• Title/Summary/Keyword: Newcastle disease virus (NDV)

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Molecular Biological Characterization of the First Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated in Mongolia (몽골에서 최초로 분리된 뉴캣슬병 바이러스의 분자생물학적 특성)

  • Choi, Kang-Seuk;Lee, Eun-Kyoung;Jeon, Woo-Jin;Batchuulon, D.;Sodnomdarjaa, R.;Park, Mi-Ja;Yoo, Ye-Nah;Kwon, Jun-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2011
  • The outbreak of Newcastle disease occurred for the first time at a commercial chicken farm near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in August 2010. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) obtained from infected chickens in Mongolia was characterized by biological and molecular biological approches. Mongolian NDV isolate killed all of chicken embryos within 60 h in the mean death time assay, indicating virulent for chicken. A genomic region of 695 nts between nts 1055 of the M gene and 508 of the F gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site was $^{112}RRQKRF^{117}$, which is a typical sequence of velogenic strains of NDV and is agreement with the result of the MDT assay. The sequence of the partial F gene (nts 47 to 435) was used for genotyping by phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Mongolian isolate was of genotype VII within class II of NDV. Further phylogenetic analysis on the genotype VII strains revealed that the isolates placed in a genetic sublineage of VIId and most closely related with velogenic strains of NDV circulating in Far-east Asian region especially China, suggesting the introduction of velogenic NDV into Mongolia from neighboring countries.

Biological Properties of Vero Cell-Adapted Newcastle Disease Virus (Vero 세포적응 뉴캣슬병 바이러스의 생물학적 특성)

  • Choi, Kang-Seuk;Park, Mi-Ja;Kye, Soo-Jeong;Kim, Ji-Ye;Kwon, Jun-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2012
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Kr005/V strain was generated through 55 serial passages of NDV Kr005 strain in Vero cells. The Kr005/V virus yielded high infective titers of $10^{7.8}$ $TCID_{50}/mL$ in Vero cells and the infected cells showed cytopathic effects such as marked cell rounding, though less frequent syncytia. The Kr005/V virus was heat-stable and classified into the lentogenic type with a Mean Death Time (MDT) of 120h or greater while the Kr005 strain was heat-labile and velogenic (MDT of 49.6 h). Only the single amino acid substitution (T to S) was observed at position 433 of the HN protein of the Kr005/V strain, whereas no amino acid change was found in the F protein. The Kr005/V input virus correlated well (correlation coefficient $r^2$=0.97) with the Kr005 virus when ten field sera were tested by virus neutralization test. The biological properties and usefulness of Vero cell-adapted Kr005/V virus were discussed.

Toxicity of lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) in chicks and its immunoadjuvant activity on Newcastle disease virus vaccines (한국산 겨우살이(Viscum album coloratum)로부터 추출된 lectin의 닭에 대한 독성 및 뉴캐슬병 백신의 특이면역 증강 효과)

  • Yeo, Sang-Geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.215-224
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    • 2006
  • In order to search the availability of the lectin extracted from Korean mistletoe(Viscum album coloratum) as an adjuvant for the avian vaccines, attempts were made to determine toxicity of the lectin in chicks and its immunostimulating activity on the inactivated vaccines against Newcastle disease virus(NDV). For the determination of toxicity, the lectin was injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks(Charles River) of 1-week-old and observed hematologically and pathologically. For the determination of immunostimulating effects, lectin-adjuvanted, inactivated NDV vaccines were injected into the thigh muscle of SPF chicks in the same age group. Sera of the chicks were examined for the hemagglutination-inhibition(HI) antibodies induced, their HI titers and reaction to the NDV antigens. The data were further compared with those from aluminum hydroxide [$Al(OH)_3$]-adjuvanted vaccines and vaccines without adjuvant, and the results are as follows. There were no significant changes observed in the values of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total proteins in the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, which means the lectin has no effects on blood values and functions of liver and kidney. In histopathologic observation, no lesions were observed in the brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of the chicks administered with lectin of 1.1, 2.2 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight. There were inflammatory lesions, such as congestion, hemorrhage, edema, infiltration of macrophages and coagulation necrosis observed in the thigh muscle of chicks administered with lectin of $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ body weight, whereas no changes were observed in 1.1 and $22.2{\mu}g/kg$ lectin administered chicks. In chicks immunized with lectin($4.4{\mu}g/kg$ of body weight)-adjuvanted B1, LaSota and Ulster 2C vaccines, HI titers in reciprocal values for $log_2$ were 1.8-2.2 at 1 week after vaccination, which was similar with those of 1.5-2.9 by $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to 3.9-5.3 at 4 weeks, whereas those by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines were more high as 7.3-9.3. Meanwhile, the immunostimulating effects of the lectin were recognized while compared to the HI titers with 2.4-3.7 in chicks immunized with vaccines without adjuvants at 4 weeks after vaccination. The chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines were enough to resist challenges by Kyojeongwon strain, a very virulent NDV at 4 weeks after vaccination as well as chicks immunized with $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines. The HI titers by the lectin-adjuvanted vaccines reached to high level as 8.7-10.3 as those with 8.2-9.6 by the $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines at 6 weeks after vaccination, which may be the booster effects by the challenge virus. Antibodies specific to the HN and F antigens of NDV were observed in the sera of both chicks immunized with lectin-adjuvanted vaccines and $Al(OH)_3$-adjuvanted vaccines.

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding hemagglutinin-neuraminidase(HN) of Newcastle disease virus isolated from a diseased pheasant in Korea (국내 사육 꿩에서 분리된 뉴켓슬병 바이러스의 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase(HN) 유전자의 클론닝과 염기서열 분석)

  • 장경수;곽길한;장승익;김지영;김태용;송영환;송희종;전무형
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.245-257
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    • 2002
  • The gene encoding the HN protein from the CBP-1 strain, a heat stable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from diseased pheasants in Korea, was characterized by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analyzed following cloning of the HN gene. In all of the NDV strains studied, a 1.75 kb size cDNA fragment for the HN gene was generated by RT-PCR and smaller specific band sizes harboring the internal portions of the HN gene were also detected by using four pairs of primers. The RT-PCR was sensitive enough to detect viral transcripts when the virus titer was above 25 hemagglutination units. The amplified 1.75 kb cDNA was cloned into a BamHI site of the pVL1393 Baculo transfer vector. The nucleotide sequences of the 1,758 bp HN gene from the CBP-1 strain were determined by the dye terminator cyclic sequencing method. The gene sequences were compared among the strains of CBP-1, Texas GB, Beaudette C, LaSota, B1 and Ulster. The homology of the CBP-1 HN gene to other HN variants was 97.8% to Texas GB, 98.4% to Beaudette C, 95.4% to LaSota, 95.6% to B1 and 90.2% to Ulster. As the deduced 577 amino acid sequences were compared among the strains, the homology for CBP-1 HN appeared to be 96.7% to Texas GB, 97.9% to Beaudette C, 95.5% to LaSota, 95.5% to B1 and 92.7% to Ulster. It was evident that the amino acid sequences included 5 sites for N-asparagine linked glycosylation and 12 cysteine residues. The three conserved leucine residues within the predicted transmembrane domain of the HN protein are amino acid 30, 37 and 44. The three antigenic sites on the HN protein of NDV are amino acids 347(Glu), 481(Asn) and 495(Glu). These data indicate that the genotype of the CBP-1 strain is more closely associated with the strains of Texas GB and Beaudette C than it is for the LaSota, B1 and Ulster strains.

Molecular epidemiological analysis of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease viruses

  • Lee, Youn-Jeong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2005
  • The study, using sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of the fusion protein gene, divided the Korean epizootic isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into several lineages to determine the molecular epidemiology of the virus. A 695 base pair fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction between matrix protein gene and fusion protein gene of 30 Korean NDV isolates, which were isolated from field outbreaks of Newcastle disease between 1949 and 2002. All isolates showed the amino acid sequence 112 R-R-Q/R-K-R116 at the C-terminus of the F2 protein and phenylalanine (F) at the N-terminus of the F1 protein, residue 117. These amino acid sequences were identical to a known virulent motif. The region of the F gene between nucleotides 47 and 435 was compared by phylogenetic analysis. Based on nucleotide sequence, the Korean NDV isolates belonged to genotype III, V, VI and VII corresponding to isolates in 1949, 1982 to 1984, 1988 to 1997, and 1995 to 2002, respectively. These data showed that genotypes of five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics had replaced each other serially (III, V, VI and VII) in chronological order. Further, the five Korean Newcastle disease epizootics were closely related with the Necastle disease panzootics or Newcastle disease epizootics in other countries. Present study showed that the Korean genotype V isolated before 1984 was related with European Newcastle disease epizootics in the 1970s, whereas the Korean genotype VI and VII isolated after 1988 were more closely related with Far East Newcastle disease epizootics, especially Newcastle disease3 epizootics in Japan, Taiwan and China. Since 1988, the genotype VI and VII of Far East origin were dominant in South Korea. That might be due to the increased trade of agricultural products including poultry among Far East Asian countries.

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Effects of Dietary Taurine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Constituents and Antibody Production of Broilers

  • Lee, Der-Nan;Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang;Chuang, Yu-Shuan;Shive, Jiing-Lin;Lian, Yuh-Ming;Wei, Hen-Wei;Weng, Ching-Feng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2004
  • Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of taurine (Tau) supplements on broiler growth performance, serum constituents and antibody production. In Exp. 1, 3 day old chicks received a basal diet supplemented with Tau at 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 or 0.40% for 6 weeks. Although dietary Tau supplementing at 0.30 or 0.40% enhanced feed conversion and reduced feed consumption during 0 to 3 weeks (p<0.05), neither serum total cholesterol or anti-Newcastle disease virus (NDV) titer were affected. In Exp. 2, dietary Tau supplement at 0.25-0.75% enhanced feed conversion of broilers during 0 to 3 weeks, but daily gain and feed consumption were not affected. The 0.75% Tau supplement group displayed lower serum total cholesterol at 6 weeks (p<0.05) comparing with the control group but no difference in anti-NDV titers. In Exp. 3, broilers were treated with dietary Tau of 0 or 0.50% combined with low (0/0%), medium (0.18/0.08%), or high (0.36/0.16%) methionine (Met) levels for 6 weeks (0 to 3/3 to 6 weeks). The addition of Met significantly improved daily gain and feed conversion of broilers during 0 to 3 weeks (p<0.01). Dietary Tau interacted significantly with Met on daily gain and feed consumption. Broiler serum amino acids revealed that Met supplements only increased serum Met level, but only serum Tau level was enhanced as given dietary Tau supplementation. The broilers receiving Tau normalized serum triglycerides level by feeding with the low Met diet and tended to display higher anti-NDV titers (p<0.10). The experimental results suggest that the growth response obtained by Tau supplements results partly from interactions with sulfur amino acids. However, the modulation of the broiler lipid metabolism may be responsible for dietary Tau.

Virulence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Isolates for Embryonated SPF Eggs and Broilers (국내에서 분리한 Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale 균의 종란과 육계에서의 병원성)

  • Kwon, Yong-Kuk;Jeon, Woo-Jin;Kang, Min-Soo;Oh, Jae-Young;An, Byung-Ki;Song, Eun-A;Kwon, Jun-Hun;Lee, Cheong-San;Kim, Jae-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2010
  • Field strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (OR) were tested on their virulence in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs and 3-week-old broilers. When infected with three different OR isolates (OR-161, OR-240 and OR-295) through yolk sac infection route, all strains appeared to be highly pathogenic with responsible mortality 66% and 100% within 12 days post infection (DPI). To test the virulence of OR in the commercial broilers, 3 week-old broilers were grouped depends on the inoculation route of OR isolate (OR-295) through five different infection routes; group 1 (IT: intratracheal), group 2 (IM: intramuscular), group 3 (IV: intravenous), group 4 (aerosol) and group 5 [Mixed: NDV (LaSota)+OR aerosol]. Within 5 to 7 days after inoculation, only broilers given NDV+OR were slightly depressed and coughing, and had mild facial redness. Grossly, foamy and yellow-white yogurt like exudate in the air sacs, predominantly in the abdominal air sacs was present. In histology, infiltration of the air sac epithelium and lamina propria by macrophage and polymorphonuclear granulocytes was seen with cell debris and inflammatory cells, correlated with the presence of OR antigen, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Field strains of OR were able to induce high mortality in the embryonated chicken eggs, whereas broilers were less susceptible to OR infection. Interestingly, in the absence of NDV infection, the four groups of OR single infection only different route showed minimal and temporary microscopic air sac lesions. Thus, Newcastle disease virus (LaSota strain) showed triggering effects on the OR infection in chickens.

Seroprevalance of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild Birds in Korea (국내 야생 조류에서의 뉴캣슬병 바이러스 항체분포율 조사)

  • Choi, Kang-Seuk;Jeon, Woo-Jin;Kye, Soo-Jeong;Yoon, Soon-Seek;Jeong, Woo-Seog;Kim, Ji-Ye;Kwon, Jun-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2012
  • Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infects a variety of birds with a wide range of clinical signs from asymptomatic to severe. During a 10-month period in 2011, a total of 1,024 sera from wild birds including 42 species of birds in 8 orders were collected and the seroprevalence of NDV in wild birds was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Evidence of NDV infection was observed in 12.6% (129/1,024) of wild birds with a maximum prevalence reported in Mandarin duck (27.8%, 32/115) followed by Mallard duck (20.8%, 57/274), Spot-billed duck (11.9%, 36/303), Pintail (2.9%, 1/34), Black-tailed gull (2.9%, 1/34), White-fronted goose (1.8%, 1/56) and Common teal (1.4%, 1/69). None of the other 35 species of wild birds were antibody-positive for NDV. Mandarin duck, Mallard duck and Spot-billed duck showed high sero-prevalance of 12.2% to 42% during winter season (November to March). Our results indicate that Mandarin duck, Mallard duck and Spot-billed duck might be natural reservoirs for NDV in Korea and the prevalence of NDV infection in wild birds displayed a seasonal pattern with high prevalence of NDV in winter season (November to March).

Evaluation of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Virus Detection Kit using Field Samples from Domestic and Semi-domestic Birds (닭과 야생사육조류로부터 야외샘플을 사용한 조류인플루엔자와 뉴캣슬병 바이러스 검출 키트의 평가)

  • Rahman, Md. Siddiqur;Malek, Md. Abdul;Islam, Md. Alimul;Uddin, Muhamad Jasim;Ahasan, Md. Shamim;Chakrabartty, Amitavo;Sakib, Md. N.;Chae, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 2012
  • The study was undertaken to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of rapid Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) combo antigen kits from field samples of domestic (broiler and layer chicken, native chicken) and semi-domestic (duck, goose, pigeon and quail) birds of Bangladesh. Samples were collected from naturally infected AI suspected domestic and semi-domestic birds of five different outbreak areas in Bangladesh. From each area two birds were selected for sampling, and from each bird three types of samples (tracheal, cloacal and oro-nasal swabs) were collected. A total of 210 field samples from a total of 70 birds were collected and tested using AI and NDV combo antigen rapid diagnostic kits in the study. All three different samples from a bird showed similar pattern of reaction. Out of 210 samples, 15 samples (5 birds), 63 samples (21 birds) and 27 samples (9 birds) were positive for AIV, NDV and both for AIV and NDV, respectively; whereas the remaining birds were negative for either AIV or NDV in this screening test. Among the five AIV positive, a layer chicken from wet market in Mymensingh, Netrokona, Gibandha and Kurigram and a native chicken from wet market in Kurigram area was positive to AIV. The semi-domestic birds are either positive to NDV or free from both AIV and NDV. This study revealed that the AIV and NDV rapid diagnostic kits could be effectively use to diagnose the respective virus in trachea, oro-nasal and cloacal samples simultaneously. AIV-NDV combo Ag test result clearly indicates that the test kit designed for AIV and NDV could diagnose the disease rapidly with less effort and higher scientific know how which could be used for the detection of AIV and NDV using field samples in large scale.

Depression of Immune Response by Newcastle Disease Virus Infection (Newcastle병(病) 바이러스감염(感染)에 의(依)한 면역반응억제(免疫反應抑制))

  • Kim, Hwan-Jong;Ha, Tai-You
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 1979
  • The immunosuppressive activity of newcastle disease virus(NDV) and some possible role of interferon(C-IF) in viral suppression of immune response were evaluated by SRBC-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity(DTH), rosette formation in spleen cells, number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hemagglutinin and hemolysin response to SRBC in ICR mice sensitized with SRBC. When NDV was inoculated before or after sensitization of mouse with SRBC, virus caused a marked inhibition of DTH, and its depressive effect was dependent on the time of virus inoculation in relation to SRBC sensitization or challenge. Rosette formation of spleen cells was significantly reduced by NDV infection. The degree of the depression of rosette formation was more prominent in mice inoculated before sensitization than after sensitization and could be related to the amount of serum interferon induced by the virus. Humoral response to SRBC of virus infected mouse was significantly depressed when NDV was inoculated 24 or 48 hours before sensitization. However, there was no difference in the response when the virus was inoculated 9 hour before and at the same time of sensitization or even after that. Lymphocytes in peripheral blood of mice were markedly diminished in numbers when NDV was inoculated 48 and 24 hour before sensitization with SRBC, but they were slightly augmented when the virus was inoculated 9 hour before and at the same time of sensitization. When UV-inactivated or heat-inactivated NDV was injected to the mouse at the same time of sensitization with SRBC, DTH and rosette formation of spleen cells were slightly depressed. DTH and rosette formation in mice treated with crude-IF were generally depressed as com pared with those of control mice. These studies suggest that the NDV causes a significant depression of cell-mediated immunity, whereas the humoral immune response is not inhibited markedly, and that the depression of immune response by NDV infection may be caused by interferon produced by NDV and direct viral activity.

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