• Title, Summary, Keyword: NR

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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Monoclonal Antibody Analysis of Leptospira interrogans Isolated in Korea (국내 분리 렙토스피라균의 단클론 항체 및 Genomic DNA의 Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis 분석)

  • 조민기;기선호;김형준;김윤원;장우현;오희복
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 1999
  • A total of 22 Leptospiua inlermgans field isolates from the ~ a t s captured in 5 provinces of Korea in 1996, and 6 antigenically closely related relerence serovars of lai, yeonchon, birkini. gem, mwogolo. and canicola were analysed. When the antigenic characteristics were analysed by reactivity with 7 monoclonal antibodies prepared with sh.ains belongng to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. all 22 isolates showed the same reaction pattern with that of serovar lai. Large restriction fragment patterns obtained after cleavage of geno~nic DNAs with infrequently cuttimg restriction enzymes were analyzed by pulsed-field pel electrophoresis(PFGE). Identification of leptospira strains by PFGE with Nor I, Asc I or Iise I digests correlated with their antigenically typed serovars, silh a few exceptions. PFGE of isolates, except for JR89, digested wjth Nor I showed identical pattern w~th serovar lai, showing 13 Cragments between 940 kb and 63 kb. When PFGE pallerns of JR89 were compared with those of serovar lai, Not I digest showed additional two hands of 1000 kb and 460 kb, while Asc I digest showed 650 kb fragment and Fse I digest did not show the fragment of 280 kb. Whereas serovar yeonchon. which was isolated in Korea and identified as a new serovar previously. could be differentiated from serovar lai in antigenic reactivities with monoclonal antibodres. it showed the similar PFGE pattern with serovar lai includin~ reference and field isolates. It was suggested that Korean leptospiral field isolates are closely related in DNA level.

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The Surface Properties of Blend Film of Natural Rubber and Graft Latex by Dipping Process (Dipping법에 의한 천연고무와 그라프트 라텍스 블렌드 필름의 표면특성)

  • Kim, Kong-Soo;Park, Jun-Ha;Eum, Ju-Song
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.990-997
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    • 1994
  • The vulcanized NR and blend films were prepared with mixing of natural rubber latex (NRL) and methyl methacrylated grafted latex(MGL) with various additives by dipping process. It was investigated the basic properties of vulcanized NR films that is optimum condition of the mature time, swelling degree, cure time at $110^{\circ}C$, and measured the mechanical properties of tensile strength and elongation of its condition. In order to identify the surface structure and the slip properties of blend films contact angles and static and kinetic friction coefficient were measured. Contact angles were decreased with increment of blend ratio of MGL, and static and kinetic friction coefficient were decreased rapidly for the NR/MG and NR-d-MG films than for the NR films. From the results, NR/MG and NR-d-MG films has slip's reinforcement in skin contact surface with increased of blend ratio of MGL.

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Thermal Aging Properties of NR Vulcanizates with Different Cure Systems (가교 시스템이 다른 NR 가황물의 열노화 특성)

  • Choi, Sung-Seen;Park, Byung-Ho
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2005
  • Changes of physical properties or NR vulcanizates with different cure systems by thermal aging were investigated. Two sulfur cure systems and one resole cure system were employed, and total contents of the curatives were varied. For the NR vulcanizates with sulfur cure systems, hardness and modulus after the thermal aging at $90^{\circ}C$ for 3 days were increased, but elongation at break and tensile strength were decreased. For the NR vulcanizates with resloe cure system, the physical properties after the thermal aging were decreased. The change of physical properties by the thermal aging was explained with the crosslink density change. The crosslink densities or the NR vulcanizates with sulfur cure systems were increased after the thermal aging, but those with resole cure system were decreased. Influence of the migration of antidegradant on the changes of physical properties was also investigated. However, the changes of physical properties by the thermal aging were not explained sufficiently with the migration of antigradant.

T0901317 as an Inhibitor of Transcriptional Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) (Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)의 전사활성 저해제로서의 T0901317)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ha;Seol, Won-Gi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.481-485
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    • 2011
  • T0901317 is a potent synthetic ligand for liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2/3), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a transcription factor. However, T0901317 has been also reported to modulate the activity at least four other nuclear receptors (NRs), acting as agonists for farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and as antagonists for androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4) and retinoid-related orphan receptor-${\alpha}$ (ROR-${\alpha}$, NR1F1). We report here that T0901317 can also function as an inhibitor for constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). Since CAR is a major player of xenobiotic and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, along with PXR, FXR and LXR, which are reported to be regulated by T0901317, this further complicates the interpretation of potential results with T0901317 in liver cells.

Nicotinamide riboside regulates inflammation and mitochondrial markers in AML12 hepatocytes

  • Lee, Hee Jae;Yang, Soo Jin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The $NAD^+$ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a type of vitamin $B_3$ found in cow's milk and yeast-containing food products such as beer. Recent studies suggested that NR prevents hearing loss, high-fat diet-induced obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and mitochondrial myopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NR on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: A subset of hepatocytes was treated with palmitic acid (PA; $250{\mu}M$) for 48 h to induce hepatocyte steatosis. The hepatocytes were treated with NR ($10{\mu}M$ and 10 mM) for 24 h with and without PA. The cell viability and the levels of sirtuins, inflammatory markers, and mitochondrial markers were analyzed. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of NR was examined by PrestoBlue assay. Exposure to NR had no effect on cell viability or morphology. Gene expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Sirt3 was significantly upregulated by NR in PA-treated hepatocytes. However, Sirt1 activities were increased in hepatocytes treated with low-dose NR. Hepatic pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were decreased in NR-treated cells. NR upregulated anti-inflammatory molecule adiponectin, and, tended to down-regulate hepatokine fetuin-A in PA-treated hepatocytes, suggesting its inverse regulation on these cytokines. NR increased levels of mitochondrial markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ coactivator-$1{\alpha}$, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, uncoupling protein 2, transcription factor A, mitochondrial and mitochondrial DNA in PA-treated hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that NR attenuated hepatic inflammation and increased levels of mitochondrial markers in hepatocytes.

Isolation of Mutants Overproducing Amylase from Nuruk Fungi by NTG (NTG에 의한 Amylase활성이 높은 누룩사상균의 변이주의 분리)

  • 정혁준;김영숙;유대식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.987-994
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    • 2000
  • Aspergillus coreanus NR 15-1, Asp. oryzae NR 15-3 and Asp. oryzae NR 2-5 isolated from traditional Korean nuruk were screened as parental strains producing starch hydrolyzing enzymes. They were mutagenized by N-methyl -N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) and mutants were isolated for analysis of various amylase activities and the ability of acid production. Among them, the mutants harboring high saccharogenic activity, dextrinogenic activity, and the ability of acid production were selected. Fifteen, six, and five strains of mutants were isolated from Asp. coreanus NR 15-1, Asp. oryzae NR 2-5, and Asp. oryzae NR 15-3, respectively followed by NTG mutagenesis. Among these mutants, thirteen strains were identified as auxotrophic mutants. \ulcorner (Arg. ̄) mutant from Asp. coreanus NR 15-1 showed high glucoamylase activity and total acid productivity. Z6 (Ade. ̄) mutant from Asp. oryzae NR 2-5 showed the highest $\alpha$-amylase activity, therefore \ulcorner and Z6 mutant were selected.

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Causes and Spatial Characteristics of Neighborhood Relations by Family Life Cycle (생애주기에 따른 이웃관계의 형성요인과 공간적 특성)

  • Joung, You Jin;Choi, Mack Joong
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2016
  • Based on residents' survey data in Seoul, this study attempts to empirically answer to four research questions regarding neighborhood relations (NR) which are necessary for community building: How important NR is compared to other social relations, what factors establish NR, how large NR's geographical extent is, and what are major meeting places among neighbors. A series of statistical analyses demonstrates that characteristics of NR vary greatly by family life cycle. In the stage of couple without child, NR has no significant meaning. NR becomes important from the stage of child care, and it is formed through the medium of children, particularly children's schools in the stage of child of elementary school as well as secondary schools. As the result, NR's geographical boundary extends beyond residential block or multi-family housing (apartment) estate while cafe and restaurant serve as dominant meeting places in these life cycle stages. On the contrary, after children are married and leave home, casual encounters resulted from spatial proximity become an important cause of NR. Likewise neighbors' geographical distribution is relatively concentrated within residential block or apartment estate, while community facilities play a role of meeting places as originally planned and designed.

The Experimental Study on the Immuno-regulatory effect of Notopterygii Rhizoma Herbal-acupuncture at Pyesu(BL13) on OVA-induced asthma in mice (폐유(肺兪) 강활약침(羌活藥鍼)이 OVA-induced Asthma Mouse Model의 면역조절(免疫調節)에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Suk-Geun;Hong, Kwon-Eui;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.107-125
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the asthma-suppressive and immuno-regulatory effect of NR-HA(Notopterygii Rhizoma Herbal-acupuncture) at Pyesu(BL13) on OVA(ovalbumin)-induced asthma in mice. Methods : C57BL/6 mice out of all the experimental sloops, except the Normal group and the NR-HA group, were sensitized and challenged with OVA. The mice in the NR-HA group and the OVA-NR-HA group were treated with NR-HA(1%) at Pyesu(BL13). The mice in the OVA-Saline group were injected with saline at Pyesu(BL13). The mice in the OVA-Needle-prick group were treated with a single prick with an injection needle at Pyesu(BL13). NR-HA, saline injection and needle prick were administered for 8 weeks, three times a week Results : in vitro 1. The populations of granulocytes, $CD3e^-/CCR3^+$cells, $CD69^+/CD3e^+$ cells, $CD4^+\;cells\;and\;CD23^+/B220^+$ cells in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse lungs decreased significantly by NR-HAS(Notopterygii Rhizoma Herbal-acupuncture solution). 2. The lung weight and total cells in lung of the OVA-NR-HA group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-Control group. 3. Total leukocytes and eosinophils in BALF of the OVA-NR-HA group decreas ed significantly compared with those of the OVA-Control group. 4. The collagen accumulation in the lung sections of the OVA-NR-HA group decreased significantly compared with that of the OVA-control group. 5. The concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE in BALF and serum of the OVA-NR-HA group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA- Control group. 6. The numbers of $Gr-1^+/CD11b^+,\;CCR3^+,\;CD3e^+, \;CD19^+,\;CD3e^+/CD69^+$ cells in the OVA-NR-HA group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA-Control group. 7. The mRNA expressions of $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 in lung of the OVA-NR-HA group decreased significantly compared with those of the OVA- Control group. 8. The NR-HA group did not show my considerable difference from the Normal group. The OVA-saline group and the OVA-Needle prick group showed suppressive effects on OVA-induced asthma however they were not statistically significant. Conclusion : These results suggest that NR-HA at Pyesu(BL13) is considered to be effective in treating asthma and to be put to practical use in the future asthma clinic.

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Effect of NR/BR Blends ratio and Oil Content on the Mechanical Properties of Rubber Isolator at Low Temperature (저온환경에서 NR/BR 블렌드 조성비 및 오일함량이 방진고무재료의 기계적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wan-Doo;Kim, Wan-Soo;Woo, Chang-Soo;Choi, Sung-Seen
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2004
  • New compounds were made using various NR/BR blend ratio and oil content to improve mechanical properties of rubber isolator at low temperature. Mechanical properties were investigated as a function of NR/BR blend ratio and oil content. Hardness and tensile modulus generally increased, but tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with increasing BR content. Hardness, tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased, but elongation at break were nearly the same with increasing oil content. The glass transition temperature of NR and BR were found to be $-50^{\circ}C$ and $-90^{\circ}C$ respectively based on the abrupt drops in storage elastic modulus and peak of loss factor. Two distinct transition temperature were observed in NR/BR blend compounds and each transition point was not affected by blend level indicating incompatible nature of NR/BR blend.

High Cytoplasmic Expression of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A2 Predicts Poor Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

  • Wang, Jian;Yang, Jing;Li, Bin-Bin;He, Zhi-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.2805-2809
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This study aimed at investigating whether the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is significantly associated with clinicopathologic features and overall survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine NR4A2 protein expression in 84 NPC tissues and 20 non-cancerous nasopharyngeal (NP) tissues. The prognostic significance of NR4A2 protein expression was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: We did not find a significant association between total NR4A2 expression and clinicopathological variables in 84 patients with NPC. However, we observed that high cytoplasmic expression of NR4A2 was significantly associated with tumor size (T classification) (P = 0.006), lymph node metastasis (N classification) (P = 0.002) and clinical stage (P = 0.017). Patients with higher cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression had a significantly lower survival rate than those with lower cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression (P = 0.004). Multivariate Cox regression analysis analysis suggested that the level of cytoplasmic NR4A2 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival of patients with NPC (P = 0.033). Conclusions: High cytoplasmic expression of NR4A2 is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.