasonicated chitosan (over 1 hr) showed antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 1% against E. coli and S. aureus. For the development of antibrowning agent with antimicrobial activity, tyrosinase inhibitory and antimicrobial activity by the mixtures of ultrasonicated chitosan and MRP were tested. 1:1 mixture of ultrasonicated chitosan and MRP from glucose and cystein was the best antibrowning agent having antimicrobial activity.

Enhancing the Flavor of Pearl Oyster (Pinctada fucata) Extract Using Reaction Flavoring (Reaction Flavoring에 의한 진주조개 (Pinctada fucata) 추출물의 풍미개선)

  • Kang, Jeong-Goo;Nam, Gi-Ho;Kang, Jin-Yeong;Hwang, Seok-Min;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2007
  • The optimal substrates and reaction flavoring conditions were examined to develop pearl oyster extract (POE) flavor using the Maillard reaction under a model system. The sugar for the Maillard reaction was glucose, and the amino acid was cysteine, with glycine as the reaction substrate. A three-dimensional response surface method was used to monitor the dynamic changes of the substrates during the Maillard reaction. To enhance the flavor of POE, a two-step enzymatic hydrolysate (Brix $20^{\circ}$) was reacted with the precursors (1:1, v/v). A 2:1:1 mixture of 0.4 M glucose:0.4 M glycine:0.4 M cysteine (v/v) was selected as a suitable reaction system for the reappearance of baked potato odor and boiled meat odor, and masking the shellfish odor. The two-step enzymatic hydrolysate and selected precursors were reacted in a high-pressure reactor to optimize the reaction parameters. The optimum conditions were 150 minutes at $120\;^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0. The pH was the most critical factor for the response of the baked potato odor and masking the shellfish odor, while the reaction time affected the reappearance of the boiled meat odor.

Effects of Searing Cooking on Sensory and Physicochemical Properties of Beef Steak

  • Yoo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Ji Won;Yong, Hae In;Baek, Ki Ho;Lee, Hyun Jung;Jo, Cheorun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.44-54
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sensory and instrumental quality of thawed beef steak prepared by searing and oven cooking. Beef purchased in the local market was divided into two groups; one group was cooked in a 180℃ oven until the internal temperature reached 60℃, and the other group was oven cooked until 35℃, then cooked in a 250℃ pan until the internal temperature reached 60℃. Despite a noticeable change in appearance due to the high temperature of the searing, there was no significant difference in juiciness, water content, and cooking loss between the searing-cooked and the oven-cooked steaks. However, in searing cooking, both scores of overall flavor and roast meat flavor were significantly higher than those of oven cooking. In the searing-cooked steak, the reducing sugar, which is a reactant of the Maillard reaction, was lower and Maillard-reaction products were higher than oven-cooked steak. From our results, it can be concluded that searing does not improve juiciness of the steak, but improves the flavor of beef steak due to higher levels of Maillard reaction products.

Improving the Surface Functionality of Curdlan by Conjugation with Unfolding Protein through Naturally Occurring Maillard Reaction

  • Nakamura, Soichiro;Ogawa, Masahiro;Saeki, Hiroki;Saito, Masayoshi;Miyasaka, Satoko;Hata, Junya;Adachi, Naoko;Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.200-204
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    • 2000
  • Protein conjugation of curdlan belonging to $\beta$-1, 3-glucan was carried out to improve it surface functionalities. The glucan was mixed with phosvitin, {TEX}$$\alpha$_{s}${/TEX}-casein, lysozyme or ovalbumin, respectively. The mixture was freeze-dried, and he resulting powder was incubated at 6$0^{\circ}C$ and 79% relative humidity for 12 days in order to generate a controlled Maillard reaction between curdlan and proteins. conjugation with unfolding proteins, i.e., phosvitin and {TEX}$$\alpha$_{s}${/TEX}-casein, drastically increased the solubility of the glucan, whereas lysozyme and ovalbmin did not. The solubility in water of curdlan was 3.44% for the phosvitin conjugate and 1.09% for the {TEX}$$\alpha$_{s}${/TEX}-casein conjugate. SDS-slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that curdlan was solubilized due to covalent binding with phosvitin. Emulsifying properties of curdlan were substantially improved by the conjugation with phosvitin and {TEX}$$\alpha$_{s}${/TEX}-casein. Emulsion stability of the curdlan-phosvitin conjugate was about 2.9 times greater than that of the curdlan-phosvitin mixture.

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Development of Grilled-type Shrimp Flavor by Maillard Reaction and Sensory Evaluation

  • Kim, Myung-Chan;Oh, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Bong-Yeon;Cho, Sueng-Mock;Lee, Da-Sun;Nam, Min-Hee;Kim, Seon-Bong;Lee, Yang-Bong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2010
  • A grilled-type shrimp flavor was developed through the Maillard reaction to reduce or mask fish odor or off-flavor in seafood. Model systems were created by using enzymatic hydrolysate of shrimp and adding precursors to increase flavor quality and stability. Amino acid precursors such as cysteine and methionine, sugar precursors such as glucose, xylose, ribose, and sucrose, and one particular compound of glucosamine were tried and their flavor qualities were tested by sensory evaluation. Also, the optimum reaction condition was investigated using the pH values of pH 5, 6, 7, and 8 with reaction times of 1 hr, 2 hr and 3 hr after the best precursors were determined. The best condition of the precursors for grilled-type shrimp flavor was the mixtures of methionine, threonine, xylose, and glucosamine. The optimum reaction condition was at pH 8.0 and 2 hr reaction time.

Development of Boiled-type Shrimp Flavor by Maillard Reaction and Sensory Evaluation

  • Kim, Myung-Chan;Oh, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Bong-Yeon;Cho, Sueng-Mock;Lee, Da-Sun;Nam, Min-Hee;Lee, Yang-Bong;Kim, Seon-Bong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.304-308
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    • 2010
  • Boiled-type shrimp flavor was developed using Maillard reaction to reduce or mask fish odor or off-flavor in seafood. Model systems were created using enzymatic hydrolysate of shrimp and adding precursor compounds to increase flavor quality and stability. Amino acid precursors of cysteine and methionine and sugar precursors such as glucose, xylose, ribose and sucrose were tried and their flavor qualities were tested by sensory evaluation. After the optimal precursors were determined, the optimum reaction condition was investigated using pHs of 5, 6, 7, and 8 and reaction times of 1, 2 and 3 hours. The best precursors for boiled-type shrimp flavor were methionine and sucrose. The optimum reaction condition was pH 8.0 and a one hour reaction time.

Study on Maillard Reaction Products Derived from Aqueous and Ethanolic Fructose-Glycine and Its Oligomer Solutions

  • Kim, Ji-Sang
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2010
  • The present study compared the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from aqueous and ethanolic fructoseglycine and its oligomer (dimer and trimer) solutions. The pH was lower in glycine (G) than in diglycine (DG) and triglycine (TG) in both aqueous and ethanolic solutions, but the pH difference between the DG and TG was not significant. MRPs derived from the DG had a greater absorbance at 294 and 420 nm in ethanolic solution than in an aqueous solution. In particular, the loss of sugar was higher in ethanolic solution than in aqueous solution. Enolization of fructose was observed in both aqueous and ethanolic MRP solutions; however, enolization was not observed for the G in aqueous MRP solutions. The glycine oligomer content in ethanolic MRP solutions remained higher than that in aqueous MRP solutions. Furthermore, neither diglycine nor triglycine were detected in the G aqueous or ethanolic MRP solutions, while triglycine was detected in both the DG aqueous and ethanolic MRP solutions. Absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra was higher with MRPs derived from the ethanolic solution than with those derived from the aqueous solution. MRPs derived from the DG in an ethanolic solution showed the highest absorption intensity.