• Title/Summary/Keyword: Microbial ecology

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Next-generation approaches to the microbial ecology of food fermentations

  • Bokulich, Nicholas A.;Mills, David A.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.377-389
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    • 2012
  • Food fermentations have enhanced human health since the dawn of time and remain a prevalent means of food processing and preservation. Due to their cultural and nutritional importance, many of these foods have been studied in detail using molecular tools, leading to enhancements in quality and safety. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology are revolutionizing the study of food microbial ecology, deepening insight into complex fermentation systems. This review provides insight into novel applications of select molecular techniques, particularly next-generation sequencing technology, for analysis of microbial communities in fermented foods. We present a guideline for integrated molecular analysis of food microbial ecology and a starting point for implementing next-generation analysis of food systems.

Seasonal and Spatial Diversity of Picocyanobacteria Community in the Great Mazurian Lakes Derived from DGGE Analyses of 16S rDNA and cpcBA-IGS Markers

  • Jasser, Iwona;Krolicka, Adriana;Jakubiec, Katarzyna;Chrost, Ryszard J.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.739-749
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    • 2013
  • The seasonal and spatial diversity of picocyanobacteria (Pcy) in lakes of the Great Mazurian Lakes (GLM) system was examined by DGGE analysis of molecular markers derived from the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal operon and the phycocyanin operon (cpcBA-IGS). The study of nine lakes, ranging from mesotrophy to hypereutrophy, demonstrated seasonal variance of Pcy. The richness and Shannon diversity index calculated on the basis of both markers were higher in spring and lower in early and late summer. No statistically significant relationships were found between the markers and trophic status of the studied lakes or Pcy abundance. There were, however, statistically significant relationships between the diversity indices and sampling time. The analysis pointed to a different distribution of the two markers. The ITS marker exhibited more unique sequences in time and space, whereas a greater role for common and ubiquitous sequences was indicated by the cpcBA-IGS data. Examination of the Pcy community structure demonstrated that communities were grouped in highly similar clusters according to sampling season/time rather than to the trophic status of the lake. Our results suggest that time is more important than trophic status in shaping the diversity and structure of Pcy communities. The seasonal changes in picocyanobacteria and differences in diversity and community structures are discussed in the context of well-established ecological hypotheses: the PEG model, intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH), and horizontal gene transfer (HGT).

The Dynamics of Protein Decomposition in Lakes of Different Trophic Status - Reflections on the Assessment of the Real Proteolytic Activity In Situ

  • Siuda, Waldemar;Kiersztyn, Bartosz;Chrost, Ryszard J.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.897-904
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this paper is to discuss the methodology of our investigation of the dynamics of protein degradation and the total in situ protealytic activity in meso/eutrophic, eutrophic, and hypereutrophic freshwater environments. Analysis of the kinetics and rates of enzymatic release of amino acids in water samples preserved with sodium azide allows determination of the concentrations of labile proteins $(C_{LAB})$, and their half-life time $(T_{1/2})$. Moreover, it gives more realistic information on resultant activity in situ $(V_{T1/2})$ of ecto- and extracellular proteases that are responsible for the biological degradation of these compounds. Although the results provided by the proposed method are general y well correlated with those obtained by classical procedures, they better characterize the dynamics of protein degradation processes, especially in eutrophic or hypereutrophic lakes. In these environments, processes of protein decomposition occur mainly on the particles and depend primarily on a metabolic activity of seston-attached bacteria. The method was tested in three lakes. The different degree of eutrophication of these lakes was clearly demonstrated by the measured real proteolytic pattern and confirmed by conventional trophic state determinants.

Microbial Community Analysis using RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project II):Methods, Tools and New Advances

  • Cardenas, Erick;Cole, James R.;Tiedje, James M.;Park, Joon-Hong
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2009
  • Microorganisms play an important role in the geochemical cycles, industry, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology among other fields. Given the high microbial diversity, identification of the microorganism is essential in understanding and managing the processes. One of the most popular and powerful method for microbial identification is comparative 16S rRNA gene analysis. Due to the highly conserved nature of this essential gene, sequencing and later comparison of it against known rRNA databases can provide assignment of the bacteria into the taxonomy, and the identity of its closest relatives. Isolation and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes directly from natural environments (either from DNA or RNA) can also be used to study the structure of the whole microbial community. Nowadays, novel sequencing technologies with massive outputs are giving researchers worldwide the chance to study the microbial world with a depth that was previously too expensive to achieve. In this article we describe commonly used research approaches for the study of individual microorganisms and microbial communities using the tools provided by Ribosomal Database Project website.

Application of DNA Microarray Technology to Molecular Microbial Ecology

  • Cho Jae-Chang
    • Proceedings of the Microbiological Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.22-26
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    • 2002
  • There are a number of ways in which environmental microbiology and microbial ecology will benefit from DNA micro array technology. These include community genome arrays, SSU rDNA arrays, environmental functional gene arrays, population biology arrays, and there are clearly more different applications of microarray technology that can be applied to relevant problems in environmental microbiology. Two types of the applications, bacterial identification chip and functional gene detection chip, will be presented. For the bacterial identification chip, a new approach employing random genome fragments that eliminates the disadvantages of traditional DNA-DNA hybridization is proposed to identify and type bacteria based on genomic DNA-DNA similarity. Bacterial genomes are fragmented randomly, and representative fragments are spotted on a glass slide and then hybridized to test genomes. Resulting hybridization profiles are used in statistical procedures to identify test strains. Second, the direct binding version of microarray with a different array design and hybridization scheme is proposed to quantify target genes in environmental samples. Reference DNA was employed to normalize variations in spot size and hybridization. The approach for designing quantitative microarrays and the inferred equation from this study provide a simple and convenient way to estimate the target gene concentration from the hybridization signal ratio.

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