• Title, Summary, Keyword: Modification

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A Reflectance Normalization Via BRDF Model for the Korean Vegetation using MODIS 250m Data (한반도 식생에 대한 MODIS 250m 자료의 BRDF 효과에 대한 반사도 정규화)

  • Yeom, Jong-Min;Han, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Young-Seup
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.445-456
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    • 2005
  • The land surface parameters should be determined with sufficient accuracy, because these play an important role in climate change near the ground. As the surface reflectance presents strong anisotropy, off-nadir viewing results a strong dependency of observations on the Sun - target - sensor geometry. They contribute to the random noise which is produced by surface angular effects. The principal objective of the study is to provide a database of accurate surface reflectance eliminated the angular effects from MODIS 250m reflective channel data over Korea. The MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor has provided visible and near infrared channel reflectance at 250m resolution on a daily basis. The successive analytic processing steps were firstly performed on a per-pixel basis to remove cloudy pixels. And for the geometric distortion, the correction process were performed by the nearest neighbor resampling using 2nd-order polynomial obtained from the geolocation information of MODIS Data set. In order to correct the surface anisotropy effects, this paper attempted the semiempirical kernel-driven Bi- directional Reflectance Distribution Function(BRDF) model. The algorithm yields an inversion of the kernel-driven model to the angular components, such as viewing zenith angle, solar zenith angle, viewing azimuth angle, solar azimuth angle from reflectance observed by satellite. First we consider sets of the model observations comprised with a 31-day period to perform the BRDF model. In the next step, Nadir view reflectance normalization is carried out through the modification of the angular components, separated by BRDF model for each spectral band and each pixel. Modeled reflectance values show a good agreement with measured reflectance values and their RMSE(Root Mean Square Error) was totally about 0.01(maximum=0.03). Finally, we provide a normalized surface reflectance database consisted of 36 images for 2001 over Korea.

Convolution-Superposition Based IMRT Plan Study for the PTV Containing the Air Region: A Prostate Cancer Case (Convolution-Superposition 알고리즘을 이용한 치료계획시스템에서 공기가 포함된 표적체적에 대한 IMRT 플랜: 전립선 케이스)

  • Kang, Sei-Kwon;Yoon, Jai-Woong;Park, Soah;Hwang, Taejin;Cheong, Kwang-Ho;Han, Taejin;Kim, Haeyoung;Lee, Me-Yeon;Kim, Kyoung Ju;Bae, Hoonsik
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2013
  • In prostate IMRT planning, the planning target volume (PTV), extended from a clinical target volume (CTV), often contains an overlap air volume from the rectum, which poses a problem inoptimization and prescription. This study was aimed to establish a planning method for such a case. There can be three options in which volume should be considered the target during optimization process; PTV including the air volume of air density ('airOpt'), PTV including the air volume of density value one, mimicking the tissue material ('density1Opt'), and PTV excluding the air volume ('noAirOpt'). Using 10 MV photon beams, seven field IMRT plans for each target were created with the same parameter condition. For these three cases, DVHs for the PTV, bladder and the rectum were compared. Also, the dose coverage for the CTV and the shifted CTV were evaluated in which the shifted CTV was a copied and translated virtual CTV toward the rectum inside the PTV, thus occupying the initial position of the overlap air volume, simulating the worst condition for the dose coverage in the target. Among the three options, only density1Opt plan gave clinically acceptable result in terms of target coverage and maximum dose. The airOpt plan gave exceedingly higher dose and excessive dose coverage for the target volume whereas noAirOpt plan gave underdose for the shifted CTV. Therefore, for prostate IMRT plan, having an air region in the PTV, density modification of the included air to the value of one, is suggested, prior to optimization and prescription for the PTV. This idea can be equally applied to any cases including the head and neck cancer with the PTV having the overlapped air region. Further study is being under process.

Effects of Brassica rapa SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE overexpression on petunia growth and development (배추 SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE 유전자 발현이 페튜니아 생장 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Joon Ki;Suh, Eun Jung;Lee, Su Young;Song, Cheon Young;Lee, Seung Bum;Kim, Jin A;Lee, Soo In;Lee, Yeon-Hee
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.204-214
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    • 2015
  • SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE (SRS) genes are plant-specific transcription factors that contain a zinc-binding RING finger motif, which play a critical role in plant growth and development. Among Brassica rapa SRS genes, BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes, isolated from shoot apical regions are important regulators of plant growth and development. In order to explore the function of BrSRS genes in horticultural plant growth and development, two constructs containing BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were introduced into petunia by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting transgenic plants were dwarf and compact plants with reduced plant height and diameter. Additionally, these transgenic plants had upward-curled leaves of narrow width and short internodes. Interestingly, the flower shapes of petunia were different among transgenic plants harboring different kinds of SRS genes. These phenotypes were stably inherited through generations $T_2$ and $T_3$. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses of transgenic plants revealed that BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 regulate expression of gibberellin (GA)- and auxinrelated genes, PtAGL15- and PtIAMT1-related, involved in shoot morphogenesis. These results indicate that the overexpression of BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes suppressed the growth and development of petunia by regulating expression of GA- and auxin-related genes. From these data, we deduce that BrSRS7 and BrLRP1 genes play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development in petunia. These findings suggest that transformation with the BrSRS genes can be applied to other species as a tool for growth retardation and modification of plant forms.

MACROPHYLLA/ROTUNDIFOLIA3 gene of Arabidopsis controls leaf index during leaf development (잎의 발달단계의 leaf index를 조절하는 애기장대 MACROPHYLLA/ROTUNDIFOLIA3 유전자)

  • Jun, Sang-Eun;Chandrasekhar, Thummala;Cho, Kiu-Hyung;Yi, Young-Byung;Hyung, Nam-In;Nam, Jae-Sung;Kim, Gyung-Tae
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.285-292
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    • 2011
  • In plants, heteroblasty reflects the morphological adaptation during leaf development according to the external environmental condition and affects the final shape and size of organ. Among parameters displaying heteroblasty, leaf index is an important and typical one to represent the shape and size of simple leaves. Leaf index factor is eventually determined by cell proliferation and cell expansion in leaf blades. Although several regulators and their mechanisms controlling the cell division and cell expansion in leaf development have been studied, it does not fully provide a blueprint of organ formation and morphogenesis during environmental changes. To investigate genes and their mechanisms controlling leaf index during leaf development, we carried out molecular-genetic and physiological experiments using an Arabidopsis mutant. In this study, we identified macrophylla (mac) which had enlarged leaves. In detail, the mac mutant showed alteration in leaf index and cell expansion in direction of width and length, resulting in not only modification of leaf shape but also disruption of heteroblasty. Molecular-genetic studies indicated that mac mutant had point mutation in ROTUDIFOLIA3 (ROT3) gene involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and was an allele of rot3-1 mutant. We named it mac/rot3-5 mutant. The expression of ROT3 gene was controlled by negative feedback inhibition by the treatment of brassinosteroid hormone, suggesting that ROT3 gene was involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. In dark condition, in addition, the expression of ROT3 gene was up-regulated and mac/rot3-5 mutant showed lower response, compare to wild type in petiole elongation. This study suggests that ROT3 gene has an important role in control of leaf index during leaf expansion process for proper environmental adaptation, such as shade avoidance syndrome, via the control of brassinosteroid biosynthesis.

Functional implications of gene expression analysis from rice tonoplast intrinsic proteins during seed germination and development (벼 종자에서 액포막 aquaporin (tonoplast intrinsic protein) 유전자의 발현과 기능)

  • Huh, Sun-Mi;Lee, In-Sook;Kim, Beom-Gi;Shin, Young-Seop;Lee, Gang-Seop;Kim, Dool-Yi;Byun, Myung-Ok;Kim, Dong-Hern;Yoon, In-Sun
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.517-528
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    • 2010
  • Rice seed maturation and germination involve drastic changes in water and nutrient transport, in which tonoplast aquaporins may play an important role. In the present study, gene expression profiles of 10 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) from rice were investigated by RT-PCR during seed development and germination. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 were specifically expressed in mature seeds. Their transcript level rapidly decreased after onset of seed germination and gene expression was induced by ABA treatment. In contrast, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was not seed specific as transcripts were found in vegetative tissues as well. Their respective transcript levels decreased at an early stage of seed development, whereas they increased at a later stage of seed germination and elongation of embryonic roots and shoots. When seed germination was inhibited by various stress conditions and ABA, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was completely suppressed. In contrast, the expression level of OsTIP2;2 rapidly increased after seed imbibition and the transcript level was maintained under conditions inhibiting seed germination. These results implicate that tissue specific and developmental transcriptional regulation of OsTIPs in rice seeds depends on their specific function. In addition, OsTIPs can be discriminated by different potential phosphorylation and methylation sites in their protein structures. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 possess unique phosphorylation signatures at their N-terminal domain, loop B and loop E, respectively. OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 have a potential methylation site at their Nterminal domain. This suggests that activity of specific tonoplast aquaporins may be regulated by post-translational modification as well as by transcriptional control.

Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Using Electrochemical Deposition Method at Body Fluid Temperature (생체온도에서 전기화학증착법을 이용한 티타늄 상 수산화인회석 코팅 연구)

  • Kim, Su-Chul;Hwang, Moon-Jin;Lee, Woon-Young;Park, Yeong-Joon;Song, Ho-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Dental Materials
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.221-232
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    • 2018
  • In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was coated on titanium using electrochemical deposition (ECD) method at body fluid temperature. The titanium specimens for ECD were prepared by chemically etching treatment using 5M NaOH solution. The electrolyte mixed with 5 mM $Ca(NO_3)_2$ and 2 mM $NH_4H_2PO_4$ which has pH 5 (E2) was adjusted to pH 3 (E1) and pH 6 (E3). The different electric pulses of -10, -15, -30 mA were applied to each specimen. The temperature of electrolytes was kept at $37^{\circ}C$. E1-10, E1-15, E1-30, E2-10, E2-15, E2-30, E3-10, E3-15, and E3-30 groups were prepared for this study. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that E1-10 and E1-15 groups were not coated and the powder-shaped compounds were formed on E3-15 and E3-30 groups. The cracks were observed on the surface of E1-30 and E2-30 groups. The evenly and stable coated layer was deposited on E2-10, E2-15 and E3-10 groups. The layer coated on titanium surface had an HAp crystalline structure. E1-30 and E2-30 groups had low crystallinity, even though they had thick layer. HAp layer on for E2-10 group was well deposited on the surface because it more aligned to c-axis compared with other groups.

A Study on the Present Condition of Four-Year University Curriculum for Introducing NCS Landscape Architecture (NCS 조경 분야 적용을 위한 4년제 대학 교육과정 현황분석)

  • Lee, Chang-Hun;Kim, Kyou-Sub;Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.134-147
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional unit system of NCS landscape field for correction and supplementation of NCS landscape field and the contents of the four-year college landscape course subject. First, 24 unconsolidated four-year universities were selected, and FGI was conducted and verified for 816 courses in 24 universities. The results of the study are summarized as follows, with three sections three, nine divisions and 65 sub-category. First, landscape design subjects accounted for 40.0% of the subjects organized by four-year universities. In addition, the ratio of 12.9% for ecological landscape, 11.3% for landscape construction, 10.2% for others, 10.0% for landscape information, 6.6% for landscape culture and 3.7% for landscape management was surveyed. Balanced and efficient modification and reinforcement of NCS is required in the future. Second, 10(18.9%) units with matching NCS performance criteria and educational objectives were found to be capable of different units(18.9%), 15(28.3%), and 37subjects with inconsistent NCS unit capability (56.9%). Third, looking at the criteria for the reference of each unit of capability presented by the NCS, it is deemed that one unit of capability should be organized separately to improve the practical ability, since it includes the contents of basic knowledge learning. Fourth, the objectives pursued on the basis of the contents of the NCS capability unit and four-year college curriculum were developed by focusing on the development of unit capabilities in the field of landscape construction and landscape management compared to the field of landscape design. It has been shown that a balance is needed for future development. This study is intended to put forward further research that re-examine specific curriculum assessment criteria that have not been classified in the course of classifications based on the curriculum handbook, which excludes interferences from each school.

Effects of Early Life Stress on the Development of Depression and Epigenetic Mechanisms of p11 Gene (생애 초기 유해 경험이 우울증의 발병과 p11 유전자의 후성유전기전에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Mi Kyoung;Choi, Ah Jeong;Lee, Jung Goo;Urm, Sang-Hwa;Park, Sung Woo;Seog, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1002-1009
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    • 2019
  • Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk of depression. ELS may be involved in the susceptibility to subsequent stress exposure during adulthood. We investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms of p11 promoter affect the vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced by the maternal separation (MS). Mice pups were separated from their dams (3 hr/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood, we applied CUS (daily for 3 weeks). The levels of hippocampal p11 expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of acetylated and methylated histone H3 at p11 promoter were measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Depression-like behavior was measured by the forced swimming test (FST). The MS and CUS group exhibited significant decreases in p11 mRNA level and the MS plus CUS group had a greater reduction in this level than the CUS group. The MS plus CUS group also resulted in greater reduction in H3 acetylation than the CUS group. This reduction was associated with an upregulation of histone deacetylase 5. Additionally, the MS plus CUS group showed a greater decrease in H3K4met3 level and a greater increase in H3K27 met3 level than the CUS group. Consistent with the reduction of p11 expression, the MS plus CUS group displayed longer immobility times in the FST compared to the control group. Mice exposed to MS followed by CUS had much greater epigenetic alterations in the hippocampus compared to adult mice that only experienced CUS. ELS can exacerbate the effect of stress exposure during adulthood through histone modification of p11 gene.

Legal Aspects on ICAO SARPs Regarding Alternative Fire Extinguishing Agent to Halon Fire Extinguishers

  • Lee, Gun-young;Kang, Woo-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.205-226
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    • 2018
  • For sustainable development of air transport, the establishment and application of international standards of environmental protection area is significant. The development and use of alternative fire extinguishing agent to Halon, which is used for the fire extinguishing systems of engine nacelles/APU and cargo compartments, has been requested in order to protect the ozone layer. The ICAO has been active in preparing international standards and recommended practices (SARPs); however, certification of alternative fire extinguishing agents has been postponed due to technical readiness problem.. Consequently, the implementation of SARPs has also been postponed by two years from the end of 2016. to the end of 2018. As such consequences have caused confusion among Member States regarding its implementation, it is necessary to discuss and pay more attention to this issue. ICAO Council and Air Navigation Commission should consider between setting the implementation time frame earlier or giving enough time for mature readiness and preparedness. Also in order to minimize the unnecessary discharge of Halon owned by Member States, it is necessary to consider efficient management methodologies; for example, requesting fire extinguisher manufacturers to recharge in professional ways. For the successful implementation of the SARPs, ICAO developed an implementation task list as including notification of differences, establishment of a national implementation plan, drafting of the modification to the national regulations and means of compliance, adoption of the national regulations and means of compliance. Member States can develop their own rule making process in reference with the ICAO implementation task list. This issue was presented and discussed during the 54th Conference of Directors General of civil aviation, Asia and Pacific Regions which was held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in 2017 with significant attention among participated Contacting States. In this regards, ICAO Council and Air Navigation Commission should consult with Legal Bureau lawyers regarding SARPs preparing process to eliminate difficulties and confusions for proper implementation within effective date.

Application of Stable Isotopic Niche Space to Large River Monitoring: Analysis of Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Seongchon Wier (안정동위원소비를 활용한 생태지위면적 분석의 수생태계 평가 가능성 분석: 영산강 승촌보의 저서성 대형무척추동물을 대상으로)

  • Seo, Dong-Hwan;Oh, Hye-Ji;Jin, Mei-Yan;Oda, Yusuke;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Jang, Min-Ho;Choi, Bohyung;Shin, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Lak;Lee, Su-Woong;Chang, Kwang-Hyeon
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.685-694
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    • 2018
  • We measured ecological niche space (ENS) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate its applicability for large river assessment. In particular, we compared ENSs of selected macroinvertebrates between upper and lower area of Seungchon Weir in Yeongsan River to estimate the impact of weir on biological community. We also measured basic water quality and community indices including benthic macroinvertebrates index (BMI) to estimate their correlations with calculated ENS. ENS was calculated using the Bayesian Stable Isotope in R statistics (package "SIBER"). The results showed that seasonal variations in water quality and community indices were found, but there was no apparent tendency between upper and lower area of the Seungchon Weir in June (before rainy season) and August (after rainy season). However, ENS of benthic macroinvertebrates markedly decreased across the weir in both June and August regardless of changes in water quality. This means the physical change of the stream due to the weir cause decrease of ecological isotopic niche space of benthic macroinvertebrates regardless of water quality, suggesting physical modification by the weir can affect the interaction between habitat condition and macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the ecological isotopic niche space can be a useful supplementary indicator for the river ecosystem assessment.