• Title, Summary, Keyword: Motor recovery

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Effects of Exercise on Axonal Regeneration and Growth-associated Protein (GAP­43) Expression Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats (좌골신경 손상 후 운동이 쥐의 축색 재생과 성장관련 단백질(GAP-43) 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo Tae-Beom;Yoon Sung-Jin;Kim Kyung-Tae;Yoon Jae-Suk;Yoon Jin-Hwan;Park Sung-Tae;Han In-Sun;Namgung Uk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.486-491
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    • 2005
  • Physical activity can improve sensorimotor recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is highly correlated with neuronal development and axonal regeneration and present in large quantities in the axonal growth cone. Using immunofluorescene staining and anterograde and retorgrade techniques, we identified enhanced axonal regrowth in distal stump of the sciatic nerve 3-14 days after crush injury in rats with treadmill training. We also carried out western blot to investigate GAP-43 protein expression in injured sciatic nerve. GAP-43 protein levels were highly induced in the injured sciatic nerve 3, 7 and 14 days compared with sedentary group. Thus, the present data provide a new evidence that treadmill training promoted axonal re-growth after injury and increased GAP-43 protein levels in the regenerating nerve.

Comparison of formaldehyde concentration in working environment between passive sampling method and impinger sampling method (능동포집법과 확산포집법에 의한 작업환경 중 포름알데히드 농도 비교)

  • Ham, Seong-Ae;Mun, Deok-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.346-355
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was conducted to ascertain the difference between impinger and passive sampling methods in the process of sampling and analyzing on airborne formaldehyde. Formaldehyde generating workplaces included in this study comprised four types of manufacturing industry such as two workplaces of products of wood, cork, straw and plaiting materials manufacturing industries, one casting metal manufacturing industry, and one parts and accessories for motor vehicles and it′s engines manufacturing industry. Workplaces contained in this study were located in some manufacturing area of Busan industrial complex and this study was carried out during a period from January 2003 to December 2004. Analytical accuracy, precision and detection limit of two methods was compared. Exposure level of its airborne concentration was evaluated in formaldehyde generating workplaces those were classified by types of industry, working process, and time. The results were as follows ; 1. A rate of recovery was 107.1% in impinger method and 101.8% in passive method, and precision was 7.79% in impinger method and 4.40% in passive method. There was no statistical significance in analytical accuracy and precision between two methods. A limitation of detection was 0.011 ppm in passive method which was lower than that of impinger method (0.020 ppm) by 1.8 times. 2. Airborne formaldehyde concentration of impinger method was different from passive method. It′s concentration by passive method was higher by 5.1 times than that by impinger method in the parts and accessories for motor vehicles and it′s engines manufacturing industry (P<0.05). Only in molding process among several types of processes, formaldehyde concentration in passive method was higher by 5.1 times than that in impinger method (P<0.05). Furthermore, formaldehyde concentration in passive method was higher by 1.7 times than that in impinger method (P<0.05) in the first half of year 2003. 3. The geometric mean of formaldehyde concentration in impinger method was lower than that in passive method, but there was no statistical significance of formaldehyde concentration by the difference of sampling method. In conclusion, it is difficult to conclude which is better between the two sampling methods because of no statistical significance for the difference of concentration. Because of lacks of certified passive sampling and analytical method, at present situation, studies on verification of accuracy and precision, obstructive reaction against validity on its exposure assessment, and research to develop domestically manufactured passive sampler in terms of cost-effectiveness should be continuously carried out.

Neuroprotective Effect of $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ on Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats ($NeuBo153^{\circledR}$의 중풍동물 모델에 대한 뇌신경 보호효과)

  • Bu, Young-Min;Oh, Se-Nam;Hwang, Man-Ki;Chung, Jin-Hee;Lee, Dae-Hee;Park, Young-Mee;Kim, Mi-Yon;Kim, Zhen-Hwa;Kim, Ho-Cheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The purpose of the present study is to observe the neuroprotective effect of the $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods : $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ was made by mixing the herbs, mainly the root of Panax ginseng, the root of Rehmannia glutinosa and Poria cocos, the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and Mel, and heating for 96 hours. Transient Focal cerebral ischemia (2 h of ischemia, 22 h of reperfusion) was induced by intraluminal suture method with SD rats. Sensory motor function was tested by rotarod test, prehensile traction test, beam balance test and foot fault test at 24 h after ischemia. The brain slices were stained by 2% 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and the infarct volume was measured by graphic analyzer at 24 h after ischemia. Results : $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ treated group did not show significant differences compared with vehicle treated group in body temperature. Oral administration of $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ reduced brain infarct volume by 29.7% compared with vehicle treated group. $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ also showed protective effects on sensory motor functional deficits. Conclusion : $NeuBo153^{\circledR}$ treatment reduced brain damage and improved functional deficits induced by MCAo. It showed neuroprotective effects even when treatment was relayed 2 h after injury. Further research is required to evaluating long term functional recovery am accurate therapeutic range and mechanisms.

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Evaluation of Neurologic Abnormalities After Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery (저체온하 순환정지를 이용한 소아 개심술 후의 신경계 이상에 대한 펑가)

  • Park, Kay-Hyun;Jun, Tae Gook;Chee, Hyun Keun;Lee, Jeong Ryul;Kim, Yong Jin;Rho, Joon Ryang;Suh, Kyung Phill
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.14-23
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    • 1996
  • Circulatory arrest under deep hypothermia is an important auxiliary means for cardiac surgery, especially useful in pediatric patients. However, its clinical safety, particularly with regard to the neurologic outcome after long duration of circulatory arrest, is still not established. This study is a review of the eight years'clinical experience of hypothermic circulatory arrest at the Seoul national University Children's Hospital. During an eight-year period from January 1986 through December 1993, a total of 589 consecutive cardiac operations were done using circulatory arrest under deep hypothermia. Among them, 434 consecutive patients, in whom the duration of arrest was 20 minutes or more, are the subject of this study. The duration of arrest ranged from 20 minutes to 82 minutes (mean = 38.7 minutes) under rectal temperature in the range from 12.5$^{\circ}C$ to 25.8$^{\circ}C$. Early neurologic abnormalities occurred in 47 patients : seizure attacks in 28 patients, motor paralyses with or w thout seizure in 12, blindness in 2, and no recovery of consciousness in 5 patients. The rate of incidence of early neurologic abnormalities was calculated at 15.7%. 25 patients showed late neuropsychologic sequelae, such as motor paralysis (9 patients), recurrent seizures (6), developmental delay (8), and definitely low intelligence (2). The rate of incidence of late neurologic sequelae was 8.5%, By statistical analysis, the following factors were identified as the risk factors for post-arrest neurologic abnormalities ; 1) long duration of circulatory arrest, 2) lower-than-ideal body weight, 3) preexisting neurological abnormalities, 4) associated non-cardiovascular congenital anouialies, and 5) low blood pressure during the early post-arrest period. It is concluded that circulatory arrest under deep hypothermia is a relatively safe means for pediatric cardiac surgery with acceptable risk. However, to warrant maximal safety, it is desirable to limit the duration of arrest to less th n 40 minutes. In addition, it is our contention that the early post-arrest period is a very critical period during which maintenance of adequate perfusion pressure in important for the neurologic outcome.

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Effects of Melatonin on Improvement of Neurological Function in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rats

  • Lee, Seung-Hoon;Shin, Jin-Hee;Lee, Min-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Kil;Lee, Sang-Rae;Chang, Kyu-Tae;Hong, Yong-Geun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2011
  • Acute ischemic stroke results from sudden decrease or loss of blood supply to an area of the brain, resulting in a coinciding loss of neurological function. The antioxidant action of melatonin is an important mechanism among its known effects to protective activity during ischemic/reperfusion injury. The focus of this research, therapeutic efficacy of melatonin on recovery of neurological function following long term treatment in ischemic brain injured rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40; 8 weeks old) were divided into the control group, and MCAo groups (Vehicle, MT7 : MCAo+ melatonin injection at 7:00, MT19 : MCAo+melatonin injection at 19:00, and MT7,19 : MCAo+melatonin injection at 7:00 and 19:00). Rat body weight and neurological function were measured every week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the rats were anesthetized with a mixture of zoletil (40 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and sacrificed for further analysis. Tissues were then collected for RNA isolation from brain tissue. Also, brain tissues were analyzed by histological procedures. We elucidated that melatonin was not toxic in vital organs. MT7,19 was the most rapidly got back to mild symptom on test of neurological parameter. Also, exogenous melatonin induces both the down-regulation of detrimental genes, such as NOSs and the up-regulation of beneficial gene, including BDNF during long term administration after focal cerebral ischemia. Melatonin treatment reduced the loss of primary motor cortex. Therefore, we suggest that melatonin could be act as prophylactic as well as therapeutic agent for neurorehabilitative intervention.

On the Design of Cantilever Type High Speed Towing Carriage with Excellent Acceleration Performance (가속성능이 우수한 외팔보형 고속예인전차의 설계)

  • Kim, Jae Sung;Kim, Hyochul
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2016
  • Extraordinarily the establishment of towing tank has been initiated after the allocation of space at the basement floor of existing building through remodeling procedure. Therefore the asymmetric tank should be unavoidably determined by compromising with the allowable space and existing building structure. Consequently the shape of towing carriage ought to be selected as a cantilever type to match with the given environmental conditions. Finally the major role of the towing tank has been configured on the fundamental research work for the high speed marine vehicles. Due to the limited length of towing tank, it is appeared that the carriage should accelerated with 1.2m/sec2 which is equivalent to twice of the maximum acceleration in ordinary practices on design application of carriage. In such a condition the exerted total power of motor could not be converted to traction force of the carriage without slip for the acceleration. To overcome these difficulties the contact pressure of a horizontal traction wheel to rail has been reinforced by the elastic recovery force of springs on supporting rollers. It is believed that the design experience of the high speed towing carriage under unusual circumferential condition and acceleration barrier could be utilized not only on the design of high speed towing carriage but also on the improvement of existing facilities.

Therapeutic Efficacy of Low Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Conjunction with Mirror Therapy for Sub-acute Stroke Patients

  • Cha, Hyun Gyu;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in conjunction with mirror therapy on the balance function of patients with sub-acute stroke hemiparesis. This study was conducted with 36 subjects who were diagnosed with a hemiparesis due to stroke. Participants in the experimental (19 members) and control groups (17 members) received rTMS and sham rTMS during 10 minute sessions each, which were carried out five days per week for four weeks. This was followed by the mirror therapy over 30 minute sessions, which were carried out five days per week for four weeks. Motor recovery was assessed by balance index, dynamic limits of stability, Berg balance scale, and time up go test. The change values of the balance index ($-2.06{\pm}1.99$ versus $-0.41{\pm}1.11$), dynamic limits of stability ($3.68{\pm}2.71$ versus $1.17{\pm}2.38$), and time up go test ($-7.05{\pm}5.64$ score versus $-3.35{\pm}5.30$ score) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). At post-test, balance index ($4.08{\pm}1.14$ versus $5.09{\pm}1.04$), dynamic limits of stability ($13.75{\pm}0.60$ versus $11.73{\pm}3.53$), and time up go test ($23.89{\pm}4.51$ versus $28.82{\pm}3.07$) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the experimental group, significant differences were found in the pre- and post-test scores for the balance index, dynamic limits of stability, Berg balance scale, and time up go test (p < 0.01). In the control group, a significant difference was observed between the pre- and post-test only for the Berg balance scale and time up go test (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that the application of 1Hz rTMS in conjunction with mirror therapy can be helpful in improving the balance function of patients with sub-acute stroke hemiparesis, and this may be used as a practical adjunct to routine rehabilitation therapy.

Start and Stop Characteristics of Single-Rod Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator (전동기 일체형 편로드 유압액추에이터의 기동 및 정지특성해석)

  • Jung, Gyu-Hong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.1483-1490
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    • 2011
  • Electro-hydrostatic actuators(EHAs), which are usually composed of a direct motor-driven hydraulic pump and a cylinder, have been widely adopted as aircraft actuation systems because of their benefits in terms of improved efficiency, weight savings and the fact that they use a standalone power source. Since the recent trend in construction vehicles has been focus on energy savings in their hydraulic systems, EHAs are expected to be potential substitutes for conventional power transmission, since they are capable of energy recovery as well as highly efficient pump control. In this paper, the start and stop characteristics of EHAs were investigated through cracking pressure analysis of the pilot-operated check valve(PCV), which enables the cylinder to standstill against an external load with no holding effort from the hydraulic pump. A mathematical model that includes the load dynamics and the EHA's internal hydraulic circuit was derived for simulation with the MATLAB Simulink package. This model verified the PCV's opening and closing sequence, which in turn affects the EHA's start and stop characteristics.

Concurrency of Guillain-Barre syndrome and acute transverse myelitis: a case report and review of literature

  • Tolunay, Orkun;Celik, Tamer;Celik, Umit;Komur, Mustafa;Tanyeli, Zeynep;Sonmezler, Abdurrahman
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.sup1
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2016
  • Guillain-$Barr{\acute{e}}$ syndrome and acute transverse myelitis manifest as demyelinating diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system. Concurrency of these two disorders is rarely documented in literature. A 4-year-old girl presenting with cough, fever, and an impaired walking ability was admitted to hospital. She had no previous complaints in her medical history. A physical examination revealed lack of muscle strength of the lower extremities and deep tendon reflexes. MRI could not be carried out due to technical problems; therefore, both Guillain-$Barr{\acute{e}}$ syndrome and acute transverse myelitis were considered for the diagnosis. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was started as first line therapy. Because this treatment did not relieve the patient's symptoms, spinal MRI was carried out on the fourth day of admission and demyelinating areas were identified. Based on the new findings, the patient was diagnosed with acute transverse myelitis, and high dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy was started. Electromyography findings were consistent with acute polyneuropathy affecting both motor and sensory fibers. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with concurrency of Guillain-$Barr{\acute{e}}$ syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. Interestingly, while concurrency of these 2 disorders is rare, this association has been demonstrated in various recent publications. Progress in diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological examination studies) has enabled clinicians to establish the right diagnosis. The possibility of concurrent Guillain-$Barr{\acute{e}}$ syndrome and acute transverse myelitis should be considered if recovery takes longer than anticipated.

A Case Study of Oriental Medicine Treatment on Peripheral Facial Palsy (말초성 안면마비 환자의 한방치료 치험례)

  • Jung, You-jin;Choi, A-ryun;Han, Dong-kun;Kang, A-hyun;Seo, Hye-jin;Sung, Jae-yeon;Song, Woo-sub;Lee, Hyung-chul;Eom, Gook-hyun;Kim, Soo-yeon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.769-777
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Facial nerve palsy is caused by damage to the 7th cranial nerve. It is the main symptom of facial muscle paralysis on the affected side. Usually, recovery from this disease begins 2-3 weeks after onset and most patients recover in 4-8 weeks. If the patients cannot receive proper treatment, severe permanent impairments, both physical and mental, may remain, so this disease should be treated appropriately. In this study, a patient with facial nerve palsy was admitted to the Korean medicine hospital for treatment. We report on the patient's progress and the effects of treatment. Methods: We cured the patient with herbal medicines, acupuncture, herbal acupuncture therapy, and physical therapy. We used a numerical rating scale, the House Brackmann grading system, and a weighted regional grading system to assess symptom changes. Result: The patient with facial nerve palsy was hospitalized for 23 days and recovered from symptoms without significant problems on the face or in motor function.