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Effect of Sowing and Harvesting Dates on Forage Productions and Feed Values of Rye and Triticale in Youngnam Mountain Area (영남산간지역에서 호밀과 트리티케일의 파종 및 수확시기가 생산성과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hyuk-Jun;Han, Ouk-Kyu;Joo, Young-Ho;Lee, Seong-Shin;Paradhipta, Dimas Hand Vidya;Ku, Ja-Hwan;Min, Hyeong-Gyu;Oh, Jung-Sik;Kim, Sam-Churl
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of sowing and harvesting dates on agronomic characteristics and feed values of rye and triticale at Sanchoeng, South Korea. The experimental design consisted of the different sowing and harvesting dates as follows; rye (Secale cereale L., cv. Gogu) of sowing (October 15, 25, and November 5) in 2015 and harvesting (April 20, May 1 and May 11) in 2016, and triticale (X Triticosecale, cv. Joseong) of sowing (October 15, 25, and November 5) in 2015 and harvesting (May 18, 28, and June 7) in 2016. In rye, fresh and dry matter (DM) yields increased (p<0.05) with the delayed-harvesting date. Crude protein (CP) content and relative feed value (RFV) decreased (p<0.05) with the delayed-harvesting date, but neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content increased (p<0.05). In triticale, fresh and dry matter (DM) yields increased (p<0.05) with the delayed-harvesting date. The CP content decreased (p<0.05) with the delayed-harvesting date, but NDF content and RFV increased (p<0.05). This study concluded that rye sown in the middle of October then harvested in early May, and the triticale sown at the end of October then harvested at the end May are recommended to increase dry matter yield and feed value.

Rice Quality Characterization According to Damaged Low Temperature in Rice Plant (벼 냉해 발생시 피해정도에 따른 쌀 품질 특성 구명)

  • Kim, Deog-Su;Song, Jin;Lee, Jung-Il;Chun, A-Reum;Jeong, Eung-Gi;Kim, Jung-Tae;Hur, On-Sook;Kim, Sun-Lim;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.452-457
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to provide fundamental data on breeding cultivar and cultural technique to identify quality characterization according to damage degrees in rice when are damaged at low temperature. For induction of cold damage, we treated the irrigation water at $17^{\circ}C$ from the panicle formation stage to the heading date. The rice products were harvested by grades according to the sterility ratio and investigated 5 items of quality analysis including ripened grain ratio, brown/rough rice ratio, 1000 grain weight of brown rice, protein content, and amylose content. The quality analysis were characterized by each items according to the sterility ratio. As a result, the ripened grain ratio was y=1.0444x-7.6597($R^2=0.9874^{**}$), protein content was y=-0.046x+10.875 ($R^2=0.6973^*$), and head rice ratio was y=-0.2306x+104.32 ($R^2=0.634^*$), but the amylose content, brown/rough rice ratio and the milled/brown rice ratio were not significant. The rice plants, which injured by the low temperature, had bad influence in the yield and quality. Consequently, the breeding of rice cultivar and development of cultural technique are required to improve its cold tolerance.

Effect of Mixed Sowing Ratios Between Whole Crop Barley with Hooded Type and Forage Pea on the Forage Yield and Quality (삼차망 청보리와 사료용 완두의 혼파재배가 수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, Jung-Il;Park, Jong-Min;Lee, Jung-Jun;Kim, Chang-Ho;Koo, Han-Mo;Oh, Tae-Seok;Lee, Hyo-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2009
  • The study was conducted to clarify the mixed seeding rate of whole crop barley with hood type and forage pea for using of forage crops and to compare the forage yield and quality. At a mixed seeding rate between the whole crop barley (WCB) and forage pea, The heading date and plant height of WCB were not a difference according to mixed seeding rate of forage pea. The tillers of the WCB were a decrease and plant of the forage pea were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The lodging index of the WCB was a appearance with distribution of $0{\sim}3$, The lodging index of WCB with a 20kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea was 3. The overwintering rate of forage pea was a appearance more than 90% at all treatment. The plant height of forage pea was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. At a mixed seeding between the WCB and forage pea, The fresh weight was a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea and was a appearance more than 3,000 kg at all treatment plot. But the dry matter weight was decrease according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. The dry matter weight of 20 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea showed the most amount with 1,266 kg. The crude protein (CP) content was a tendency to increase according to increased seeding rates of forage pea. But, the relative feed value (RFV) was a tendency to decrease according to increased seeding rate of forage pea. The highest RFV was 183.8 at 14 kg/10a seeding rate of a only WCB without seeding of the forage pea. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were a increase according to increased seeding rate of forage pea at 14 kg/10a and 20 kg/10a plots of WCB. The highest content of ADF and NDF were 23.9% and 46.3% at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 10 kg/10a of forage pea, respectively. The highest sum of standardized score by fresh weight, dry matter weight, CP, ADF, NDF and RFV was 2.309 at mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea. The optimum mixed seeding rate was a considered judgment in the order of mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 7.5 kg/10a of forage pea, mixed seeding rate of 20 kg/10a of WCB with 5.0 kg/10a of forage pea.

Structure of Export Competition between Asian NIEs and Japan in the U.S. Import Market and Exchange Rate Effects (한국(韓國)의 아시아신흥공업국(新興工業國) 및 일본(日本)과의 대미수출경쟁(對美輸出競爭) : 환율효과(換率效果)를 중심(中心)으로)

  • Jwa, Sung-hee
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.3-49
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    • 1990
  • This paper analyzes U.S. demand for imports from Asian NIEs and Japan, utilizing the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) developed by Deaton and Muellbauer, with an emphasis on the effect of changes in the exchange rate. The empirical model assumes a two-stage budgeting process in which the first stage represents the allocation of total U.S. demand among three groups: the Asian NIEs and Japan, six Western developed countries, and the U.S. domestic non-tradables and import competing sector. The second stage represents the allocation of total U.S. imports from the Asian NIEs and Japan among them, by country. According to the AIDS model, the share equation for the Asia NIEs and Japan in U.S. nominal GNP is estimated as a single equation for the first stage. The share equations for those five countries in total U.S. imports are estimated as a system with the general demand restrictions of homogeneity, symmetry and adding-up, together with polynomially distributed lag restrictions. The negativity condition is also satisfied for all cases. The overall results of these complicated estimations, using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1972 to the fourth quarter of 1989, are quite promising in terms of the significance of individual estimators and other statistics. The conclusions drawn from the estimation results and the derived demand elasticities can be summarized as follows: First, the exports of each Asian NIE to the U.S. are competitive with (substitutes for) Japan's exports, while complementary to the exports of fellow NIEs, with the exception of the competitive relation between Hong Kong and Singapore. Second, the exports of each Asian NIE and of Japan to the U.S. are competitive with those of Western developed countries' to the U.S, while they are complementary to the U.S.' non-tradables and import-competing sector. Third, as far as both the first and second stages of budgeting are coneidered, the imports from each Asian NIE and Japan are luxuries in total U.S. consumption. However, when only the second budgeting stage is considered, the imports from Japan and Singapore are luxuries in U.S. imports from the NIEs and Japan, while those of Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong are necessities. Fourth, the above results may be evidenced more concretely in their implied exchange rate effects. It appears that, in general, a change in the yen-dollar exchange rate will have at least as great an impact, on an NIE's share and volume of exports to the U.S. though in the opposite direction, as a change in the exchange rate of the NIE's own currency $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar. Asian NIEs, therefore, should counteract yen-dollar movements in order to stabilize their exports to the U.S.. More specifically, Korea should depreciate the value of the won relative to the dollar by approximately the same proportion as the depreciation rate of the yen $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar, in order to maintain the volume of Korean exports to the U.S.. In the worst case scenario, Korea should devalue the won by three times the maguitude of the yen's depreciation rate, in order to keep market share in the aforementioned five countries' total exports to the U.S.. Finally, this study provides additional information which may support empirical findings on the competitive relations among the Asian NIEs and Japan. The correlation matrices among the strutures of those five countries' exports to the U.S.. during the 1970s and 1980s were estimated, with the export structure constructed as the shares of each of the 29 industrial sectors' exports as defined by the 3 digit KSIC in total exports to the U.S. from each individual country. In general, the correlation between each of the four Asian NIEs and Japan, and that between Hong Kong and Singapore, are all far below .5, while the ones among the Asian NIEs themselves (except for the one between Hong Kong and Singapore) all greatly exceed .5. If there exists a tendency on the part of the U.S. to import goods in each specific sector from different countries in a relatively constant proportion, the export structures of those countries will probably exhibit a high correlation. To take this hypothesis to the extreme, if the U.S. maintained an absolutely fixed ratio between its imports from any two countries for each of the 29 sectors, the correlation between the export structures of these two countries would be perfect. Therefore, since any two goods purchased in a fixed proportion could be classified as close complements, a high correlation between export structures will imply a complementary relationship between them. Conversely, low correlation would imply a competitive relationship. According to this interpretation, the pattern formed by the correlation coefficients among the five countries' export structures to the U.S. are consistent with the empirical findings of the regression analysis.

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