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Determination of Tumor Boundaries on CT Images Using Unsupervised Clustering Algorithm (비교사적 군집화 알고리즘을 이용한 전산화 단층영상의 병소부위 결정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hoo;Ji, Young-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Han;Yoo, Seoung-Yul;Cho, Chul-Koo;Kim, Mi-Sook;Yoo, Hyung-Jun;Kwon, Soo-Il;Chun, Jun-Chul
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2001
  • It is a hot issue to determine the spatial location and shape of tumor boundary in fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). We could get consecutive transaxial plane images from the phantom (paraffin) and 4 patients with brain tumor using helical computed tomography(HCT). K-means classification algorithm was adjusted to change raw data pixel value in CT images into classified average pixel value. The classified images consists of 5 regions that ate tumor region (TR), normal region (NR), combination region (CR), uncommitted region (UR) and artifact region (AR). The major concern was how to separate the normal region from tumor region in the combination area. Relative average deviation analysis was adjusted to alter average pixel values of 5 regions into 2 regions of normal and tumor region to define maximum point among average deviation pixel values. And then we drawn gross tumor volume (GTV) boundary by connecting maximum points in images using semi-automatic contour method by IDL(Interactive Data Language) program. The error limit of the ROI boundary in homogeneous phantom is estimated within ${\pm}1%$. In case of 4 patients, we could confirm that the tumor lesions described by physician and the lesions described automatically by the K-mean classification algorithm and relative average deviation analyses were similar. These methods can make uncertain boundary between normal and tumor region into clear boundary. Therefore it will be useful in the CT images-based treatment planning especially to use above procedure apply prescribed method when CT images intermittently fail to visualize tumor volume comparing to MRI images.

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Effect of Microwave Hyperthermia on Radiotherapy of Human Malignant Tumors -An Analysis of Clinical Response of 42 Patients- (극초단파를 이용한 국소온열 치료 효과 -표재성 종양 42예의 분석-)

  • Yoon Sei Chul;Oho Yoon Kyung;Gil Hak Jun;Chung Su Mi;Shinn Kyung Sub;Bahk Yong Whee
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 1987
  • Radiobiological and clinical evidences indicate that hyperthermia combined with ionizing radiation produces a significant improvement in therapeutic effect of cancer. In general, malignant cells are more sensitive to heat than normal cells in the heat range of $41\~45^{\circ}C$. We report the experiences obtained from 42 patients with advanced malignant neoplasms managed with 2,450MHz microwave-induced local hyperthermia and ionizing radiation at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College. A clinical analysis of 42 thermoirradiated patients showed result of 11(26\%),\;15(36\%),\;11(26\%)\;and\;5(12\%)$ patients with complete response (CR), partial response (PR), minor response (MR) and no response (NR), respectively. Histologically there were $17(40.2\%)$ squamous cell carcinomas, $12(28.6\%)$ adenocarcinomas and $6(14.3\%)$ miscellaneous cancers. Eleven patients with CR consisted of five squamous cell carcinomas, five adenocarcinomas, and one chloroma. Among 15 patients with PR were five squamous cell carcinomas, five adenocarcinomas, three unknown primary tumors, and one poorly differentiated, and miscellaneous tumor each.

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Evaluation of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag as Soil Conditioner in the Rice Paddy Field (논토양 벼재배에서 제강슬래그의 토양개량제로서의 시용 효과)

  • Lim, June-Taeg;Lee, Yeen;Park, In-Jin;Lee, Choong-Il;Hyun, Kyu-Hawn;Kwon, Byung-Sun;Kim, Hak-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 1999
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag as a soil conditioner in rice paddy field. In 1997, rice (Oryza sativa B. cv. Dongjinbyeo) crop was cultivated under different application rates of BOF slag at three different places, Inandong Sunchon city, Youjunglee Bosung province, and Nampyung Najoo city. In each paddy field, five treatments, four application rate of BOF slag (0, 4, 8, $12Mg\;ha^{-1}$) and one application rate of lime ($2Mg\;ha^{-1}$) were tried with three replications. Plant height, number of tillers per hill, leaf area per hill, leaf dry weight, calm dry weight or shoot dry weight per hill were measured five times at the interval of seven days. Chemical contents of rice plants and soil were also measured at the same sampling date Yield were estimated by harvesting $6.6m^2$ per experimental unit and yield components were measured by sampling 10 plants per experimental unit at the harvest date. Application of BOF slag hardly affected contents of soil organic matter, available phosphate and potassium in soil. Soil pH and contents of Ca, Mg, Fe and $SiO_2$ enhanced as BOF slag rate increased. Enhancement of soil pH by ROF slag treatment appeared to be closely related with increase in soil Ca content. Application tate of $2Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of lime showed almost the same effect, in increase of soil Ca content as application rate of $4{\sim}8Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of BOF slag, Fe content in soil decreased sharply as time passed after slag treatment and stabilized more or less at the later sampling date. Contents of inorganic matter in plant such as total nitrogen, phosphate, potassium and Mg were not affected by BOF slag treatment. However, contents of Ca, Fe, and $SiO_2$ in plants increased as slag rate became higher. The growth of rice plants with BOF slag treatment was more or less slower but continued persistently up to the later growth stage, so that growth of plants with BOF slag treatment was almost the same nr even greater than that of control or lime treatment. However, BOF slag rate of $12Mg\;ha^{-1}$ seemed to be too high because all the measurements of plant, growth at this rate showed lower values than those of other treatments at all the sampling dates. Treatments of BOF slag $4Mg\;ha^{-1}$ or $8Mg\;ha^{-1}$ showed higher rough rice yield than other treatments, so that the optimum BOF slag ratein rice paddy field seemed to be in the rage of $4{\sim}8Mg\;ha^{-1}$.

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Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer (국소적으로 진행된 식도암에서 동시항암화학방사선치료의 결과)

  • Byun, Sang-Jun;Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ok-Bae;Song, Hong-Suk
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the results of local control, survival rate, prognostic factors, and failure pattern in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied 50 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from June of 1999 to August of 2008. Seven patients with inappropriate data were excluded, and 43 patients were analyzed. There were 39 males and four female patients ranging in age from 43 to 78 years (median, 63 years). There were seven patients with stage IIA and 36 with stage III. Irradiation from 46 Gy to 63 Gy (median, 54 Gy) was carried out 5 days per week, 1.8 Gy once a day. There were eight patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and we mostly used 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin with 3 cycles for concurrent chemotherapy. The range of follow up periods was from 2 to 82 months (median, 15.5). Results: There were nine patients that exhibited a cornplete response, 23 that exhibited a partial response, 9 that exhibited no response, and 2 that exhibited disease progression. The median survival time was 15 months. Two-year and 5-year survival rates were 36.5% and 17.3%, respectively. Two-year and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 32.4% and 16%, respectively. Treatment failure occurred in 22 patients (51.2%). Patterns of failure were categorized as local failure in 18 patients and distant metastasis in four patients. In a univariate analysis for prognostic factors related to overall survival and disease-free survival, the hemoglobin levels during chemoradiotherapy (${\geq}$ 12 vs. <12, p=0.02(p=0.1) and the response to the treatments (CR/PR vs. NR/PD, p=0.002/p< 0.0001) were statistically significant. In a multivariate analysis, only response to the treatments was revealed to be statistically significant. There was no statistical significance associated with patient age, gender, disease stage, T-stage, smoking history, tumor location, or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion: Our survival rate was similar to those of other institutions. Local recurrence was the main reason for failure. It is suggested that further prospective studies should be performed to improve local control.

Effectiveness of Fentanyl Transdermal Patch (Fentanyl-TTS, $Durogegic^{(R)}$) for Radiotherapy Induced Pain and Cancer Pain: Multi-center Trial (방사선치료로 인한 통증 및 암성통증에 대한 듀로제식의 효과: 다기관연구)

  • Shin, Seong-Soo;Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Ahn, Seung-Do;Lee, Sang-Wook;Kim, Yeun-Sil;Lee, Kyu-Chan;Lee, Chang-Geol;Loh, John-JK;Chun, Mi-Son;Oh, Young-Teak;Kim, Ok-Bae;Huh, Seung-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 2006
  • $\underline{Purpose}$: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of fentanyl-TTS in the management of radiotherapy induced acute pain and cancer pain treated with radiotherapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: Our study was open labelled prospective phase IV multi-center study. the study population included patients with more 4 numeric rating scale(NRS) score pain although managed with other analgesics or more than 6 NRS score pain without analgesics. Patients divided into two groups; patients with radiotherapy induced pain (Group A) and patients with cancer pain treated with radiotherapy (Group B). All patients received 25 ug/hr of fentanyl transdermal patch. Primary end point was pain relief; second end points were change in patient quality of life, a degree of satisfaction for patients and clinician, side effects. $\underline{Results}$: Between March 2005 and June 2005, 312 patients from 26 participating institutes were registered, but 249 patients completed this study. Total number of patients in each group was 185 in Group A, 64 in Group B. Mean age was 60 years and male to female ratio was 76:24. Severe pain NRS score at 2 weeks after the application of fentanyl was decreased from 7.03 to 4.01, p=0.003. There was a significant improvement in insomnia, social functioning, and quality of life. A degree of satisfaction for patients and clinician was very high. The most common reasons of patients' satisfactions was good pain control. Ninety six patients reported side effect. Nausea was the most common side effect. There was no serious side effect. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Fentanyl-TTS was effective in both relieving pain with good tolerability and improving the quality of life for patients with radiotherapy induced acute pain and cancer pain treated with radiotherapy. The satisfaction of the patients and doctors was good. There was no major side effect.

Studies on Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Korean Native Chicken using the Microsatellite Marker (Microsatellite Marker를 활용한 한국 토종닭 품종의 유전적 다양성 및 유연관계 분석)

  • Seo, Joo Hee;Oh, Jea-Don;Lee, Jun-Heon;Seo, Dongwon;Kong, Hong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2015
  • In this study, genotyping was executed by using 27 microsatellite markers for genetic diversity of 469 Korean Native Chickens [20 population, each population is 24 samples but Hanhyup A line is 13 samples). in total 469 samples were collected from National Institute of Animal Science (Korean Native Chicken (NR, NY, NG, NL and NW), Ogye (NO), Leghorn F,K (NF and NK), Black and Brown cormish (NH and NS), Rhode Island Red C, D (NC and ND), Total is 12 populations] and Hanhyup [H line (HH), F line (HF), G line (HG), V line (HV), S line (HS), W line (HW), Y line (HY), A line (HA), total is 8 populations]. [The allele number were observed 5 (ADL0268) to 20 (MCW0127) each markers. Observed heterozygostiy ($H_{obs}$), expected heterozygosity ($H_{exp}$), polymorphism Information Content (PIC) were observed 0.359 to 0.677, 0.668 to 0.881 and 0.646 to 0.869, respectively. Using these markers, the calculated the heterozygote deficit within chicken line ($F_{is}$) value each population from mean 0.117. Phylogenetic tree showing the genetic relationship among 20 population using standard genetic distance calculated from 27 microsatellite markers. genetic distances revealed the closest (0.175) between NC and ND. on the other hand, Farthest genetic distances (0.710) revealed between NF and HV. STRUCTURE analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that results of similar phylogenetic tree. The expected probability of identity values on random individuals (Total population and only Hanhyup line) was estimated at $8.80{\times}10^{-83}$ and $3.87{\times}10^{-117}$, respectively. In conclusion, This study shows the useful data that be utilized as a basic data of Korean Native Chicken breeding and development for commercial chicken industry to meet the consumer's demand.

Study on the Growth of the Aortic Aannulus. Root, and Anastomosis After Arterial Switch Operation in Infancy (영아기에 시행한 동맥전환술 후의 대동맥판륜, 근부, 및 문합부위 성장에 관한 연구)

  • 이정렬;박정준
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.479-485
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    • 1997
  • We investigated changes of the size of neoaortic annulus, root, and aortic anastomosis after arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries performed in infancy. A total of 23 patients were included in this study. Age ranged from 6 to 153 days. Body weight averaged 3.9$\pm$0.8kg and 17 patients were male. The preoperative angiocardiographic dimensions of the pulmonary annulus, the pulmonary root, and the sinotubular junction, standardized to the diameter of descending aorta at the level of diaphragm, were compared to the size of postoperative measurements of the neoaortic annulus, the neoaortic root, and the aortic an stomosis at a mean interval of 17.2$\pm$ 9.4 months. Mean dimensions of the neoaortic annulus and the neoaortic root were significantly increased postoperatively(n=23, annulus; p<0.01, root; p<0.01), however, those of the aortic anastomosis did not reveal significant change(n=23, p=0.06). There were no significant differences in changes of diameters of the neoaortic annulus, the root, and the aortic anastomosis between patients with(n=8) and without(n=15) postoperative neoaortic regurgitation(annulus; p=0.32, root; p=0.29, anastomosis; p=0.86). Postoperative dimensions of the neoaortic root and annulus between patients with ventricular septal defect(n: 10) and without ventricular septal defect(ni 13) were not significantly changed compared to the preoperative measurements(annulus; p=0.09, root; p=0.07) but mean diameters of the aortic anastomosis decreased significantly after operation in patients with ventricular septal defect(p=0.04). This study revealed that the site of the aortic an stomosis grows in proportion to patient's somatic growth after arterial switch operation. Although we could not demonstrate the relation between the aortic root dilatation and the postoperative neoaortic regurgitation in this study, a continuous close follow-up might be necessary to detect a possible progression of the aortic root dilatation and the resulting significant aortic valve regurgitation.

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A Study on Long-term Variations of BOD and COD as Indicators of Organic Matter Pollution in the Han River (한강 본류에서 유기물 오염도 지표인 BOD와 COD에 대한 장기변동 특성)

  • Cho, Hyun-Seok;Kim, Kwang-Rae;Lim, Gyu-Chul;Bae, Kyung-Seok;Lee, Min-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.474-481
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the degree of long-term pollution at the mainstream of the Han River by comparing the concentration of BOD and COD from 1975 to 2011. The long-term annual average BOD and COD concentration at the mainstream of the Han River showed an increasing trend as it flowed downstream from Paldang Dam to Gayang. The concentration of BOD ($r^2$=0.646) and COD ($r^2$=0.260) showed a consistent decreasing trend for 37 years. In the case of Paldang Dam, BOD has maintained a decreasing trend, whereas the COD value showed an increasing trend after the 1990s. Therefore, a control of non-biodegradable materials in areas around Paldang Dam is required. The result of the seasonal variations of BOD and COD is as follows: spring>winter>summer and fall (p<0.001). The time series analysis revealed a strong correlation for every 12-month period. Also, the amount of water discharge at Paldang Dam has to be systematically controlled because the amount of water discharge from the dam influences the water quality at the mainstream of the Han River.

Changes in Starch Synthesis and the Characteristics of Photosynthate Translocation at High Temperature during the Ripening Stage in Barley (보리 등숙기 고온에 따른 전분합성 및 동화산물 전류 특성 변화)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Seok;Hwang, Woon-Ha;Kim, Dae-Wook;Jeong, Jae-Hyeok;Ahn, Seung-Hyeon;Baek, Jeong-seon;Jeong, Han-Yong;Yun, Jong-Tak;Lee, Geon-Hwi;Choi, Kyung-Jin
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 2017
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of high temperature on the stem, leaf and grain of barley during the ripening period and to provide information for the development of high-temperature cultivation techniques and adaptive varieties. We used an artificial climate control facility, to provide a temperature $3^{\circ}C$ higher than the normal average temperature during the ripening stage. Although the maximum rate of starch synthesis was increased at high temperature by approximately 11%, the starch content was decreased, because the period of starch synthesis ended 4 days earlier. As in the case of starch synthesis, the expression of genes related to starch synthesis was increased at the early ripening stage in the high temperature treatment, however, the duration of expression tended to decrease rapidly. Furthermore, the partitioning rate of assimilation products in the panicle increased to a greater extent in the high temperature treatment than in the control. In contrast, for the stem and leaf, the partitioning rate of assimilation products decreased more rapidly in the high temperature treatment than in the control. On the basis of these results, it can be considered that the translocation rate of assimilation products increased to a greater extent in the high temperature treatment than in the control at the early ripening stage. These results indicate that the decrease in grain weight at high temperature during the ripening stage is attributable to an increase in the speed of starch synthesis at high temperature, but the increase in ripening speed does not compensate for the shortening of the ripening period. Finally to develop varieties and cultivation techniques suited to high temperature, we need to focus on physiological characteristics related to the duration of starch synthesis.

Dependence of Sub-Cellular Activities of the Blooming and Harmful Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium Polykrikoides on Temperature (수온에 따른 유해성 Cochlodinium polykrikoides 적조생물의 세포생리 변화)

  • Cho, Eun-Seob
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1194-1201
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    • 2008
  • Water temperature-dependent fluctuations of biochemical and molecular activities in the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides were studied. In terms of genomic DNA concentration, a similar value of 0.6 was observed at $12^{\circ}C$ and $15^{\circ}C$. However, DNA significantly increased beyond $18^{\circ}C$ (p<0.05), to a maximum of 1.8 at $24^{\circ}C$. DNA concentration significantly decreased to 0.6. The concentrations of RNA and total protein were likely at their highest values of 1.7 and 0.07 ${\mu}g$ $ml^{-1}$ at $24^{\circ}C$, respectively. RNA and total protein concentrations began to increase at $15^{\circ}C$. Oxygen availability between lower and higher temperatures was significantly different and increased from $18^{\circ}C$ according to light intensity, regardless of wavelengths (p<0.05). At $24^{\circ}C$, the highest value of the maximum electron transport rate ($ETR_{max}$), ranging from 537.9 (Ch 1) to 602.5 ${\mu}mol$ electrons $g^{-1}$ Chl ${\alpha}s^{-1}$ (Ch 4), was also apparent. Nitrate reductase (NR) and ATPase activities were at their highest values of 0.11 ${\mu}mol$ $NO_{2}^{-}$ ${\mu}g^{-1}$ Chl ${\alpha}h^{-1}$ and 0.78 pmol 100 $mg^{-1}$ at $24^{\circ}C$, respectively. In an analysis of CHN, the concentration of C and N also significantly increased (p<0.05). Most of the measurements for the cellular activities at $27^{\circ}C$, however, were less than at $24^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that the sub-cellular activities of C. polykrikoides are sensitive to changes in water temperature. It may be desirable to estimate at $18^{\circ}C$ the initiation of the massive blooming development of C. polykrikoides. In nature, it will be very difficult to maintain the massive blooms beyond $24^{\circ}C$ because of a possibly significant decrease in molecular activity of C. polykrikoides.