• Title/Summary/Keyword: Motor cortex

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Characterization of Multiple Synaptic Boutons in Cerebral Motor Cortex in Physiological and Pathological Condition: Acrobatic Motor Training Model and Traumatic Brain Injury Model

  • Kim, Hyun-Wook;Na, Ji eun;Rhyu, ImJoo
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2018
  • Multiple synaptic boutons (MSBs) have been reported to be synapse with two or more postsynaptic terminals in one presynaptic terminal. These MSBs are known to be increased by various brain stimuli. In the motor cortex, increased number of MSB was observed in both acrobat training (AC) model and traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Interestingly one is a physiological stimuli and the other is pathological insult. The purpose of this study is to compare the connectivity of MSBs between AC model and TBI model in the cerebral motor cortex, based on the hypothesis that the connectivity of MSBs might be different according to the models. The motor cortex was dissected from perfused brain of each experimental animal, the samples were prepared for routine transmission electron microscopy. The 60~70 serial sections were mounted on the one-hole grid and MSB was analyzed. The 3-dimensional analysis revealed that 94% of MSBs found in AC model synapse two postsynaptic spines from same dendrite. But, 28% MSBs from TBI models synapse two postsynaptic spines from different dendrite. This imply that the MSBs observed in motor cortex of AC model and TBI model might have different circuits for the processing the information.

Motor Cortex in Hemiparetic Patients due to Deep Intracerebal Hematoma

  • 백현만;최보영;손병철;정성택;이형구;서태석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.73-73
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To determine the motor cortex dysfunction in hemiparetic patients due to deep intracerebral hematoma, authors performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (lH MRS) for the evaluation of biochemical changes in the cortex on affected hemisphere according to axonal injury at the level of internal capsule. Methods: Ten control subjects and 14 patients with documentable hemiparesis of varying severity hemiparesis were included. All the hemiparesis was caused by deep intracerebral hematoma (putaminal and thalamic hemorrhage). In vivo 1H MRS study was performed on a 3T MRI/MRS system using STEAM sequence. As a single-voxel technique, Spectral parameters were: 20 ms TE, 2000 ms TR, 128 averages, 2500 Hz spectral width, and 2048 data points. Results: We found that the mean N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/phosphocreatine (Cr) and NAA/choline (Cho) ratios were significantly decreased in the motor cortex of the hemiparesis patients compared with control subjects. Conclusions: 1H MRS examinations of the motor cortex might help to differentiate distinct clinical entities of hemiparesis and to monitor pharmacological effects in therapeutic trials, providing a quantitative biological marker for motor neuron dysfunction. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by a grant of the Center for Functional and Metabolic Imaging Technology, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea. (02-PJ3-PG6-EV07-000).

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Effect of rTMS on Motor Sequence Learning and Brain Activation : A Preliminary Study (반복적 경두부 자기자극이 운동학습과 뇌 운동영역 활성화에 미치는 영향 : 예비연구)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Kim, Jong-Man;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2003
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates cortical excitability beyond the duration of the rTMS trains themselves. Depending on rTMS parameters, a lasting inhibition or facilitation of cortical excitability can be induced. Therefore, rTMS of high or low frequency over motor cortex may change certain aspects of motor learning performance and cortical activation. This study investigated the effect of high and low frequency subthreshold rTMS applied to the motor cortex on motor learning of sequential finger movements and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI). Three healthy right-handed subjects (mean age 23.3) were enrolled. All subjects were trained with sequences of seven-digit rapid sequential finger movements, 30 minutes per day for 5 consecutive days using their left hand. 10 Hz (high frequency) and 1 Hz (low frequency) trains of rTMS with 80% of resting motor threshold and sham stimulation were applied for each subject during the period of motor learning. rTMS was delivered on the scalp over the right primary motor cortex using a figure-eight shaped coil and a Rapid(R) stimulator with two Booster Modules (Magstim Co. Ltd, UK). Functional MRI (fMRI) was performed on a 3T ISOL Forte scanner before and after training in all subjects (35 slices per one brain volume TR/TE = 3000/30 ms, Flip angle $60^{\circ}$, FOV 220 mm, $64{\times}64$ matrix, slice thickness 4 mm). Response time (RT) and target scores (TS) of sequential finger movements were monitored during the training period and fMRl scanning. All subjects showed decreased RT and increased TS which reflecting learning effects over the training session. The subject who received high frequency rTMS showed better performance in TS and RT than those of the subjects with low frequency or sham stimulation of rTMS. In fMRI, the subject who received high frequency rTMS showed increased activation of primary motor cortex, premotor, and medial cerebellar areas after the motor sequence learning after the training, but the subject with low frequency rTMS showed decreased activation in above areas. High frequency subthreshold rTMS on the motor cortex may facilitate the excitability of motor cortex and improve the performance of motor sequence learning in normal subject.

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Hemispheric Asymmetry of Plasticity in the Human Motor Cortex Induced by Paired Associative Stimulation (말초신경-피질 연계자극에 의해 유도되는 운동피질 가소성의 비대칭성)

  • Shin, Hae-Won;Sohn, Young-H.
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2011
  • Background: In the brain, the dominant primary motor cortex (M1) has a greater hand representation area, shows more profuse horizontal connections, and shows a greater reduction in intracortical inhibition after hand exercise than does the non-dominant M1, suggesting a hemispheric asymmetry in M1 plasticity. Methods: We performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study to investigate the hemispheric asymmetry of paired associative stimulation (PAS)-induced M1 plasticity in 9 right-handed volunteers. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles of both hands, and MEP recruitment curves were measured at different stimulation intensities, before and after PAS. Results: MEP recruitment curves were significantly enhanced in the dominant, but not the non-dominant M1. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the dominant M1 has greater PAS-induced plasticity than does the non-dominant M1. This provides neurophysiological evidence for the asymmetrical performance of motor tasks related to handedness.

Measurement of Event-related Hemodynamic Responses on Motor Cortex Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy (근적외선 분광 분석법을 이용한 운동령에서의 사건 기반 산소 포화도 변화 신호 측정)

  • Lee, Dong-Chul;Shin, Jae-Young;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Jeong, Ji-Chai
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.61 no.7
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    • pp.1049-1055
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    • 2012
  • We measure the hemodynamic responses during the 4 kinds of tasks on the motor cortex in the right and left human brain by using near-infrared spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the change of concentration of oxy-hemoglobin is larger than that of deoxy-hemoglobin and the change of concentration of chromophores induced by finger and arm related task show more activations than that of leg.

A Case of Focal Myoclonus in Primary Motor Cortex Infarction (일차 운동피질 경색후 발생한 국소성 간대성 근경련 1례)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Yoo, Bong-Goo;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.20-21
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    • 2005
  • Myoclonus may originate from the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, brainstem, spinal cord or peripheral nerve. But unilateral upper limb myoclonus related to cortical infarct is an unusual clinical picture. We report a 67-year-old man presented with myoclonus, associated with primary motor cortex infarction.

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Medial Reorganization of Primary Motor Cortex in Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury: a fMRI Case Study (외상성 뇌손상 환자에서 대뇌피질의 재조직화: 사례보고)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Yong-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.421-428
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    • 2005
  • The tenn 'Brain plasticity' has been identified that our central nervous system is continuously being adapted and modulated according to environmental needs and demands, and has been used to encompass the multifarious mechanisms related to learning, development, and recovery from damage to the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate cortical reorganization in a 26-year-old right-handed hemiparetic patient with traumatic primary motor cortex (M1) injury, using functional MRI (fMRI). The unaffected (left) primary sensori-motor cortex centered on the precentral knob was activated during unaffected (right) hand movements. However, the medial area of the injured M1 was activated during affected (left) hand movements. It seems that the motor function of the affected hand in this patient was reorganized into the medial area of the injured precentral knob. These investigations provide a great useful information and clinical evidences with the specialized clinician in stroke physical therapy about patient's prognosis and therapeutic guidelines.

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Usability Evaluation of Mobile based Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Program Through TGC Analysis (TGC 분석을 통한 모바일 기반 상지 재활 프로그램의 유용성 평가)

  • Lim, Hyunmi;Son, Jieun;Ku, Jeonghun
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2019
  • In this study, Theta Gamma Coupling (TGC) analysis was carried out after performing simple and repeated upper limb exercise and comparative experiment to observe changes in the motor cortex of the brain through TGC and to see if mobile rehabilitation therapy is actually effective. As a result, exercise using mobile devices showed higher TGC values in motor cortex as compared with simple repeat upper limb exercise. In addition, paired t-test using SPSS showed statistically significant difference between exercise using mobile devices and simple repeat exercise at P3(t=3.390, df(degree of freedom)=12, p value=0.005). Exercise using mobile devices is effective for rehabilitation because it increases the Theta-Gamma Coupling and activates the motor cortex. Also, since the mobile game contents required the subject to detailed athletic ability adjustment with immersion in the task, it may be thought that brain activation is stronger than simple rehabilitation.

Evaluation of the Postoperative Motor Function for Metastatic Brain Tumors Around the Motor Cortex (운동중추 주변에 위치한 전이성 뇌종양의 수술 후 운동 기능에 대한 평가)

  • Kim, Sang Hyo;Jung, Shin;Kang, Sam Suk;Lee, Jung Kil;Kim, Tae Sun;Kim, Jae Hyoo;Kim, Soo Han;Lee, Je Hyuk
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.30 no.sup1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2001
  • Objective : Intracranial metastasis is responsible for nearly 50% of mortalities of systemic cancers. Although its frequency is increasing and there is little doubt that improving the quality and expectancy of life is the final goal, the mode of treatment is still disputed. The authors report the postoperative motor function after surgery in patients with metastatic tumors around the motor cortex. Materials and Methods : We studied 24 patients with metastatic tumors around the central sulcus during the last 22 months. Motor function was assessed pre- and post-operatively as well as its response to corticosteroids. MRI, neuronavigation system and intraoperative ultrasonography were used for tumor localization and functional MRI and cortical stimulator were used to define the motor cortex. Results : Single metastasis was found in 13 cases(54%) and 11 cases(44%) had multiple foci. Thirteen cases were located in precentral, 7 in postcentral, and 4 in superior or middle-frontal lobe. The most common primary focus was the lung(16 cases). There was no difference in postoperative motor function improvement between the steroid responsive group and non-responsive group(92% versus 90%). Ninty-two percent of the patients showed significant improvement of motor function and lived independently but there was worsening in the upper extremity in one and in another no improvement. Whole brain radiation of 3000cGy was given in all cases and 4 patients died of recurrence in primary or intracranial focus during mean follow-up periods of 14 monthes. Conclusion : Surgery may provide substantial improvement of the motor function and quality of life of the patients with metastatic tumors around the motor cortex.

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