• Title, Summary, Keyword: Motor recovery

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Usefulness of Electrophysiological Tests in Movement Disorders (이상운동 질환에서의 신경생리적 검사법의 유용성)

  • Seo, Man-Wook;Lee, Kwang-Woo
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.126-146
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    • 1999
  • In clinical neurology various different electrophysiological tests are widely used to demonstrate the unsuspected malfunctioning in the nervous system and to monitor over time the clinical status of patients. In addition clinical neurologists and neurosurgeons take advantage of the intraoperative monitorings to increase the quality of neurosurgical operations in the posterior fossa, in the spinal cord, or in visual pathways. In the field of movement disorders, elecrophysiolgical tests provide neurologists with making accurate differential diagnoses with useful therapeutic stratergies as well as with investigating the pathophysiological machanisms. By using the electromyographic tests it could be possible for us to evaluate the types of blephalospasm, the extent of hemifacial spasm, the level of myoclonus, and the prime muscles of torticollis etc. Sometimes the myographic guidance may be critical for choosing the exact injecting site of botulinum toxin. These several decades various electroencephalographic and evoked potential tests has been utilized in the electrophysiological laboratories to understand the basic pathophysiology of myoclonus, spasticity and other central motor dysfunctions. It could be one of the breakthroughs in the area of behavorial neurology that the brain function can be mapped by the spontaneous or evoked electrical activities of nervous system since the movement related potentials (MRPs) had been studies for several decades. Various reflex tests such as masseter reflex, blink reflex, click evoked vestibulocollic reflex, facial reflex, stretch reflex, flexor reflex, H-reflex, H-reflex recovery curve, vestibular inhibition of H-reflex, reciprocal inhibition, recurrent or Renshaw reflex, Ib inhibition, cutaneous reflex have been also used to understand normal or abnormal physiology in movement disorders. Polysomnography, posturography and gait studies are also applied in clinical neurology in association with with movement disorders which are useful in deciding the treatment regimen.

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Pull-in Suture Technique for the Disinsertion of the Phalangeal Tendon Distal Insertion (Pull-in 봉합술을 이용한 수지건 원위 부착부 파열의 치료)

  • Kim, Jae Won;Chung, Sung Mo
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.723-728
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The disinsertion of the phalangeal tendon distal insertion has difficulties in ordinary tenorrhaphy operation for the anatomical features, and still has controversy between non-surgical and surgical management. The purpose of this study is to select treatment for the injury of the phalangeal tendon distal insertion, as we've had a good results from operation treatment with Pull-in suture technique. Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 12 patients treated with Pull-in suture technique with disinsertion of the phalangeal extensor or flexor tendon distal insertion from June 2006 to June 2007. Eight patients were involved with the tendon disinsertion without bone fracture, and 4 patients were involved with the fracture of the phalangeal tendon distal insertion site. After removal of the K-wire in week 6, active physical exercises were commenced immediately. The mean follow-up period was 12.4 months. Results: All the patients who had tendon disinsertion with bone fracture had IIB, by Wehbe and Schneider's classification 2, and we evaluated the results comparing the same finger of the other hand according to Crawford's evaluation criteria 5. The nine excellent and three good results were obtained and there were no limitation of motor for the patient who had operation for the rupture of flexor tendon as well. There were no particular complications during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The most important thing for the disinsertion of the phalangeal tendon distal insertion is to maintain an accurate and durable reduction state keeping the tension of tendon. At this point, after removal of the K-wire, the Pull-in suture technique allows accurate realignment of the tendon-bone unit without any specific instrumentation under the more stable state. The Pull-in suture technique seems to be a strong alternative for the treatment of disinsertion of the phalangeal tendon distal insertion, with successful treatment outcome(rapid functional recovery and high patient satisfaction).

The Effect of EMG-stim on Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients (근전도 유발 신경근 전기자극치료가 뇌졸중 환자의 상지기능에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, In-Sul;Chang, Jong-Sung;Kim, Kyoung;Kim, Wook-Ro;Park, Rae-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study examined the effect of EMG-stim related to the functional recovery of the upper extremity in chronic stroke patients with an intensive massed practice protocol. Methods: The subjects were assigned randomly to either the EMG-stim group (n=10) or sham treatment group (n=10). Both groups received conventional physical therapy, occupational therapy and FES, five times per week over a four week period. In the EMG-stim group, EMG-stim was applied to the hemiplegic wrist and finger extensors for 2 sessions for 30 minutes per day, 5 times per week over a 4 week period. As the pre- and the post-test, the following four motor tests were assessed as the function of the upper extremity clinical functional test: extensor digitorum strength test, Box and Block test, Fugl-Mayer Assessment, and Jebson-Taylor Hand Function Test. Results: In the Box and Block test and Fugl-Mayer Assessment, there were statistically significant differences between both groups as well as between pre- and post-test. The extensor digitorum and wrist extensor strength were similar in both groups. In the Jebson-Taylor Hand Function Test, there was a significant difference in simulated page turning but not in the other subtests. Conclusion: Intensive massed practice with EMG-stim intervention applied to the hemiplegic upper extremity is an effective therapeutic method for chronic stroke patients. However, a variety of intervention methods designed for stroke patients in clinical settings are needed.

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Treatment of glabellar frown lines using selective nerve block with radiofrequency ablation (고주파절제술을 통한 선택적 신경차단법을 이용한 미간주름의 개선)

  • Hwang, Yong Seok;Kim, Young Seok;Roh, Tai Suk;Tark, Kwan Chul;Lee, Kun Chang
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Corrugator supercilii muscle pulls eyebrow to inferomedial direction and produces the vertical component of the glabellar line formation. Current techniques for eliminating of glabellar frown include direct resection of corrugators and botulinum toxin injection. Muscle resection in endoscopic face lift procedure is relatively complex and has many disadvantages ranging from possible nerve injury, postoperative edema, pain and a long recovery period. The Botox treatment on the other hand is much more simple in technique but has a short duration of action. The authors have attempted new ways of finding improved treatment of the glabellar frown by selectively blocking of motor nerves innervating the corrugator supercili muscle by using radiofrequency ablation technique. Methods: A total of 80 patients were recruited in our study during the period between Feb. 2007 to June 2008. A probe was introduced from the supraorbital ridge and advanced to the corrugator supercilii muscle. Nerve stimulator was then used to locate the nerve innervating the corrugator and radiofrequency ablation of the nerve was done. Results: In all patients, there were marked improvement in glabellar frown after treatment. There were no reported cases of any relapses during the follow up period. No complication was noted such as facial nerve injury. No patient complained of any adverse symptoms other than slight discomfort due to swelling of the operation site. Conclusion: The treatment of glabellar frown lines using selective nerve block with radiofrequency ablation was not only less invasive but also excellent in surgical outcomes.

Effects of Scalp Acupuncture on Short-term NIHSS and MBI in Stroke Patients (두침이 중풍환자의 단기간 NIHSS와 MBI에 미치는 영향)

  • 조태성;손인석;박인범;김상우;서정철;윤현민;장경전;송춘호;안창범
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2003
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scalp acupuncture on recovery from motor disorders in stroke patients. Methods: Twenty-two patients with post-stroke hemiplegia were randomized into two groups. Ten patients (test group) were treated by 2 methods: scalp acupuncture and general acupuncture. The other twelve patients (control group) were treated only with general acupuncture. The activity of daily living was measured with a National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The therapy was performed once a day for 2 weeks. Results: In terms of NIHSS score, the test group showed statistically meaningful decrease after 2 weeks treatment, while the control group showed statistically meaningful decrease after 1 week (p<0.05). And in terms of score of MBI, the test group did not show statistically meaningful increase but the control group showed statistically meaningful increase after 1 week (p<0.05). There was no statistically meaningful difference after 1 and 2 weeks treatment between the groups. Conclusions: These results support that the test group has almost same the effectiveness compared with the control group in improvement of the activity of daily living of post-stroke hemiplegic patients.

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Two Cases of Paralytic Strabismus Treated with Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine (마비성사시의 한방치험 2례)

  • Lee, Seung-eun;Kim, Yoon-bum
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.168-178
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    • 2003
  • Strabismus refers to a extra-ocular muscle imbalance that results in improper alignment of the visual axes of two eyes. It may be divided into paralytic and non-paralytic strabismus. Paralytic strabismus is primarily a neurological problem: non-paralytic strabismus is more strictly an ophthalmologic problem. This case report focuses on paralytic strabismus resulting from palsies of the third and the sixth cranial nerves, respectively. Oculomotor nerve palsies result in binocular diplopia with characteristic patterns of strabismus. Oculomotor nerve provides motor and parasympathetic innervation to the eyes. Acquired oculomotor nerve palsies are not uncommon. Injury to the third nerve may result in complete or partial dysfunction. Complete third nerve palsy is manifested by ptosis, dilated pupil, an eye that is deviated down and out in primary position, and limited adduction, elevation, and depression. Patients with unilateral sixth nerve palsy complain of binocular, horizontal diplopia esotropia in the primary position due to unopposed action of the medial rectus and limitation of abduction due to weakness of the lateral rectus. Diplopia is worse in the direction of the paretic lateral rectus muscle. Paralytic strabismus are treated, based on the theory of Oriental medicine. with berbal medicines having gun-bi(健脾), bae-to(培土), gue-pung(祛風) effect of acupuncture around the eyes and etc. We describe a 63-year-old woman with complete the 3rd cranial nerve palsy and a 32-year-old woman with the unilateral 6th cranial nerve palsy who treated with acupuncture and herbal medicines and showed complete recovery.

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Low Dose Spinal Anesthesia for Ambulatory Surgery of Varicose Vein (하지정맥류의 외래수술을 위한 저용량 척추마취)

  • Yang, Jin-Sung;Park, Young-Woo;Lee, Jae-Wook;Won, Yong-Soon;Shin, Hwa-Kyun;Lee, Dong-Gi
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 2009
  • Background: Bupivacaine with fentanyl might be suitable as the spinal anesthesia for performing ambulatory surgery to treat varicose vein. Material and Method: Thirty patients who underwent spinal anesthesia for a varicose vein operation were enrolled in this study. They were classified into 2 groups of either fentanyl 25ug mixed with bupivacaine 4mg (group FB4) or bupivacaine 8mg (group B8). We compared the groups for the success of the analgesia, the recovery time from sensory and motor block, the side effects and the postoperative complications. Result: The groups did not differ significantly regarding the success of analgesia (13 of 15 [group FB4], 15 of 15 [group B8]). None of the patients were converted to general anesthesia due to surgical pain. None of the patients required medication for hypotension and/or bradycardia. The operative and nonoperative side effects of motor block (tested for by using a modified Bromage scale) was significantly lower in group FB4 than that in group B8, as checked at 2 hours after spinal anesthesia (p<0.05). Recovery from spinal block was significantly quicker in group FB4 than that in group B8 (p<0.05). The first voluntary micturition time did not differ significantly (6.5 hours v 4.5 hours [p=0.143]) between the groups, but a nelatone catheter was inserted into 2 of the group B8 patients due to dysuria. Conclusion: Adequate intraoperative analgesia and hemodynamic stability and faster mobilization were achieved using bupivacaine 4mg with fentanyl 25ug. Low dose spinal anesthesia with fentanyl is suitable for performing ambulatory surgery to treat varicose vein.

A Systematic Review of Modified Constraint- Induced Movement Therapy in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (뇌성마비 유형 중 편마비 아동을 위한 수정된 강제유도 운동치료의 효과에 대한 체계적 고찰)

  • Hong, So-Young;Kim, Kyeong-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2012
  • Objective : This research investigated the intervention effects, protocol of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods : For the key words of a database search, "Cerebral Palsy", "Hemiplegia", "Constraint Induced Movement Therapy", "modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy" were used. We examined papers published in journals from January 2001, when the modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy was first suggested, to May 2011, using PubMed, Medline. Ovid. Results : A total of 10 papers were analyzed and results of modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy were an effective therapeutic method to improve motor function, quality of movement and that they also increased the frequency of functional use of the affected hands of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Conclusion : This paper conducted a systematic review of the research literature reporting on the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Analysis of the fewer number of papers, there was limitation that we consider studies at all levels of evidence. However the restraint methods should be decided according to the characteristics of the individually and apply a variety of therapeutic activities, there is positive support for the use of modified constraint-induced movement therapy to improve the recovery of the paretic upper extremity with cerebral palsy.

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Effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san)and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture on Pain Reduction and Nerve Regeneration after Crush Injury in Rat Sciatic Nerve (오약순기산(烏藥順氣散) 및 중성어혈(中性瘀血) 약침(藥鍼)이 흰쥐 좌골신경 압좌 손상 후 통증 감소와 신경 재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Moon-Jae;Lee, Jeong-Han;Yeom, Seung-Ryong;Lee, Su-Kyung;Song, Yung-Sun;Kim, Ki-Byoung;Kwon, Young-Dal
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.51-72
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture on pain reduction and nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. Methods : Animal model was produced through crush injury of right sciatic nerve and they were divided into four groups; Group I: no treatment control group; Group II: experimental group treated with Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san); Group III: experimental group treated with Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture; Group IV: experimental group treated with Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture. For the assessment of pain, this study was observed the paw withdrawal latency(PWL) and immunoreactivity on the substance-P. For the assessment of nerve regeneration, the sciatic functional index(SFI) and immunoreactivity on the BDNF were measured. Results : 1. In the assessment of pain, the PWL of experimental groups was significantly higher than control group and group IV was significantly higher than other groups at the all days. 2. In immunohistochemical response of substance-P, as time passes, the immunoreactivity of all groups were decreased gradully. Especially, group IV had the lowest immunoreactivity. 3. In the assessment of SFI, the SFI of experimental groups were significantly higher than control group. 4. In immunohistochemical response of BDNF, the BDNF immunoreactivity of all groups was significantly higher than control group and especially, group IV had the highest immunoreactivity at the 14 days after injury. 5. H & E stain was used on the liver and kidney to investigate toxic effect of Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture and Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) on on 21 days after injury. However there were no any toxic effects both control group and experimental groups. Conclusions : On the basis of these results, we propose that Ohyaksungi-san(Wuyaoshungi-san) and Jungsongouhyul pharmacopuncture were related to pain reduction and motor nerve recovery, also decreased substance-P expression and increased BDNF expression after crush injury of sciatic nerve, especially these two treatments could be more effective when they were combined simultaneously.

Effects of Dokwal-tang(Duhuo-tang) and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture on Pain Control and Nerve Regeneration after Crush Injury in Rat Sciatic Nerve (흰쥐 좌골신경 압좌 손상 후 독활탕(獨活湯)및 중성어혈약침(中性瘀血藥鍼)이 통증 억제와 신경 재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Song, Jeong-Seob;Na, Cheol;Shin, Byung-Cheul;Lee, Su-Kyung;Kwon, Young-Dal;Song, Yung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.61-79
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of Dokwal-tang(Duhuo-tang) and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture on pain control and nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. Methods : Animal model was produced through right sciatic nerve crush injury and they were randomly divided into four groups; Group I: no treatment control group; Group II: experimental group treated with Dokwal-tang(Duhuo-tang); Group III: experimental group treated with Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture; Group IV: experimental group treated with Dokwal-tang(Duhuo-tang) and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture. For the pain assessment, this study was observed the paw withdrawal latency(PWL) and immunoreactivity on the substance-P. For the nerve regeneration assessment, the sciatic functional index(SFI) and immunoreactivity on the GAP-43 were measured. Results : 1. In the pain assessment, the PWL of experimental groups were significantly higher than control group and group IV was significantly higher than other groups. 2. In immunohistochemical response of substance-P, as time passes, all groups had decreased immunoreactivity gradually. Specially, group IV was observed the lowest immunoreactivity. 3. In the assessment of SFI, the SFI of experimental groups were significantly higher than control group. 4. In immunohistochemical response of GAP-43, all groups had higher GAP-43 immunoreactivity at the 14 days from post-injury and at the all days, control group was observed most lower immunoreactivity and group IV was observed most higher immunoreactivity. Conclusions : These results of this study suggest that Dokwal-tang(Duhuo-tang) and Jungsongouhyul Pharmacopuncture was related with pain inhibition and motor nerve recovery, and decreased substance-P expression and increased GAP-43 expression after sciatic nerve crush injury.