• Title, Summary, Keyword: N-containing compound

Search Result 114, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

Crystal Structure and Morphology of Nitride Precipitates in TiAl (TiAl에 석출한 질화물의 결정구조와 형태)

  • Han, Chang-Suk;Koo, Kyung-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-56
    • /
    • 2008
  • The crystal structures and morphologies of precipitates in $L1_0$-ordered TiAl intermetallics containing nitrogen were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under aging at an approximate temperature of 1073 K after quenching from 1423 K, TiAl hardens appreciably due to the nitride precipitation. TEM observations revealed that needle-like precipitates, which lie only in one direction parallel to the [001] axis of the $L1_0$-TiAl matrix, appear in the matrix preferentially at the dislocations. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analyses showed that the needle-shaped precipitate is perovskite-type $Ti_3AlN$ (P-phase). The orientation relationship between the P-phase and the $L1_0$-TiAl matrix was found to be $(001)_P//(001)_{TiAl}\;and\;[010]_P//[010]_{TiAl}$. By aging at higher temperatures or for longer periods at 1073 K, plate-like precipitates of $Ti_2AlN$ (H-phase) with a hexagonal structure formed on the {111} planes of the $L1_0$-TiAl matrix. The orientation relationship between the $Ti_2AlN$ and the $L1_0$-TiAl matrix is $(0001)_H//(111)_{TiAl}\;and\;_H//_{TiAl}$.

Reaction of Bis(diethylamino)aluminum Hydride in Tetrahydrofuran with Selected Organic Compounds Containing Representative Functional Groups

  • Jin Soon Cha;Oh Oun Kwon;Jong Mi Kim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.132-138
    • /
    • 1994
  • Bis(diethylamino)aluminum hydride was utilized in a systematic study of the approximate rates and stoichiometry of the reaction of excess reagent with 55 selected organic compounds containing representative functional groups under standardized conditions (THF, $0^{\circ}C$, reagent to compound=4 : 1) in order to define the characteristics of the reagent for selective reductions. The reducing action of BEAH was also compared with that of the parent aluminum hydride. The reducing action of the reagent is quite similar to that of aluminum hydride, but the reducing power is much weaker. Aldehydes and ketones were readily reduced in 1-3 h to the corresponding alcohols. However, unexpectedly, a ready involvement of the double bond in cinnamaldehyde was realized to afford hydrocinnamyl alcohol. The introduction of diethylamino group to the parent aluminum hydride appears not to be appreciably influential in stereoselectivity on the reduction of cyclic ketones. Both p-benzoquinone and anthraquinone utilized 2 equiv of hydride readily without evolution of hydrogen, proceeded cleanly to the 1,4-reduction products. Carboxylic acids and acid chlorides underwent reduction to alcohols slowly, whereas cyclic anhydrides utilized only 2 equiv of hydride slowly to the corresponding hydroxylacids. Especially, benzoic acid with a limiting amount of hydride was reduced to benzaldehyde in a yield of 80%. Esters and lactones were also readily reduced to alcohols. Epoxides examined all reacted slowly to give the ring-opened products. Primary and tertiary amides utilized 1 equiv of hydride fast and further hydride utilization was quite slow. The examination for possibility of achieving a partial reduction to aldehydes was also performed. Among them, benzamide and N,N-dimethylbenzamide gave ca, 90% yields of benzaldehyde. Both the nitriles examined were also slowly reduced to the amines. Unexpectedly, both aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds proved to be relatively reactive to the reagent. On the other hand, azo- and azoxybenzenes were quite inert to BEAH. Cyclohexanone oxime liberated 1 equiv of hydrogen and utilized 1 equiv of hydride for reduction, corresponding to N-hydroxycyclohexylamine. Pyridine ring compounds were also slowly attacked. Disulfides were readily reduced with hydrogen evolution to the thiols, and dimethyl sulfoxide and diphenyl sulfone were also rapidly reduced to the sulfides.

  • PDF

Characteristics of Hardness and Wear-Resistance of Plasma-Nitrided and Nitrocarburized Carbon Steels (플라즈마질화 및 침질탄화처리한 탄소강의 경도와 내마모특성)

  • Kim, M.K.;Jung, B.H.;Park, H.S.;Lee, B.C.;Shin, S.H.;Lee, J.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.166-173
    • /
    • 1999
  • Commercial carbon steels containing 0.2~0.55 wt.----C were plasma-nitrided or plasma nitrocarburized at $550^{\circ}C$ for 21.6Ks using $H_2-N_2$ or $H_2-N_2$-CO mixed gas respectively. The characteristics of hardening and wear-resistance of each treatment were studied and compared. And also microstructure of nitrided layer and nitrides formed in compound layer near surface were studied. All plasma-nitrided steels investigated showed remarkable increase of surface hardness with the increase of carbon content. But nitrocarburized steels resulted in higher surface-hardness than plasma-nitrided steels, which means that nitrocarburized has higher surface-hardening effect. Plasma-nitrided steels showed hardness increase in through-thickness direction near surface. And also nitrocarburized steels showed similar hardness distribution in through-thickness direction to that of plasma-nitrided steel. However, nitrocarburized steels had higher cross-sectional maximum-hardness than plasma-nitrided steels as much as 100Hv. Wear test showed that the amount of specific wear was reduced by both plasma-nitriding and nitrocarburized, showing that the amount of specific wear was not related to the hardness. But non-treated specimen showed that the amount of specific wear was related to the hardness.

  • PDF

THE SYNTHESIS, PHYSICAL PROPERTY, AND THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL NEO-CERAMIDES

  • Kim, Duck-Hee;Lee, Bo-Seaub;Koo, Myeong-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Jun;Lee, Hae-Kwang;Park, Moon-Jae;Lee, Ok-Sub
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.6-16
    • /
    • 1998
  • Ceramides are currently emerging as the major skin care ingredients due to !heir barrier properties in the stratum corneum of the human skin. Thus, major cosmetic companies have developed synthetic ceramide analogs for their own use. In this study, several ceramide mimic compounds , new skin barrier lipids, were designed and synthesized, and their physical and biological properties were investigated to evaluate their skin care capability. Several structures were designed from the variation of hydrophobic alkyl chain and hydrophilic moiety by the use of molecular modeling software. The selected targets were synthesized, and their properties and activities were studied as the pure form, in the emulsion, or in the lamellar mixture containing cholesterol and fatty acid. Some compounds, such as 1,3-bis(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-palmitoylamino)-2-hydroxypropane, enhanced the restoration of skin barrier damaged by SDS(sodium dodecyl sulfate), and by acetone treatment. The rate of restoration was comparable to that of natural ceramides. The synthesized compounds alleviated SDS induced skin irritation and facilitated lamellar phase liquid crystal formation. The treatment of 1,3-Dis(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-palmitoylam ino)-2-hyd roxypropane on the acetone damaged skin revealed that the compound promoted the recovery of intercellular lipid lamellar structure of stratum corneum layer. The replacement of palmitoyl groups of the compound with shorter alkyl chain gave lower emulsion viscosity and liquid crystal density, suggesting easier formulation and poorer barrier activity. Most of the synthesized compounds were non-irritable in various toxicological tests proving that they can be safely introduced to the skin care formulations.

  • PDF

Quantitative analyses of ricinoleic acid and ricinine in Ricinus communis extracts and its biopesticides

  • Choi, Geun Hyoung;Kim, Leesun;Lee, Deuk Yeong;Jin, Cho long;Lim, Sung-Jin;Park, Byung Jun;Cho, Nam-Jun;Kim, Jin-Hyo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.59 no.2
    • /
    • pp.165-169
    • /
    • 2016
  • The quantitative analytical method for the bioactive substance, 3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine) and an index compound, ricinoleic acid in castor plant (Ricinus communis) extract or oil was developed. For the determination of a pyridone alkaloid compound, ricinine, successive cartridge cleanup method combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography was set up with $ENVI-Carb^{TM}$ (0.5 g) and $C_{18}$ SPE cartridges. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortification studies of one biopesticide (PE) at 10 and $100mg\;kg^{-1}$. Mean recoveries of ricinine were 98.7 and 96.0 % associated with less than 10 % RSD, respectively. For the determination of ricinoleic acid in castor extract and oil, saponification and methylation were optimized using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Recovery was more than 84.8 % associated with 6.2 % RSD after derivatization procedure. Both methodologies developed were applied to analyze real samples including three castor oil products and six commercially available biopesticides containing R. communis, collected at Korean market. The contents of ricinine and ricinoleic acid in most commercial biopesticides were less than the oil or extract contents indicated by label.

Design and Synthesis of p-hydroxybenzohydrazide Derivatives for their Antimycobacterial Activity

  • Bhole, Ritesh.P.;Borkar, Deepak.D.;Bhusari, Kishore.P.;Patil, Prashant.A.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.56 no.2
    • /
    • pp.236-245
    • /
    • 2012
  • The main mycobacterial infection in human is tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in the world. Therefore there is continuing and compelling need for new and improved treatment for tuberculosis. The entire logic towards design of new compounds containing 4-hydroxy-N'-(1,3-thiazoldin- 2-yldene)benzohydrazide moiety is basically for superior antimycobacterial activity. The recent advances in QSAR and computer science have provided a systematic approach to design a structure of any compound and further, the biological activity of the compound can be predicted before synthesis. The 3D-QSAR studies for the set of 4-hydroxy-N'-(1,3-thiazoldin- 2-yldene)benzohydrazide and their derivatives were carried out by using V-life MDS (3.50). The various statistical methods such as Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), Principle Component Regression(PCR) and K nearest neighbour (kNN) were used. The kNN showed good results having cross validated $r^2$ 0.9319, $r^2$ for external test set 0.8561 and standard error of estimate 0.2195. The docking studies were carried out by using Schrodinger GLIDE module which resulted in good docking score in comparison with the standard isoniazid. The designed compounds were further subjected for synthesis and biological evaluation. Antitubercular evaluation of these compounds showed that (4.a), (4.d) and (4.g) found as potent inhibitor of H37RV.

Isolation and Structural Determination of Anti-Helicobacter pylori Compound from Fungus 60686. (곰팡이에서 분리한 Helicobacter pylori 항균물질의 분리 및 구조규명)

  • 남궁준;연승우;백남수;김태한;김영호;김창진;김기원
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.137-142
    • /
    • 1998
  • Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and is associated with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma. In the process of screening of antibacterial activities against H. pylori from soil microorganisms, fungus No. 60686 was isolated. After fermentation of No.60686, the antibacterial compound was isolated, purified and followed by extraction of mycelium with organic solvents, acetone and ethyl acetate, through silica gel chromatography, LH-20 gel chromatography and HPLC. As a result of the structural analyses of the compound by IR, $^1$H- and $^{13}$C-NMR, FAB/Mass spectrophotometer, the compound having the antimicrobial activity was identified as chaetoglobosin A ($C_{32}H_{36}N_2O_5$), a cytochalasan derivative. The antimicrobial activity of chaetoglobosin A was tested against Gram-positive and negative bacteria by paper disk method. Among the test strains of 9 Gram-positive bacteria and 18 Gram-negative bacteria containing 4 H. pylori strains, the growth of 4 H. pylori strains and 3 S. aureus strains (SG 511, 285 and 503) was only inhibited by chaetoglobosin A. Also it was shown that its growth inhibition against H. pylori strains was stronger than that against S. aureus strains at the treatment of the same concentration. Therefore it was concluded that chaetoglobosin A has a specific growth inhibition against H. pylori of the tested bacteria.

  • PDF

A Study on the Microstructures of Rapidly Solidified Ti-($45{\sim}58at%$)Al Intermetallic Compound (급속응고된 TiAl 금속간화합물의 Al함량 변화에 따른 미세조직변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Hoon;Jeoung, Tae-Ho;Nam, Tae-Woon
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
    • /
    • v.18 no.6
    • /
    • pp.550-554
    • /
    • 1998
  • The microstructures of rapidly solidified binary Ti-Al alloys containing $45{\sim}58\;at%Al$ have been studied using C/S (carbon/sulfur), N/O (nitrogen/oxygen) analyser, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phases present in the alloys and their distribution were found to be a sensitive function of Al content. Essentially single-phase (${\gamma}$) microstructures were observed to alloys with 45 at%Al, 55 at%Al and 58 at%Al. In other content alloys, two phase (${\alpha}_2$, ${\gamma}$) microstructures were observed. The 48 at%Al, 52 at%Al alloys contain (${\gamma}+{\alpha}_2$) phase and ${\alpha}_2$ phase. These results indicate that rapid solidification affect the solidification path, then metastable phase forming during solidification.

  • PDF

A Study on the Phase Equilibrium Conditions of Mixture Gas Hydrates using CSMHYD (CSMHYD를 이용한 혼합가스 하이드레이트의 상평형에 대한 연구)

  • Seo, Hyang-Min;Park, Yun-Beom;Chun, Won-Gee;Kim, Nam-Jin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.585-589
    • /
    • 2007
  • Gas hydrate is a special kind of inclusion compound that can be formed by capturing gas molecules to water lattice in high pressure and low temperature conditions. When referred to standard conditions, $1m^3$ solid hydrates contain up to $172Nm^3$ of methane gas, depending on the pressure and temperature of production, Such large volumes make natural gas hydrates can be used to store and transport natural gas. In this study, three-phase equilibrium conditions for forming methane hydrate were theoretically obtained in aqueous single electrolyte solution containing 3wt% Nacl. The results show that Nacl acts as a inhibitor, but help gases such as ethan, propane, i-butane, and n-butane reduce the hydrate formation pressure at the same temperature.

  • PDF

Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Fungicidal Activities of New Type Oxazolidinone-Based Strobilurin Analogues

  • Li, Yuhao;Liu, Rui;Yan, Zhangwei;Zhang, Xiangning;Zhu, Hongjun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.31 no.11
    • /
    • pp.3341-3347
    • /
    • 2010
  • A series of oxazolidinone-based strobilurin analogues were efficiently synthesized by the reaction of 3-(2-bromomethylphenyl) oxazolidin-2-one with 1-substituted phenyl-2H-pyrazolin-3-one. Their structures were confirmed and characterized by $^1H$-NMR, $^{13}C$-NMR, elemental analysis, and mass spectroscopy. In addition, the crystal structure of the target compound 3-(2-((1-phenyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yloxy)methyl)phenyl) oxazolidin-2-one was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The bioassay results of these compounds indicated that some of the oxazolidin-2-one derivatives containing N-substituted phenyl 2H-pyrazol ring exhibited potential in vivo fungicidal activities against M. grisea at the dosage of $1\;g\;L^{-1}$.