• Title, Summary, Keyword: Modification

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Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species

  • Lee, Hong Jo;Lee, Hyung Chul;Han, Jae Yong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.743-749
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    • 2015
  • Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through longterm culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

ADAPTIVE STABILIZATION OF NON NECESSARILY INVERSELY STABLE CONTINUOUS-TIME SYSTEMS BY USING ESTIMATION MODIFICATION WITHOUT USING HYSTERESIS FUNCTION

  • Sen, M.De La
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.29-53
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    • 2001
  • This note presents a an indirect adaptive control scheme for first-order continuous-time systems. The estimated plant model is controllable and then the adaptive scheme is free from singularities. The singularities are avoided through a modification of the estimated plant parameter vector so that its associated Sylvester matrix is guaranteed to be nonsingular. That properties is achieved by ensuring that the absolute value of its determinant does not lie below a positive threshold. A modification scheme based on the achievement of a modified diagonally dominant Sylvester matrix of the parameter estimates is also given as an alternative method. This diagonal dominance is achieved through estimates modification as a way to guarantee the controllability of the modified estimated model when a controllability measure of the ‘a priori’ estimated model fails. In both schemes, the use of a hysteresis switching function for the modification of the estimates is not required to ensure the nonsingularity of the Sylvester matrix of the estimates.

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Cancer and Epigenetics

  • Bae, Jae-Bum;Kim, Young-Joon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2008
  • One of the interesting trends in genome research is the study about epigenetic modification above single gene level. Epigenetics refers study about heritable change in the genome, which accompany modification in DNA or Chromatin besides DNA sequence alteration. We used to have the idea that the coding potential of the genome lies within the arrangement of the four bases A, T, G, C; However, additional information that affects phenotype is stored in the distribution of the modified base 5-methylcytosine. This form of information storage is flexible enough to be adapted for different somatic cell types, yet is stable enough to be retained during mitosis and/or meiosis. Epigenetic modification is a modification of the genome, as opposed to being part of the genome, so is known as "epigenetics"(Greek for "upon" genetics). This modification could be methylation on Cytosine base or post translational modification on histone protein(methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, Sumoylation)($Dimitrijevi\hat{E}$ et al 2005). In this review, we would like to focus on the relationship of DNA methylation and cancer.

The Effect of Addendum Modification Coefficient on Gear Strength to Planetary Gear Reducer (유성기어 감속기에서 전위계수가 기어 강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Ki-Suk;Han, Dong-Seop
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2011
  • Industrial reducer is in general use to Deck Crane. High-precision and high-efficient reducer is minimized the power-loss and energy-loss of a machine. So it contribute the price reduction and life extension. Reducer is usually using the Planetary gear reducer. Planetary gear reducer is composed the sun gear, planet gear, internal gear and casing. Industrial reducer's wear and breakage have a short-life. To solve this problem, it is using the profile-shifted-gear or tooth modification. This study was carried out the effect of addendum modification coefficient on tooth fillet bending strength to planetary reducer. Tooth fillet bending stress is calculate. And all parameter were expressed the function of addendum modification coefficient. And then stress concentration factor of tooth fillet curve was express the function of addendum modification coefficient using comparison between theory and finite element analysis.

Response modification factor of dual moment-resistant frame with buckling restrained brace (BRB)

  • Abdollahzadeh, Gholamreza;Banihashemi, Mohammadreza
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.621-636
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    • 2013
  • Response modification factor is one of the seismic design parameters to consider nonlinear performance of building structures during strong earthquake, in conformity with the point that many seismic design codes led to reduce the loads. In the present paper it's tried to evaluate the response modification factors of dual moment resistant frame with buckling restrained braced (BRB). Since, the response modification factor depends on ductility and overstrength; the nonlinear static analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis and linear dynamic analysis have been done on building models including multi-floors and different brace configurations (chevron V, invert V, diagonal and X bracing). The response modification factor for each of the BRBF dual systems has been determined separately, and the tentative value of 10.47 has been suggested for allowable stress design method. It is also included that the ductility, overstrength and response modification factors for all of the models were decreased when the height of the building was increased.

A Study on Noise Reduction of a HDD by Structural moification of Cover (Cover의 구조변겨을 통한 HDD의 소음 저감에 관한 연구)

  • 이성진;유성우;홍순교;이장무
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.859-864
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    • 2000
  • An effective and new method of reducing the noise of a HDD by structural modification of cover was investigated in this study. The correlation between the noise characteristics of the HDD and the vibration characteristics of the cover, which is the main source of the HDD noise, is found from experiments. A theoretical analysis is performed to find the modification method of the cover, and this modification method is applied the real cover of the HDD. The modification reduces the vibration of the cover transferred from driving motor. The effect of the modification is verified through noise tests.

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Regulation of post-translational modification in breast cancer treatment

  • Heo, Kyung-Sun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2019
  • The small ubiquitin-related modification molecule (SUMO), one of the post-translational modification molecules, is involved in a variety of cellular functions where it regulates protein activity and stability, transcription, and cell cycling. Modulation of protein SUMOylation or deSUMOylation modification has been associated with regulation of carcinogenesis in breast cancer. In the dynamic processes of SUMOylation and deSUMOylation in a variety of cancers, SUMO proteases (SENPs), reverse SUMOylation by isopeptidase activity and SENPs are mostly elevated, and are related to poor patient prognosis. Although underlying mechanisms have been suggested for how SENPs participate in breast cancer tumorigenesis, such as through regulation of target protein transactivation, cancer cell survival, cell cycle, or other post-translational modification-related machinery recruitment, the effect of SENP isoform-specific inhibitors on the progression of breast cancer have not been well evaluated. This review will introduce the functions of SENP1 and SENP2 and the underlying signaling pathways in breast cancer for use in discovery of new biomarkers for diagnosis or therapeutic targets for treatment.

Effects of Behavior Modification and Aerobic Exercise on the Degree of Obesity, Eating Behavior, Depression and Self Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls (행동수정프로그램과 에어로빅운동이 비만여중생의 비만도, 식이행동, 우울 및 자아존중감에 미치는 효과)

  • Chaung Seung-Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.103-117
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of behavior medication and aerobic exercise on the degree of obesity, eating behavior, depression and self esteem among adolescent girls who were overweight and obese. Forty seven subjects were selected from one girl's middle school located in Seoul. Seventeen girls received the behavior modification program by joining 60-90 minute group session weekly. Behavior modification, in this study, consisted of self-monitoring, changing patterns of life style and attitudes, teaching nutrition and physical activities, and asking personal help. The aerobic exercise program was given to 16 girls 3 times per week with 60 minutes each time. Forteen girls received both behavior modification and aerobic exercise. These interventions continued for 8 weeks. Changes after intervention were examined twice after 4 weeks and 8 weeks for degree of obesity and once after 8 weeks only for eating behavior, depression and self esteem. The results were as follows ; 1. Degree of obesity was significantly decreased after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in 3 groups. Degree of obesity after 4 weeks and 8 weeks were not significantly different among 3 groups. 2. The mean score of eating behavior related to obesity decresed significantly after intervention in the behavior modification group only. There was significant difference in eating behavior among 3 groups after intervention. 3. The behavior modification group showed no significant changes in depression and self esteem after intervention. In the aerobic exercise group and group who participated in both behavior modification and aerobic exercise, the level of depression decreased significantly and the level of self esteem increased significantly. There were no significant differences in the level of depression and self esteem among 3 groups after intervention. These findings indicate that behavior modification might be effective in decreasing degree of obesity and eating behavior related to obesity, aerobic exercise be effective in decreasing degree of obesity and the level of depression, and also in increasing the level of self esteem.

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A Study on Guidelines of Home Modification for Low-Income Elderly (저소득층 고령자를 위한 주택개조 가이드라인 연구)

  • Lee, Yeun-Sook;Lim, Yea-Ji;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Ahn, Chang-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 2015
  • With a rapidly aging population, the proportion of elderly households with low income has been increasing. Despite the poor housing environment, it is not easy to improve their housing environment due to the high cost of modification. However, as many elderly want to keep living in their current houses, it is urgent to improve their housing environment. The purpose of this study was to develop the guidelines on home modification for low-income elderly. This study set the scope of home modification categories through literature analysis in advance to develop the guidelines. Based on the literature analysis and small group workshops, the primary and secondary guidelines were derived and a total of 169 final guidelines were produced based on the scope of home modification categories. Those guidelines were composed of the categories by space, divided into mandatory and recommended by details. Those guidelines proposed in this study were classified and composed under the objective standards, so that they were systemic and objective based on the verification of experts. They are considered to get closer to the user's demand on the basis of the demand of low income elderly for home modification and the improvement categories under the system to support home modification for low income elderly at home and abroad. In addition, as the standards to apply each guideline, separated into mandatory and recommended, was suggested, those guidelines may help expand the scope of improvement under the economic conditions for home modification.

Trends of Domestic Research on Home Modification for the Elderly (고령자 주택개조에 관한 국내 선행연구 경향)

  • Park, Ji-Seon;Jang, Mi-Seon;Lee, Yeun-Sook
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2017
  • As the elderly population increases rapidly, existing houses many elderly reside are under poor conditions that they work as a factor to impede on the independent living of elderly people. Thus, improving existing housing environment to suit the needs of elderly life has been required. Academics has been continuously researched on the field considering the importance of elderly housing modification and the importance on the research of this field is projected to be greater with the coming of aging society. Hence, this study has a purpose on analyzing trends of previous studies related to housing modification for the elderly published in Korean academic journals in depth. This study is a content analysis study and analyzed the trend of previous studies with academic journal field, purpose of study, research subject, research area, research method, research content as analysis categories. As a result, previous studies was published the most in natural science academic journals and main stream of research was to suggest direction of housing modification by conducting surveys on actual conditions and needs of single elderly families and to suggest improving the directions of policies related to modification. On the other hand, empirical studies needed to execute housing modification such as standard and method of housing modification and supporting tools are still at minimal level that researches on this field should be conducted additionally. This study is expected to be used as basis to examine the current state of previous studies on housing modification for the elderly and to seek further research directions.