• Title, Summary, Keyword: Median lethal concentration

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Median Lethal Concentration ($LC_{50}$) for 24 Hours of Formalin to Eel, Anguilla japonica (뱀장어에 대한 포르말린의 24시간 반수치사농도 ($LC_{50}$))

  • Jung, Sung-Hee;Lee, Joo-Seok;Jee, Bo-Young;Seo, Jung-Soo;Kim, Jin-Woo;Kim, Eung-Oh
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.161-167
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    • 2007
  • Acute toxicity of formalin (37% formaldehyde) was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) on eel (avarage weight 96 ± 3.6 g, average total length 43 cm), Anguilla japonica at concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 ppm. In particular, this study was designed to estimate the safety concentrations of formalin in testing eels to eradicate Pseudodactylogyrus. All fish died after 10 hours and 24 hours at 500 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. After 24 hours, cumulative mortality was 96.6% and 13.3% at 300 ppm and 200 ppm formalin, respectively. However, all experimental fish were alive after 24 hours at 100 ppm. The lethal concentration values were computed by using non-linear least square method. At the start of the test, water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen level were 27~28℃, 7.4 and 5.55 ppm, respectively. The 24 hr-LC50 were 269 ppm.

Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Detergent on the Larvae of Loach, Misgurnus angillicaudatus (미꾸리 자어에 대한 합성세제의 급성독성)

  • LEE Jeong Yeol;CHIN Pyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.139-142
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    • 1984
  • Short-term acute toxicity of synthetic detergent(LAS) to larvae of loach, Misgurnus angillicaudatus was examined by static bioassay. The larvae were exposed to 15 different concentration of synthetic detergent for 16, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours in order to determine median lethal concentration($LC_{50}$). The $100\%$ mortarlity of larvae was showed within 120, 96, 48 and 16 hours for 6, 18, 30 and 38 ppm, respectively. The median lethal concentration values of the larvae were 12.59 ppm for 48 hours, 4.00 ppm for 96 hours and 1.02 ppm for 120 hours. The permissible toxicant concentration of acute toxicity to larvae was $0.37{\sim}0.43$ ppm, and application factor of the synthetec detergent was $0.093{\sim}0.108$. The median lethal time($LT_{50}$) for different concentration also was determined. The $LT_{50}$ of 0.2 ppm was found within 165.1 hours and 2 ppm was 106.2 hours, while the $LT_{50}$ of 8 ppm was 60.3 hours and that of 38 ppm was 23.5 hours.

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Acute toxicity assessment of camphor in bio-pesticides by using Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

  • Yim, Eun-Chae;Kim, Hyeon-Joe;Kim, Seong-Jun
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.29
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    • pp.8.1-8.8
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    • 2014
  • Objectives An ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides is bio-pesticides, which are derived from natural sources. The interest in bio-pesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Methods We conducted acute toxicity assessments of camphor, a major component of bio-pesticides, by using Daphnia magna (D. magna) as well as assessed the morphological abnormalities that occurred in Danio rerio (D. rerio) embryos. Results The median effective concentration of camphor on D. magna after 48 hours was $395.0{\mu}M$, and the median lethal concentration on D. rerio embryos after 96 hours was $838.6{\mu}M$. The no observed effect concentration and predicted no effect concentration of camphor on D. magna, which was more sensitive than D. rerio, were calculated as $55.2{\mu}M$ and $3.95{\mu}M$, respectively. Morphological abnormalities in D. rerio embryos exposed to camphor increased over time. Coagulation, delayed hatching, yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, and pigmentation of embryos mainly appeared between 24 and 48 hours. Further, symptoms of scoliosis and head edema occurred after 72 hours. In addition, bent tails, ocular defects and collapsed symptoms of fertilized embryonic tissue were observed after 96 hours. Conclusions The camphor toxicity results suggest that continuous observations on the ecosystem are necessary to monitor toxicity in areas where biological pesticides containing camphor are sprayed.

Insecticide Susceptibility in the Different Larva of Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litural Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Collected in the Soybean Fields of Milyang, Korea (밀양산 콩포장 담배거세미나방 유충의 약제에 대한 감수성)

  • 배순도;최병렬;송유한;김현주
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2003
  • The susceptibility of the different larval stages of Spodoptera litura to nine insecticides was evaluated using the perilla leaf-dipping method. Median lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was increased with larval development in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5.6 ppm, 9.9 ppm to 27.9 ppm, 9.6 ppm to 125.1 ppm and 24.3 ppm to 546.6 ppm in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar, respectively. The tolerance ratio (TR), which is the TR of 90 percent lethal concentration (LC/ sub 90/) to the recommended concentration, was 0.04 to 0.8 in the 1 st, 0.2 to 7.5 in the 2nd, 0.7 to 115.3 in the 3rd and 1.2 to 485.4 in the 4th instars. Lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR, which is the difference between the $LC_{50}$ and the TR of 4th and other instars, respectively, were observed in chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos and EPN while higher ones were lufenuron, chlorfluazuron and teflubenzuron. These results mean that insecticides with lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR are effective in controlling larva of S. litura collected in Milyang, Korea.

Effects of Cryoprotectants on Survival and Hatching of Black Seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli Embryos (감성돔, Acanthopagrus schlegeli 배의 생존과 부화에 미치는 동해방지제의 영향)

  • 임한규;장영진;조필규
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.262-266
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    • 2003
  • In order to develop a method for the cryopreservation of fish embryos, the determination of optimal concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol and glycerol as individual cryoprotectants was performed by using the early embryos of black seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Optimal concentrations of cryoprotectants were assessed in terms of effects on mortality, median lethal concentration and hatching rate of embryos. The mortality of black seabream embryos immersed in cryoprotectants was related to the concentrations of cryoprotectants and immersion times. The toxicity to embryos was lower in order of DMSO, < ethylene glycol, < glycerol. The results from the mortality, median lethal concentration and hatching rate evaluations suggest that DMSO was the most effective cryoprotectant for black seabream embryos followed by ethylene glycol, and suitable concentrations of DMSO and ethylene glycol were 2.0∼2.25M and 1.0∼1.78M, respectively, with 20 minutes of immersion time.

Exposure to Dithiopyr Alters Swimming Performance Parameters in Zebrafish (Dithiopyr에 노출이 zebrafish의 유영 행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Junyoung;Park, Eun-Jin;Kang, Seongeun;Lee, Seungheon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to identify the effects of dithiopyr (DTP), a herbicide, on behavior in zebrafish. The toxicity of DTP has rarely been investigated in fish. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of DTP in the range of 10-20 μM for 48 h in a test container, in order to measure the value of median lethal concentrations (LC50). Behavioral experiments were performed, including the novel tank test (NTT) and the open field test (OFT), to assess stress responses or locomotion. After exposure to the DTP solution at a sublethal concentration of 2.5–10 μM for 6 min, the behavior of the zebrafish was observed for 6 min. In the acute toxicity test, the LC50 value of DTP showed as 14.49 μM in the zebrafish. The NTT showed that the duration of immobility and the velocity were significantly increased by exposure at a concentration of 5 μM of DTP, compared with a control group (p<0.05). However, compared with the control group, DTP significantly decreased the distance moved and the frequency at the top of the tank, and significantly increased the turn angle and duration at the bottom, in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). In addition, in the OFT, exposure to DTP significantly decreased the distance moved and velocity compared with the control group (p<0.05). Exposure to DTP also significantly increased the duration of immobility, the turn angle, and the meandering movement, in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). Further, exposure to DTP at a low concentration elevated whole-body cortisol levels in the zebrafish. The results of this study thus suggest that DTP induces a toxic response and negative effects on behavior and the endocrine system in zebrafish.

Toxicity characteristics of sewage treatment effluents and potential contribution of micropollutant residuals

  • Kim, Younghee;Farnazo, Danvir Mark
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.318-327
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    • 2017
  • Background: A typical sewage treatment plant is designed for organic and nutrient removal from municipal sewage water and not targeted to eliminate micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and nano-sized metals which become a big concern for sustainable human and ecological system and are mainly discharged from sewage treatment plant. Therefore, despite contaminant removal by wastewater treatment processes, there are still remaining environmental risks by untreated pollutants in STP (sewage treatment plant) effluents. This study performed aquatic toxicity tests of raw wastewater and treated effluents in two sewage treatment plants to evaluate toxicity reduction by wastewater treatment process and analyze concentration of contaminants to reveal potential toxic factors in STP effluents. Methods: Water samples were collected from each treatment steps of two STPs, and acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted following USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. Endpoints were immobility for mortality and reproduction effect for estrogenicity. Results: Acute $EC_{50}s$ (median effective concentration) of influents for Seungki (SK) and Jungnang (JN) STPs are $54.13{\pm}32.64%$ and $30.38{\pm}24.96%$, respectively, and reduced to $96.49{\pm}7.84%$ and 100%. Acute toxicity reduction was clearly correlated with SS (suspended solids) concentration because of filter feeding characteristics of test organisms. Chronic toxicity tests revealed that lethal effect was reduced and low concentration of influents showed higher number of neonates. However, toxicity reduction was not related to nutrient removal. Fecundity effect positively increased in treated wastewater compared to that in raw wastewater, and no significant differences were observed compared to the control group in JN final effluent implying potential effects of estrogenic compounds in the STP effluents. Conclusions: Conventional wastewater treatment process reduced some organics and nutritional compounds from wastewater, and it results in toxicity reduction in lethal effect and positive reproductive effect but not showing correlation. Unknown estrogenic compounds could be a reason causing the increase of brood size. This study suggests that pharmaceutical residues and nanoparticles in STP effluents are one of the major micropollutants and underline as one of estrogenic effect factors.

Acute Toxicity of Kuwait Crude Oil (WSF) to Mysid, Neomysis awatschensis (Neomysis awatschensis에 미치는 원유의 급성독성)

  • AHN Kyung-Wook;CHIN Pyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.599-607
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    • 1986
  • Acute toxicity of crude oil (WSF) on the mortality and respiration rates of Neomysis awatschensis was examined. This experiment was conducted by static and short-term bioassay procedure. In lethal test, the test animals were exposured to 8 different concentrations to determine $LC_{50}$ value (median lethal concentration). The concentrations of total hydrocarbon of 96-hr $LC_{50}$ value at $14^{\circ}C\;and\;20^{\circ}C$ were 1.01 ppm and 0.78 ppm, respectively. $LT_{50}$ (the median lethal time) also was determined. The $LT_{50}$ of 0.56 ppm was found within 100 hours, while the $LT_{50}$ of 5.6 ppm was 21 hours at $14^{\circ}C$. At $20^{\circ}C$, the $LT_{50}$ values of 0.56 ppm and 5.60 ppm were 95 hours and 17 hours, respectively. There was little difference between two temperature experiments. The effect of WSF on respiration rate was more sensitive than that on mortality, but no considerable difference was shown between different concentrations in this experiment. The results of these experiments indicated that relatively low concentration of dissolved crude oil fraction can impact on small crustacean in the marine ecosystem.

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BIOASSAYS ON MARINE ORGANISMS II. ACUTE TOXICITY TEST OF MERCURY, COPPER AND CADMIUM TO CLAM, MERETRIX LUSORIA (해양생물에 대한 생체실험 II. 백합에 대한 수은, 구리 및 카드뮴의 독성)

  • PARK Joo-Suck;KIM Hak-Gyoon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 1979
  • The short-term acute toxicities of mercury, cadmium and copper for the clam, Meretrix lusoria were determined from 28 June to 15 July, 1978. In the test with mercury and copper, the rate ot mucus excretion increased gradually at a higher concentration. But the clams did not excrete mucus in the solutions of cadmium and natural sea water. The rate of mucus excretion in mercury was $42.9\%$, and that in copper was $14.3\%$ in a test solution of 1mg/l. mercury was more toxic than copper. The median lethal concentration after 96 hours (96 hr-Lc 50) was 0.67mg/l in mercury, 7.04mg/l in copper and 7.10mg/l in cadmium. Consequently it was found that mercury was the most toxic substance and cadmium was the least. meanwhile, it was considered that exposure time by stimulation in a fixed concentration caused the test animals to respond.

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Effect of Heavy Metals on Embryonic Development in the Mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis

  • Sung, Chan-Gyoung;Kim, Gi-Beum;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2006
  • The embryos of marine bivalves have been commonly used in bioassays for quality assessments of marine environments. Although several standard protocols for the developmental bioassay of bivalves have been proposed, only a few trials for application of these protocols in environmental assessments or for the development of a new protocol with Korean species have been conducted. As such, there is a strong need to establish standard bioassay protocols with bivalves commonly found in Korean waters. To determine the sensitivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis to establish a standard bioassay, their fertilized eggs were exposed to six metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn). The order of biological impact was Ag > Cu > Ni > Zn > Cr > Cd and their lowest observed effective concentration were 5, 16.4, 25.4, 142, 187 and 1,500${\mu}g/l$, respectively. The proportion of normal larvae appeared to decrease linearly with the logarithm of each toxicant concentration within the tested range. The average values of median effective concentrations $(EC_{50})$ from the triplicate experiments for Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn were 6.8, 1,797, 786, 16.6, 68.1, and 139.2${\mu}g/l$, respectively. There was a more than 100-fold difference in $EC_{50}$ values of Cu and Cd. The value of $EC_{50}$ or median lethal concentration of Cu was within the range observed for other bivalve developmental bioassays. The overall sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis in the present developmental bioassay was also similar to that of other marine organisms commonly used in aquatic bioassays (e.g. sea urchins, oysters). Hence, the bioassay using the embryo of M. galloprovincialis is considered to be a useful tool to monitor and evaluate the quality of marine aquatic environments.

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