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Effects of Soil Percolation Rate by Different Drainage Treatments on CH4 and N2O Emissions from Paddy Field (배수 개선처리에 따른 토양 투수속도 변화가 논에서 CH4 및 N2O 배출에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Jee-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Jung, Ki-Yeol;Choi, Young Dae;Lee, Dong-Wook;Yun, Eul-Soo;Kim, Choon-Shik;Park, Seong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2007
  • The effects of soil percolation rate on $CH_4$ and $N_2O$ emissions were investigated from paddy fields with different drainage systems. Subsurface tile drainage plot of soil percolation rate $11.9mm\;d^{-1}$ and non-subsurface drainage plots of soil percolation rate $7.4mm\;d^{-1}$ and $6.9mm\;d^{-1}$ were designed. The effects of rice straw application were measured at each drainage plots. The subsurface tile drainage plot of soil percolation rate $11.9mm\;d^{-1}$ showed the lower emission amount both of $CH_4$ and $N_2O$ among treatments. In the subsurface tile drainage plot of $11.9mm\;d^{-1}$ percolation rate, 46% of $CH_4$ and 33% of $N_2O$ emission amounts were reduced in comparison of non-subsurface drainage plot of $6.9mm\;d^{-1}$ percolation rate. With rice straw application, the $CH_4$ emission amount was 2.1 times to that from no-applied plot, the $N_2O$ emission amount was not affected by rice straw application.

Optimum N-fertilization Level for Quality Rice Production in the Southern Alpine Area of Korea (남부 산간고랭지에서 쌀 품질 향상을 위한 적정 질소시비량)

  • Kim, Sang-Su;Choi, Weon-Young;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Lee, Jun-Hee;Back, Nam-Hyun;Park, Hong-Kyu;Choi, Min-Kyu;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.spc1
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    • pp.30-34
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    • 2006
  • The effect of N-fertilization on yield, milling characteristics and quality of Samcheonbyeo, an early maturing rice variety, was investigated in 2002 to 2004. The study was carried out in the southern alpine area of Un-bong Sub-Station, Honam Agricultural Research Institute. Higher nitrogen levels increased number of panicle and grain per unit area, but lowed ripening rate and decreased 1,000-grain weight. Higher nitrogen levels of up to 90 kg/ha also increased head rice yield. A nitrogen level of 90 kg/ha was found optimal for increasing ripening rate and head rice yield, and rice palatability.

The Simple and Rough Screening Method of Phosphorus Deficient Tolerance Rice

  • Hwang, Woon-Ha;Kim, Dae-Wook;Jeong, Jae-Heok;Jeong, Han-Yong;Lee, Hyen-Seok;Choi, Kyung-Jin;Lee, Gun-Hwi;Lee, In-Jung;Oh, Sung-Hwan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.412-420
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    • 2015
  • Even though phosphorus (P) is essential element for plant growth and development, it is not enough for crop production in soil. To breed more P deficient tolerance rice, screening and selection in rice population is needed. We tried to develop more simple and rough screening method for breeding of P deficient tolerance rice. In P deficient condition, tiller number was dramatically decreased among yield components in rice. Though this result, we confirmed tiller number could be the best marker in screening of P deficient tolerance rice. 480 rice genetic resources were cultivated in rice bed tray filled with P deficient soil for four weeks and each dry weight was measured. Among them, the 55 kinds of genetic resource were selected then cultivated in paddy field with 3 fertilizer conditions. Plant dry weight and tiller number in ripening stage were shown significant difference according to P condition. Plant dry weight and tiller number in ripening stage was highly correlated especially in P deficient condition. Furthermore, the tiller number in ripening stage and plant dry weight in rough screening were shown high degree correlation. Though these results, we might expect measuring of plant dry weight after cultivation in rice bed tray filled with P deficient soil could be a simple and effective screening method in selection of P deficient tolerance rice.

Establishment of Sesame Cultivation Practices as Succeeding Cropping System of Watermelon in the Greenhouse Condition

  • Shim, Kang-Bo;Hwang, Jung-Dong;Pae, Suk-Bok;Lee, Myoung-Hee;Ha, Tae-Joung;Park, Chang-Hwan;Park, Keum-Yong;Son, Jeong-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.195-199
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was conducted to develop optimum sesame cultivation practices as succeeding cropping system of watermelon in the greenhouse condition. We also compared major components in sesame seed cultivated in the greenhouse and open field condition. The adaptable varieties under the greenhouse condition were white sesame 'Pyoungan' and black sesame 'Jinki' which showed higher yield and disease resistance. We also conducted several experiments to determine optimum sowing date, planting density and pinching time. Grain yields were statistically different according to the several sowing dates. In general, sesame sowing on June 30th showed higher grain yields than July 10th, July 20th and July 30th in the greenhouse. We also found out sesame cultivation practice with the row spacing of 40 cm and interplant spacing of 30 cm (a few branch type) or 40 cm (many branch type) showed higher yield than other treatments. Optimum pinching time was 25 days after first flowering in main stem when thousand seed weight and grain yield were highest. In the comparison of major components of sesame at the different cultivation conditions, sesame seeds cultivated in the greenhouse contained 4% much more oil content than open field condition. The lignan compounds, sesamin and sesamolin were also higher by 6% in the greenhouse than open field condition. It was concluded that sesame cultivation practices as succeeding cropping system of watermelon in the greenhouse condition guaranteed higher grain yield with less labor input which is now emerging alternative farming practice system in present aging rural society and will also give sesame cultivation farmers to increase net income in Korea.

The Effects of Transplanting Time and Meteorological Change to Variation of Phyllochron of Rice

  • Ku, Bon-Il;Choi, Min-Kyu;Kang, Shin-Ku;Lee, Kyung-Bo;Park, Hong-Kyu;Park, Tae-Seon;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed at Rice and Winter Cereal Crops Department of NICS during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the characteristics of rice leaf emergence and to obtain basic data which can be used for rice growth simulation model by which we can forecast rice growth stage and heading date accurately under different cultivars, transplanting date, and climatic conditions. To confirm leaf emergence rate according to rice maturing ecotype, we surveyed the leaf emergence rate and heading date of Unkwangbyeo, Hwayoungbyeo and Nampyeongbyeo which are early maturing, medium maturing and medium-late maturing cultivars, respectively, according to seedling raising duration and transplanting time. When seedling duration was 15 days, the growth duration between transplanting time and completion of flag leaf emergence on main culm were 51.5~78.3 days in Unkwangbyeo, 55.3~87.9 days in Hwayoungbyeo and 58.4~98.4 days in Nampyeongbyeo, respectively. When seedling duration was 30 days, they were 50.1~75.5 days in Unkwangbyeo, 52.4~84.7 days in Hwayoungbyeo and 56.4~93.8 days in Nampyeongbyeo, respectively. As transplanting time delayed, the emerged leaf number after transplanting decreased in all rice cultivars. The cumulative temperature between transplanting time to completion of flag leaf elongation on main culm were $1,281^{\circ}C{\sim}1,650^{\circ}C$ in Unkwangbyeo, $1,344^{\circ}C{\sim}1,891^{\circ}C$ in Hwayoungbyeo and $1,454^{\circ}C{\sim}2,173^{\circ}C$ in Nampyeongbyeo, respectively. Leaf emergence rate on main culm were precisely represented by equation, y = $y_0$ + a / [1 + exp( - (x - $x_0$) / b)]^c, when we used daily mean temperature as variable.