• Title/Summary/Keyword: NICs

Search Result 807, Processing Time 0.099 seconds

Effect of Pre-Germination by Treatment of Soaking on Germination of Soybean (콩의 발아 전 침종처리가 발아에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Seong-Woo;Kim, Tae-Sun;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Roy, Swapan Kumar;Lee, Chul-Won;Kim, Hong-Sig;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.60 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-137
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of pre-germination soaking on germination in 90 Korean soybean varieties and identification of protein in seeds of 7 soybean varieties. The results obtained that germination rate of soybean seeds was decreased as amount of soaking water and soaking duration in number of days. Difference in germination rate of soybean seeds was significant at three days soaking with water volume of 90 ml. Water absorption of seeds was rapidly increased during the first 6 hours, followed by slow increase until 24 hours and then decreased 24 to 48 hours after soaking soybean varieties for bean sprout soaked the lowest amount of water, while soybean varieties for cooking with rice showed the lowest seed water content. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in soaking water was rapidly decreased during the first 3 hours after soaking, and then slowly decreased. Soybean varieties for vegetable and early maturity showed the lowest DO during early soaking periods, but showed higher DO after 24 hours than other groups of soybean varieties. Electrical conductivity and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) were increased as number of soaking days increased. Soybean varieties for vegetable and early maturity showed the highest electrical conductivity and TDS, followed by those for sauce and paste or cooking with rice, while showed the lowest electrical conductivity and TDS, varieties for bean sprout. Among 90 Korean soybean varieties, varieties which showed the highest germination rate were Jangsu-kong for sauce and paste, Sobaegnamul-kong for bean sprout, Seonheuk-kong for cooking with rice, Seunnokkong for vegetable and early maturity. On the ather hand varieties which showed the lowest germination rate were Iksan and Songhak-kong for sauce and paste, Pangsa-kong for bean sprout, Jinyeul-kong for cooking with rice, Sinlok-kong for vegetable and early maturity. Germination rates of soybean seeds were higher when electrical conductivity, TDS and water absorption of seeds were lower. There were negative correlations between electrical conductivity, TDS and water absorption of seeds and germination rate, while there were positive correlations among electrical conductivity, TDS and soybean seed weight.

Comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid and isoflavone aglycone contents, to radical scavenging activities of high-protein soybean sprouting by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis (발아 고단백 콩의 Lactobacillus brevis 젖산발효에 의한 가바와 이소플라본 함량 및 라디칼 소거활성의 비교)

  • Hwang, Chung Eun;Haque, Md. Azizul;Lee, Jin Hwan;Joo, Ok Soo;Kim, Su Cheol;Lee, Hee Yul;Um, Bong Sik;Park, Kyung Sook;Cho, Kye Man
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-18
    • /
    • 2018
  • In this study, soy-powder yogurt (SPY) with enhanced levels of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and isoflavone aglycone was produced from sprouting high-protein soybeans (HPSs). The fermented steam-HPS sprouts (0 to 4 cm) were fermented (72 h) with Lactobacillus brevis, and the total free amino acids (FAAs) of the formed mixtures were determined to be 79.53, 489.93, 877.55, 780.53, and 979.97 mg/100 mL in the fermented HPS (FHPS), and the fermented steam-HPS with 0 cm (FSHPS-0), 1 cm (FSHPS-1), 2 cm (FSHPS-2), and 4 cm sprouting lengths (FSHPS-4), respectively. The levels of glutamic acid (GA) and GABA were observed to be the highest, 100.31 and 101.60 mg/100 mL, respectively, in the unfermented HPS (UFSHPS-1, 1 cm) and FSHPS-1 sprouts, respectively. Moreover, the total contents of the isoflavone glycoside form decreased proportionally to the increasing total levels of isoflavone aglycones after fermentation in FSHPS-0, FSHPS-1, FSHPS-2, and FSHPS-4. The levels of isoflavone aglycones were detected as 350.34, 289.15, 361.61, 445.05, and $491.25{\mu}g/g$ in FHPS, FSHPS-0, FSHPS-1, FSHPS-2, and FSHPS-4, respectively. While FSHPS-1 exhibited the highest DPPH (63.28%) and ABTS (73.28%) radical scavenging activities, FSHPS-4 contained the highest isoflavone aglycone ratio (81.63%). All in all, the FSHPS-1 mixture prepared in this study exhibited high GABA content and functional prosperity, thereby making it suitable for potential applications in the soy-dairy industry.

Effect of Monoculture and Mixtures of Green Manure Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum) on Rice Growth and Yield in Paddy (답리작에서 녹비작물 크림손클로버 단파 및 혼파가 벼 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Weon-Tai;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Kim, Min-Tae;Oh, In-Seok;Choi, Bong-Su;Kang, Ui-Gum
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.5
    • /
    • pp.847-852
    • /
    • 2011
  • Green manure crops are mainly used to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers. Mixture of green manure crops have beneficial effects in agroecosystem. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monoculture and mixtures of crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) on rice growth and yield in paddy. This experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) from Oct. 2007 to Oct. 2009 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Seeding rates of crimson clover (CC) were consisted of monoculture (CC2, 3, 4 kg and hairy vetch 5 kg $10a^{-1}$) and mixtures (CC 2 + barley 7, CC 3 + barley 7, CC 4 + barley 7, and CC2 + hairy vetch $5kg\;10a^{-1}$). Seeds were drilled by partial tillage machine on 9th Oct. in 2007. Monoculture and mixture of crimson clover as a green manure crop was incorporated in soil for rice cultivation on 15th May in 2008. Chemical fertilizers had not been applied to monoculture and mixture plots. The biomass and N production of monoculture plots were lower than mixture plots. The biomass and N production of CC 2 + hairy vetch $5kg\;10a^{-1}$ plot were the highest among mixtures treatments. In rice growing season, ammonium nitrogen concentrations in soil were a little high trends at CC 2 + hairy vetch $5kg\;10a^{-1}$ plot. And soil bulk density and porosity were improved at mixture plot after rice harvesting. The rice yield of CC 2 + hairy vetch $5kg\;10a^{-1}$ plot was not significantly different from conventional practice plot. These results indicated that cropping of crimson clover with hairy vetch mixture was better than barley mixture for environmental friendly rice cultivation.

Effect of Biomass and N Production by Cultivation Methods of Leguminous and Gramineae Green Manures on Rice Growth in Central Regions of Korea (중부지역 답리작에서 두과 및 화본과 녹비작물의 재배방법에 따른 biomass, 질소 함량이 벼 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Weon-Tai;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Kim, Min-Tae;Oh, In-Seok;Choi, Bong-Su;Kang, Ui-Gum
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.5
    • /
    • pp.853-858
    • /
    • 2011
  • The cultivation methods are important for determining crop yield of green manure. The effect of cultivation methods of green manure crops (GMC) on biomass and rice yield was investigated. This experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts from Oct. 2007 to Oct. 2008 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Seven GMC (hairy vetch, barley, Chinese milk vetch, rye, crimson clover, oats, rattail fescue) were cultivated and incorporated on paddy soil by broadcasting before rice harvesting (BBRH) and partial tillage seeding (PTS). Among the three leguminous GMC, the biomass and N production were the highest at the hairy vetch of PTS. Among the four gramineae GMC, the biomass and N production tended to be higher in the rye of BBRH and barley of PTS. The C/N ratio (56.5~74.2) of rye was high compared with hairy vetch (14.1). Among the GMC, the incorporation of hairy vetch increased $NH_4$-N contents in rice paddy soil at 14 and 42 days after transplanting. These results showed that hairy vetch had no significant to rice yield compared with conventional fertilization. Therefore, hairy vetch seems to be the most efficient green manure crop as an alternatives to chemical N fertilizer in the central regions of Korea.

Recommendation of the Amount of Nitrogen Top Dressing based on Soil Nitrate Nitrogen Content for Leaf Perilla (Perilla frutescens) under the Plastic Film House (토양 질산태질소 함량에 따른 시설 잎들깨 질소 웃거름시비량 추천)

  • Kang, Seong-Soo;Lee, Ju-Young;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Gong, Hyo-Young;Jung, Hyung-Jin;Park, Chang-Hwan;Yun, Yeo-Uk;Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Yoo-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1112-1117
    • /
    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to recommend nitrogen (N) top dressing based on soil nitrate content for leaf perilla under forcing culture in Gumsan-gun and Milyang-si. Experimental design was the randomized complete block design for five N fertilization levels and conventional fertilization. Dry weight, nitrogen uptake, and the node number of leaf perilla were measured and soil nitrate contents were analyzed monthly. The amount of nitrogen uptake for growth of a node with two leaves was $2.2kg\;10a^{-1}$ for Gumsan site and $3.5kg\;10a^{-1}$ for Milyang site. Lower level of soil nitrate N concentration for standard N fertilization was determined as $10mg\;kg^{-1}$ for both sites. Soil depth, bulk density, utilization rate of soil nitrate N, and the amount of N uptake for growth of a node with two leaves were considered for calculation of upper level of soil nitrate N concentration. The upper levels of soil nitrate N concentration for no N fertilization were determined as $30mg\;kg^{-1}$ for Gumsan site and as $40mg\;kg^{-1}$ for Milyang site. Consequently the recommendation equations for the N top dressing were Y=-0.157X+4.71 for Gumsan site and Y=-0.1667X+6.6667 for Milyang site.

Effect of Mixed Sowing Ratios Between Whole Crop Barley with Hooded Type and Forage Pea on the Forage Yield and Quality (삼차망 청보리와 사료용 완두의 혼파재배가 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Park, Jong-Min;Lee, Jung-Jun;Kim, Chang-Ho;Koo, Han-Mo;Oh, Tae-Seok;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.3
    • /
    • pp.171-178
    • /
    • 2009
  • The study was conducted to clarify the mixed seeding rate of whole crop barley with hood type and forage pea for using of forage crops and to compare the forage yield and quality. At a mixed seeding rate between the whole crop barley (WCB) and forage pea, The heading date and plant height of WCB were not a difference according to mixed seeding rate of forage pea. The tillers of the WCB were a decrease and plant of the forage pea were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The lodging index of the WCB was a appearance with distribution of $0{\sim}3$, The lodging index of WCB with a 20kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea was 3. The overwintering rate of forage pea was a appearance more than 90% at all treatment. The plant height of forage pea was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. At a mixed seeding between the WCB and forage pea, The fresh weight was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea and was a appearance more than 3,000 kg at all treatment plot. But the dry matter weight was decrease according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. The dry matter weight of 20 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea showed the most amount with 1,266 kg. The crude protein (CP) content was a tendency to increase according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. But, the relative feed value (RFV) was a tendency to decrease according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The highest RFV was 183.8 at 14 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. The highest content of ADF and NDF were 23.9% and 46.3% at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 10 kg/10a of forage pea, respectively. The highest sum of standardized score by fresh weight, dry matter weight, CP, ADF, NDF and RFV was 2.309 at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea. The optimum mixed seeding rate was a considered judgment in the order of mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea, mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 5.0 kg/10a of forage pea.

Structure of Export Competition between Asian NIEs and Japan in the U.S. Import Market and Exchange Rate Effects (한국(韓國)의 아시아신흥공업국(新興工業國) 및 일본(日本)과의 대미수출경쟁(對美輸出競爭) : 환율효과(換率效果)를 중심(中心)으로)

  • Jwa, Sung-hee
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.3-49
    • /
    • 1990
  • This paper analyzes U.S. demand for imports from Asian NIEs and Japan, utilizing the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) developed by Deaton and Muellbauer, with an emphasis on the effect of changes in the exchange rate. The empirical model assumes a two-stage budgeting process in which the first stage represents the allocation of total U.S. demand among three groups: the Asian NIEs and Japan, six Western developed countries, and the U.S. domestic non-tradables and import competing sector. The second stage represents the allocation of total U.S. imports from the Asian NIEs and Japan among them, by country. According to the AIDS model, the share equation for the Asia NIEs and Japan in U.S. nominal GNP is estimated as a single equation for the first stage. The share equations for those five countries in total U.S. imports are estimated as a system with the general demand restrictions of homogeneity, symmetry and adding-up, together with polynomially distributed lag restrictions. The negativity condition is also satisfied for all cases. The overall results of these complicated estimations, using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1972 to the fourth quarter of 1989, are quite promising in terms of the significance of individual estimators and other statistics. The conclusions drawn from the estimation results and the derived demand elasticities can be summarized as follows: First, the exports of each Asian NIE to the U.S. are competitive with (substitutes for) Japan's exports, while complementary to the exports of fellow NIEs, with the exception of the competitive relation between Hong Kong and Singapore. Second, the exports of each Asian NIE and of Japan to the U.S. are competitive with those of Western developed countries' to the U.S, while they are complementary to the U.S.' non-tradables and import-competing sector. Third, as far as both the first and second stages of budgeting are coneidered, the imports from each Asian NIE and Japan are luxuries in total U.S. consumption. However, when only the second budgeting stage is considered, the imports from Japan and Singapore are luxuries in U.S. imports from the NIEs and Japan, while those of Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong are necessities. Fourth, the above results may be evidenced more concretely in their implied exchange rate effects. It appears that, in general, a change in the yen-dollar exchange rate will have at least as great an impact, on an NIE's share and volume of exports to the U.S. though in the opposite direction, as a change in the exchange rate of the NIE's own currency $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar. Asian NIEs, therefore, should counteract yen-dollar movements in order to stabilize their exports to the U.S.. More specifically, Korea should depreciate the value of the won relative to the dollar by approximately the same proportion as the depreciation rate of the yen $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar, in order to maintain the volume of Korean exports to the U.S.. In the worst case scenario, Korea should devalue the won by three times the maguitude of the yen's depreciation rate, in order to keep market share in the aforementioned five countries' total exports to the U.S.. Finally, this study provides additional information which may support empirical findings on the competitive relations among the Asian NIEs and Japan. The correlation matrices among the strutures of those five countries' exports to the U.S.. during the 1970s and 1980s were estimated, with the export structure constructed as the shares of each of the 29 industrial sectors' exports as defined by the 3 digit KSIC in total exports to the U.S. from each individual country. In general, the correlation between each of the four Asian NIEs and Japan, and that between Hong Kong and Singapore, are all far below .5, while the ones among the Asian NIEs themselves (except for the one between Hong Kong and Singapore) all greatly exceed .5. If there exists a tendency on the part of the U.S. to import goods in each specific sector from different countries in a relatively constant proportion, the export structures of those countries will probably exhibit a high correlation. To take this hypothesis to the extreme, if the U.S. maintained an absolutely fixed ratio between its imports from any two countries for each of the 29 sectors, the correlation between the export structures of these two countries would be perfect. Therefore, since any two goods purchased in a fixed proportion could be classified as close complements, a high correlation between export structures will imply a complementary relationship between them. Conversely, low correlation would imply a competitive relationship. According to this interpretation, the pattern formed by the correlation coefficients among the five countries' export structures to the U.S. are consistent with the empirical findings of the regression analysis.

  • PDF