• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maillard

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Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

  • Tazawa, Shigeru;Katayama, Shigeru;Hirabayashi, Masahiro;Yamaguchi, Daiki;Nakamura, Soichiro
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at $60^{\circ}C$ and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP.

Ribose-induced Maillard Reaction as an Analytical Method for Detection of Adulteration and Differentiation of Chilled and Frozen-thawed Minced Veal

  • Akbarabadi, Masoumeh;Mohsenzadeh, Mohammad;Housaindokht, Mohammad-Reza
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.350-361
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    • 2020
  • Quality control of meat products is one of the main concerns of consumers, governmental control authorities, and retailers. The purpose of this study was to employ ribose-induced Maillard reaction in detection of meat adulteration and differentiation of fresh-chilled from frozen-thawed minced veal. The browning intensity was assessed through measuring the absorbance at 420 nm with a spectrophotometer as well as the direct analysis of the color and pH. The results showed that CIE b*, CIE a*, and A420* values in the extract of fresh-chilled veal were significantly (p<0.05) higher than frozen-thawed samples. The extract of frozen meat samples stored at -18℃ became significantly darker and more yellowish compared to -4℃. The results showed that the A420* value in the frozen-thawed veal stored at -4℃ and -18℃ was reduced by approximately 17.22±3.53% and 11.68±2.49%, respectively, compared with fresh-chilled veal. The findings also showed that the storage temperature of minced veal and the heating time in this reaction had a significant effect on all tested variables (p<0.0001). The proposed method can be considered as an easy, quick, and inexpensive test for differentiating between the fresh-chilled and frozen-thawed minced veal.

The Correlation of $CO_2$ Content with Non-Enzymatic Browning Color in Non-Fat Dried Milk (탈지분유(脫脂粉乳)에서 $CO_2$함량(含量)과 비효소적(非酵素的) 갈변색소(褐變色素)와의 상관관계(相關關係))

  • Chang, Kyu-Seob;Min, David B.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 1986
  • In order to develop a simple and effective method for determining the rate of the Maillard reaction in non-fat dry milk, the carbon dioxide content of the headspace as an indicator were used and the amount of correlation between $CO_2$ content and brown color development were determined by the gas chromatograph. There is a high correlation between brown color and $CO_2$ content. The use of gas chromatography to analyze the $CO_2$ in the headspace of samples is a quick, simple and effective method of monitoring the Maillard reaction. Volatile concentration increases with storage time and varies inversely with oxygen content. Lysine is more effective than glucose in catalyzing the Maillard reaction. Product samples can be stored at $55^{\circ}C$ and $68^{\circ}C$ to accelerate the rate of the Maillard reaction and shorten testing period, but product stored at $75^{\circ}C$ is degraded too rapidly to be of any real use.

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Development of Meat-like Flavor by Maillard Reaction of Model System with Amino acids and Sugars (Meat-like Flavor 개발을 위한 당-아미노산 Model System에서의 Maillard 반응)

  • Ko, Soon-Nam;Yoon, Suk-Hwan;Yoon, Suk-Kwon;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.827-838
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    • 1997
  • Optimal substrates and reaction conditions were studied to develop boiled or roasted meat flavor by Maillard reaction under a model system. Sugars for the reactions were xylose, ribose, glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose. Amino acids were cystine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, and glycine as the reaction substrates. The reacted solutions were measured their absorbances at 278 nm and 420 nm and were evaluated their sensory properties. Except cysteine, the pentose mixtures with all of the four amino acids showed a faster reaction rate than those mixtures with hexose or disaccharides. pH was decreased rapidly until 8 hours and then changed a little thereafter. Sensory evaluation showed that cystine-lactose or cystine-xylose from single substrate and cystine-lactose-maltose, and cystine-lactose-xylose from mixed substrates reacted at $100^{\circ}C$ for 16 or 20 hours were found to be close to boiled or roasted meat flavor. The volatile compounds from the four selected sugar-amino acid solutions by GC/MS were 8 hydrocarbons, 10 aldehydes, 6 ketones, 7 alcohols, 2 aromatics (benzene), 1 ester, 4 furans, 1 base and 5 sulfur compounds.

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Effect of Reactive Oxygen Species on the Formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, an Endproduct of Maillard Reaction of Proteins (단백질의 Maillard 반응의 최종산물인 CML 형성에 미치는 ROS의 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Sun;Yang, Ryung;Shin, Dong-Bum
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2004
  • The effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the formation of $N^{\varepsilon}$-(carboxymethly)lysine (CML). one of the endproducts in the Maillard reaction of protein (or glycation), was investigated. Glyoxal, a main precursor of CML formation, was produced from both glucose and fructose during their autoxidation. The transition metal ion showed to involve in the formation of glyoxal by the metal catalyzed oxidation, suggesting that ROS accelerated the reducing sugar autoxidation. The stimulative effect of ROS on the autoxidation was more prominent in glucose than in fructose. Polyunsaturated acids (PUFAs) were shown to form glyoxal by peroxidation in proportion to the degree of unsaturation, but ROS did not affect on PUFA peroxidation. Ascorbic acid also lysine (CMHL) in the model system using hippuryl lysine and glucose had a significant effect on ROS, whereas it had no effect on ROS using glyoxal as a reactant. Almost the same trend was obtained by the analysis of antigen coated indirect noncompetitive ELISA using monoclonal antibody (6D12). These data indicated that ROS affected glucose autoxidation as well as mediated both CML and glyoxal formation, but did not affect the reactive compounds such as fructose, PUFAs and ascorbic acid.

Optimization of Maillard Reactions of Tagatose and Glycine Model Solution by Appyling Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 응용한 tagatose와 glycine 모델 용액의 Maillard 갈변반응의 최적화)

  • Ryu, So-Young;Roh, Hoe-Jin;Noh, Bong-Soo;Kim, Sang-Yong;Oh, Deok-Kun;Lee, Won-Jong;Yoon, Jung-Ro;Kim, Suk-Shin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.914-917
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    • 2003
  • This study was undertaken to find the optimum condition for the Maillard browning reaction of tagatose and glycine model solution by applying the response surface methodology. Independent variables were pH (3, 5, 7), temperature (70, 85, $100^{\circ}C$), and time (60, 180, 300 min), while the dependent variables were absorbance, yellowness, color difference, and organoleptic score. The quadratic models with the cross-product proved to be suitable, due to the high coefficients of determination and the lack of fit results. Since all the dependent variables had saddle points, the optimal points were determined through ridge analysis. For absorbance, yellowness, and color difference, the optimal points were the lowest values; in contrast, the optimal point of organoleptic score was the highest value.

Flavor Modification of Mideoduck (Styela clava) Drips by Maillard Reaction (Maillard 반응에 의한 미더덕 체액의 풍미개선)

  • Kang, Seok-Joong;Jung, Sung-Ju;Choi, Yeung-Joon;Choi, Byeong-Dae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1829-1837
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    • 2010
  • Mideoduck drips were mixed with amino acids (Met, Tau, Gly, Ala, Thr, Cys), thiamine and sugars (Glucose, Ribose) for flavor modification and evaluation using the Maillard reaction. To mask the seafood flavor, onions, spring onions, garlic, ginger, citric orange and green tea were mixed with Mideoduck drips at $160^{\circ}C$ for 2.5 hr in a stainless still reaction bomb. The glucose/thiamine model reaction system was estimated to be lower than the ribose/thiamine model system, and an extreme case is the ribose/Met model system. Mixed system of glucose, ribose and taurine containing sulfur compounds showed fair results. Among the Mideoduck drips mixed with sugars and amino groups, only thiamine model systems were estimated to be normal. The flavor composition of Mideoduck drips/sugars model system, and long chain fatty acids were composed of 31.32~62.71% total flavor content. The 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutylester contents made up more than 20% of the model system in groups A, B and C. From the model system in this study, drip/glucose, drip/ribose, drip/glucose/citric orange, and drip/glucose/glycine/cystine groups showed most intense good flavor.

Rapid Formation of biologically Active Neoglycoprotein from Lysozyme and Xyloglucan Hydrolysates through Naturally Occurring Maillard Reaction

  • Soichiro Nakamura;Masayoshi Saito;Tetsuhisa Goto;Hiroki Seaki;Masahiro Ogawa;Masayuki Gotoh;Yasuhide Gohya;Hwang, Jae-Kwan
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2000
  • Hen egg-white lysozyme was conjugated with 7~9 mers xyloglucan hydrolysates(MW-1,400) at 6$0^{\circ}C$ and 79% relative humidity for 3 days. SDS-PAGE showed that the conjugation between lysozyme and the oligosaccharide began from 1-day incubation, and three molecules of carbohydrate chains were attached to a protein molecule after 30day incubation. The enzymatic activity of lysozyme was totally conserved in the neoglycoprotein, when measured by using glycol chitin as substrate. Besides, the emulsifying properties of lysozyme were vastly improved by the conjugation with the oligosaccharide, in which emulsifying activity of the neoglycoprotein was five times higher than that of native one.

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Effects of Amino Acids and SLlgars on the Maillard Brou'nine Reactions during Extraction and Concentration of Red Ginseng (홍삼추출물 및 농축물의 마이야르 갈색화반응 촉진에 미치는 아미노산 및 당의 영향)

  • 이광승;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 1990
  • Browning intensity is a major factor to estimate the quality of red ginseng or red ginseng products. The Maillard type of browning reaction proceeds nonenzymatically during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. The present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of amino acids and sugars on the browning reaction during extraction and concentration of red ginseng. Red ginseng was pulverized to 115 mesh and then tenfold (v/w) of water was added to the powder to make the substrate of red ginseng. Solution (0.1 M) of fourteen amino acids and of folly silgars were added to the substrates of red ginseng powder and these were then extracted and concentrated to examine their browning intensities. Amino acids were more effective than sligars in acrelerating the browning reaction. Acceleration of the browning reaction in the concentrate was in the order of arginine> histidine>glycine>alanine>lysine phenyl alanine>aspartic acid>lelicine>threonine>gllitamic acid>tyrosine>valine>istleucine>methionine for amino acids, and was glucose>frlictose >silcrose, maltose for sugars.

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참깨의 향기성분(香氣成分) 및 포색화(袍色化) 관련물질(關聯物疾)의 생리활성(生理活性)

  • Gang, Myeong-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the EASDL Conference
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    • pp.73-92
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    • 2004
  • 참기름은 높은 온도로 볶아 짜는 공정을 통해 제조되는데 이때 참깨의 성분 중 당과 단백질에 의한 Maillard 반응에 의해 향기성분인 pyrazine 화합물과 갈샐물질이 생성된다. 참깨의 볶는 방법, 온도 및 시간은 참기름의 맛과 향기에 중요한 인자가 될 수 있고 또한 참기름에 함유되어 있는 갈색물질과 향기성분인 pyrazine류가 생리활성을 나타낼 수 있는 가능성이 제기되어 본 연구에서는 참기름으로 부터 갈색화 관련 물질을 용매별로 분류하여 tyrosinase 저해 효과와 항상화 효과를 측정였고 pyrazine 유도체들의 혈소판 응집에 미치는 효과를 측정하였다. 갈색도가 높은 butanol, methanol 에서 농도 의존적으로 높은 tyrosinase 저해효과를 보였다. 또한 각종 radical 소거능을 측정한 결과 butanol 에서 높은 소거능을 보였다. 향기 성분에 다량 함유되어 있는 Pyrazine 유도체가 collagen 에 의해 유도된 혈소판 응집억제능을 측정한 결과 -methyl의 결합수가 많을수록 (2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine>2,5-dimethylpyrazine>pyrazine) 농도 의존적으로 높은 응집 억제효과를 나타내었다. 이상의 결과, 참기름 가공 공정에서 생성되는 갈색화관련 물질과 향기 성분인 pyrazine 유도체는 생리활성을 나타내는 물질임이 확인되어 기능성 식품에 다양하게 활용되기를 기대한다.

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