• Title/Summary/Keyword: Newcastle disease virus (NDV)

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Validation of a Real-Time RT-PCR Method to Quantify Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Titer and Comparison with Other Quantifiable Methods

  • Jang, Juno;Hong, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 2011
  • A method for the rapid detection and quantification of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) produced in an animal cell culture-based production system was developed to enhance the speed of the NDV vaccine manufacturing process. A SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR was designed with a conventional, inexpensive RT-PCR kit targeting the F gene of the NDV LaSota strain. The method developed in this study was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and robustness. The validation results satisfied the predetermined acceptance criteria. The validated method was used to quantify virus samples produced in an animal cell culture-based production system. The method was able to quantify the NDV samples from mid- or late-production phases, but not effective on samples from the early-production phase. For comparison with other quantifiable methods, immunoblotting, plaque assay, and tissue culture infectious dose 50 ($TCID_{50}$) assay were also performed with the NDV samples. The results demonstrated that the real-time RT-PCR method is suitable for the rapid quantification of virus particles produced in an animal cell-culture-based production system irrespective of viral infectivity.

Studies on the immunization against field strain after live Newcastle disease virus vaccination (뉴캣슬병 생독백신 접종 후 야외 분리 바이러스에 대한 면역성 조사)

  • 김순태;박인화;김성국;김영환;조광현;손재권
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.147-159
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    • 2001
  • This Study was conducted to determine vaccination programs for the control of Newcastle Disease(ND) in chickens and investigate protective effect against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) after live ND vaccination. Maternal HI antibody titer level of chickens according to day(age) 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were decreased gradually as 7.10$\pm$0.74, 6.57$\pm$0.74, 3.71$\pm$1.25, 2.20$\pm$1.03, 1.20$\pm$1.23 and 0.50$\pm$0.71. As a result of HI test and ELISA, both chickens vaccinated with VG/GA strain live vaccine at 1-day-old and chickens not vaccinated do not have antibody titer for protection against NDV at 14-day-old. Except for LaSota strain vaccine, in case of vaccination with VG/GA spray and VG/GA, B1 and LaSota strain drinking water at 14-day-old, the protective effect was 100% in chickens inoculated NDV($10^{7.2}$ $EID_{50}$/50${\mu}\ell$, eye drop) at 21-day-old, but not 10~50% at 28-day-old. These data suggest that live NDV vaccination should be given at 10-day-old 20-25day-old for protect against NDV at periodic outbreaks of ND caused by velogenic viscerotropic NDV in the environment of a farm.

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Historical Studies on the Newcastle Disease Virus (뉴캣슬병 바이러스 연구사)

  • 박근식
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.57-73
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    • 1979
  • 뉴캣슬병은 19세기중엽부터 뉴캣슬병 (ND)의 발생이 있었던 것으로 추측하고 있으나 영국에서 1926년 Doyle$^{62}$ 에 의해서 처음으로 발생보고 된 이내 오늘에 이르기까지 ND는 세계적으로 널리 발생되고 있을 뿐만 아니라 앞으로도 거의 근절되지 않고 계독존재하면서 양계에 많은 피해를 줄 것으로 예상된다. 이와 같이 세계적으로 분포되어 있을 뿐만 아니라 많은 학자들은 이병과 이병의 원인체인 Newcastle disease virus(NDV)에 관한 연구가 이루어져 왔었다. (중략)

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A Novel Role of Classical Swine Fever Virus Erns Glycoprotein in Counteracting the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)-mediated IFN-β Induction

  • Xia, Yan-Hua;Chen, Liu;Pan, Zi-Shu;Zhang, Chu-Yu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.611-616
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    • 2007
  • $E^{rns}$ is an envelope glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and has an unusual feature of RNase activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that $E^{rns}$ counteracts Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-mediated induction of IFN-$\beta$. For this purpose, $E^{rns}$ fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was transiently expressed in porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells. In luciferase activity assay, $E^{rns}$-EGFP was found to prevent IFN-$\beta$ promoter-driven luciferase expression and block the induction of IFN-$\beta$ promoter mediated by NDV in a dose-dependent manner. Through IFN-specific semi-quantitative RT-PCR detection, obvious decrease of IFN-$\beta$ mRNA in NDV-infected PK15 cells was observed in the presence of $E^{rns}$-EGFP. In contrast, EGFP alone showed none of this block capacity. In addition, $E^{rns}$-EGFP mutations with RNase inactivation were also found to block NDV-mediated induction of IFN-$\beta$. These evidences establish a novel function for CSFV $E^{rns}$ glycoprotein in counteraction of the IFN-$\beta$ induction pathway.

Antiviral activity of methanol extract from Ephedra sinica Stapf (마황 추출물의 항바이러스 활성)

  • Lee, Doseung;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.735-739
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    • 2014
  • Ephedra sinica Stapf, known as a medicinal plant, inhibited not only syncytium formation, but also trafficking of viral glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-neuramidase (HN) to the cell-surface. Trafficking of viral glycoprotein to the surface of infected-cells results in syncytium formation in Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-infected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Viral glycoprotein in the infected-cell is processed within the endoplasmic reticulum during routing into surface. The processing of viral glycoprotein like a N-linked oligosaccharide trimming by ${\alpha}$-glucosidase in cell is necessary for virus infection. Methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities ($IC_{50}$ $15{\mu}g/mL$) against ${\alpha}$-glucosidase. This suggested that E. sinica extracts inhibited the cell-surface expression of NDV-HN glycoprotein without significantly affecting HN glycoprotein synthesis in NDV-infected BHK cells.

Molecular Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding Fusion(F) Protein of the Thermostable Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Diseased Pheasant (꿩에서 분리된 Newcastle Disease Virus 내열성주 (CBP)의 Fusion(F) 유전자 클론닝과 염기서열 분석)

  • Chang, Kyung-Soo;Jun, Moo-Hyung;Song, Hee-Jong;Kim, Kui-Hyun;Park, Jong-Hyeon
    • The Journal of Korean Society of Virology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.233-245
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    • 1998
  • The gene encoding F protein of CBP-1 strain, a heat-stable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from the diseased pheasants in Korea, was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Virus RNA was prepared from the chorioallatoic fluid infected with NDV CBP-1 virus and cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced to analyze. The PCR was sensitive as to detect the virus titer above $2^5$ hemagglutination unit. 1.7kb (1,707bp) size of the cDNA was amplified and cloned into BamHI site of pVL1393 Baculo transfer vector. The nucleotide sequences for F protein were determined by dye terminator cyclic sequencing using four pairs of primers, and 553 amino acid sequences were predicted. In comparison of the nucleotide sequence of F gene of CBP-1 with those of other NDV strains, the homology revealed 88.8%, 98.5% and 98.7% with Kyojungwon (KJW), Texas GB and Beaudette C strains, respectively. As the deduced 553 amino acid sequences of F protein of CBP-1 were compared with those of other NDV strains, the homology appeared 89.9%, 98.7% and 98.9% with KJW, Texas GB and Beaudette C strains, respectively. The putative protease cleavage site (112-116) was R-R-Q-K-R, indicating that CBP-1 strain is velogenic type. The amino acid sequences include 6 sites of N-asparagine-linked glycosylation and 13 cysteine residues. These data indicate that the genotype of CBP-1 strain is more closely associated with the strains of Texas GB and Beaudette C than KJW strain.

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Effects of infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) and newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccines on performance of broiler chicks

  • Kwon, Jung-taek;Kim, Tae-joong;Ryu, Kyeong-seon;Song, Hee-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.738-742
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccination on performance of broiler chicks for five weeks. Two types of poultry houses and three patterns of vaccination ($NDV^-/IBDV^-$, $NDV^+/IBDV^-$ and $NDV^+/IBDV^+$) were factorially assigned to six treatments. NDV, B1 strain and IBDV, Bursin-2 vaccine were orally administered at 5, 14 and 7, 18 days, respectively. Forty eight hundred chicks were grouped into four replications with two hundnyd hybro $\times$ hybro chicks per each treatment. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality and product index were surveyed at the end of experiment. Bursa index and IBDV antibody titer of chicks were weekly measured. Weight gain of chicks vaccinated with $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ was significantly increased compared to that of other treatments at both window and windowless poultry houses (p<0.05). Chicks vaccinated with $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ also showed significantly improving the FCR and mortality compared to those of other treatments at both poultry houses (p<0.05). The bursa indecies of both poultry houses were high from one-day- to three-weeks-old, but were low for the rest of two weeks. IBDV antibody of all chicks was detected 100% by agar gel precipitation (AGP) test at one day old, but was not detected in $NDV^-/IBDV^-$ and $NDV^+/IBDV^-$ treatments at four weeks old. However, it showed 100% in $NDV^+/IBDV^+$ treatment. Antibody titer using ELISA showed similar trend to that of AGP test. The results of this experiment confirmed that IBDV and NDV combined vaccine significantly improved the performance of broiler chicks.

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Molecular differentiation of Korean Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by restriction enzyme analysis and pathotype-specific RT-PCR

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Joon;Cho, Sun-Hee;Kim, Sun-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.371-379
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    • 2006
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded negative sense RNA virus, which has been classified as a member of the Avulavirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. It is also one of the most important pathogens in the poultry industry. The glycoproteins, fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), determine the virulence of NDV, and the relevant molecular structures have already been determined. NDV isolates differ in terms of virulence, and at least 2 of 9 genotypes (I-IX) have been shown to co-circulate. Therefore, it is clearly important to differentiate between vaccine strains and field isolates. In vivo pathogenicity tests have been the standard protocol for some time, but molecular methods appear preferable in terms of the rapidity of diagnosis, as well as animal welfare concerns. In this study, we have designed primer sets from HN gene for phylogenetic analysis and restriction enzyme analysis, and from F gene for pathotype-specific RT-PCR. Via the combination of 2 methods, 106 Korean NDV isolates obtained from 1980 to 2005 were differentiated into vaccine strains, and virulent genotypes VI and VII. The genotype VI viruses were only rarely isolated after 1999, and genotype VII, after it was initially isolated from poultry in 1995, recurred in 2000, and then became the main NDV constituting a threat to the Korean poultry industry.

Studies on Histological Changes of Bursa of Fabricius in Chicken Treated with Thyroxine II. Effect of Thyroxine on Antibody Production (갑상선(甲狀腺) 호르몬이 닭의 Fabricius낭(囊)에 미치는 조직학적변화(組織學的變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) II. 갑상선(甲狀腺) 호르몬이 항체산생(抗體産生)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Soon Bok;Lee, Cha Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 1980
  • The effects of thyroxine (TX) or propylthiouracil (PPT) administration on the antibody forming activity agains t sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were studied by using of hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition techniques. Antibody titers to both SRBC and NDV increased significantly in the TX-treated group, whereas decreased in the PPT-treated group, compared with control. When TX was administered after antigen inoculatioon, antibody forming activity was significantly enhanced, compared with the TX administration before antigen inoculation.

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수의학강좌 II: 최신 양계 호흡기 질병 동향 및 대처방안

  • Song, Chang-Seon
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.726-735
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    • 2010
  • 전염성기관지염 바이러스(infectious bronchitis virus: IBV), 조류 뉴모 바이러스(Avian pneumovirus: APV), 뉴캣슬병 바이러스 (Newcastle disease virus: NDV), 조류인플루엔자 바이러스(avian influenza virus: AIV) 전염성 후두기관염 바이러스 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus: ILTV)는 닭의 호흡기에 직접 감염하여 호흡기질환을 일으키는 대표적인 바이러스로 알려져 있다. 그 밖에 아데노바이러스(adenovirus)와 레오바이러스 (reovirus)도 닭의 상부호흡기에 침투하여 피해를 입히는 이차적 원인체로 작용할 수 있다. 이들중 APV와 ILTV는 닭의 호흡기도에 국한되어 증식하지만 IBV, NDV, AIV의 경우 호흡기도 이외의 장기에서 증식이 가능하여 그 피해가 다양하게 나타나 문제 시 되기도 한다 (예: 산란장기 및 신장 (IBV), 소화기 (NDV, IBV, AIV), 중추신경계 (NDV, AIV)). 이외에도 상당수의 감염성 질환이 닭의 호흡기에 영향을 미칠 수 있으나, 해당 농장의 호흡기 피해가 어떤 질병에 의한 것인지 명확히 파악하지 못한 채 단순 항생제 처방에만 의지하는 경우가 많은 것이 현실이다. 따라서 국내 양계농가에서 문제시되는 주요 호흡기 질병과 이들의 감수성을 증대시키는 요인을 파악하는 것이 필요하고, 호흡기 질병의 피해에 대한 재인식과 아울러 호흡기 질병 피해 감소를 위한 진단과 예방노력이 하루속히 정착되어야 할 것이다. 본지에서는 대표적인 호흡기 질병 세가지(전염성기관지염, 조류뉴모바이러스감염증, 뉴캣슬병)의 최근 발생동향과 그 대처방안에 대하여 소개하고자 한다.

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