• Title, Summary, Keyword: Organic Nutrient

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Influence of Continuous Organic Amendments on Growth and Productivity of Red Pepper and Soil Properties

  • Seo, Young-Ho;Kim, Se-Won;Choi, Seung-Chul;Jeong, Byeong-Chan;Jung, Yeong-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2012
  • Organic farming has rapidly increased in Gangwon province, but there is a concern about nutrient accumulation and nutrient imbalance in the soil of organic farming. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of continuous application of organic amendments on growth and yield of red pepper and soil characteristics compared with chemical fertilizers application for four years. Treatments of organic amendments including oil cake, rice straw compost, amino acid compost, rice bran compost, and mushroom media (spent substrate) compost resulted in comparable growth and yield of pepper to chemical fertilizers. Organic amendments improved soil physical and chemical characteristics. Especially, rice bran compost and oil cake significantly increased soil organic matter compared with chemical fertilizer application and mushroom media compost and rice straw compost significantly improved soil aggregate stability. On the other hand, available phosphate level in the soil amended with rice bran compost or mushroom media compost was relatively high compared with the other treatments due to relatively high phosphate levels in the composts. It is not easy to adjust nutrient composition in the organic materials. Therefore, the results obtained from the study imply that nutrient imbalance needs to be carefully considered in organic farming without use of chemical fertilizers.

Studies on Change of Organic Farming in Korea from ($1907{\sim}2007$) (한국 유기농업 100년($1907{\sim}2007$)의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-Won;Yun, Jin-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.399-411
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    • 2007
  • Korean organic farming has been well developed over the last two decades. It demonstrates that the number of certificated farm for organic agriculture and products have been drastically increased in recent year. However, the organic farmers have thought that organic farming rely only on organic fertilizer and they don't keep organic farming principle in which organic farmer should enhance biological activity and crop rotation. This study was to compare nutrient input, recommendation, cropping system and organic product circulation between the early $20^{th}$ century and beginning of the $21^{st}$ century. The population of Korea has increased 7.3 times more than that of a century ago but cultivated land has been decreased during 100 years. The rice production in 2002 was 4.2 times higher than that of production in 1912. The input of N, P and K in 1907 on the basis of King's suggestion was 95.6kg/ha, 15.9kg/ha and 3.0kg/ha, respectively. Nitrogen came from excreta (40%), green manure (55%) and compost (5%) in the early 20th century. On the other hand, organic farmer input organic resources such as wood chip (30.1%), compost (27.8%), rice straw (14%) and others (25%) these days. In terms of nutrient balance calculated nutrient and absorption by plants, organic rice farmer apply excessive nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil. They was used to put $7{\sim}10$ times more nitrogen than that of a century ago. Nutrient recommendation was similar in N and P between early 20th century and early $21^{st}$ century. Farmers in both century did not rotate crops in the field. Today, organic farmers engaged in more continuous cultivation than in early 20th century. Farmers in the early $20^{th}$ century produced locally, consumed locally the agricultural products, but organic farmers in the $21^{st}$ century produce the organic product in the local farmland and consumed in the large city and also a lot of foreign organic products have been imported in recent year.

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Estimation of N Mineralization Potential and N Mineralization Rate of Organic Amendments in Upland Soil

  • Shin, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.751-760
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    • 2015
  • Management of renewable organic resources is important in attaining the sustainability of agricultural production. However, nutrient management with organic resources is more complex than fertilization with chemical fertilizer because the composition of the organic input or the environmental condition will influence organic matter decomposition and nutrient release. One of the most effective methods for estimating nutrient release from organic amendment is the use of N mineralization models. The present study aimed at parameterizing N mineralization models for a number of organic amendments being used as a nutrient source for crop production. Laboratory incubation experiment was conducted in aerobic condition. N mineralization was investigated for nineteen organic amendments in sandy soil and clay soil at $20^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, and $30^{\circ}C$. N mineralization was facilitated at higher temperature condition. Negative correlation was observed between mineralized N and C:N ratio of organic amendments. N mineralization process was slower in clay soil than in sandy soil and this was mainly due to the delayed nitrification. The single and the double exponential models were used to estimate N mineralization of the organic amendments. N mineralization potential $N_p$ and mineralization rate k were estimated in different temperature and soil conditions. Estimated $N_p$ ranged from 28.8 to 228.1 and k from 0.0066 to 0.6932. The double exponential model showed better prediction of N mineralization compared with the single exponential model, particularly for organic amendments with high C:N ratio. It is expected that the model parameters estimated based on the incubation experiment could be used to design nutrient management planning in environment-friendly agriculture.

Effects of Organic Apple Production Systems on Foliar Macronutrient Concentrations

  • Choi, H.S.;Rom, C.;Lee, Y.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.165-168
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    • 2011
  • An organic apple (Malus ${\times}$ domestics Borkh.) orchard was established to study the interaction effects of ground cover management systems (GMS) and nutrient sources (NS) on soil and tree nutrient status and tree growth. Trees received one of four GMS: 1) green compost (GC), 2) wood chips (WC), 3) shredded paper (SP), and 4) mow-and-blow (MB). Across all GMS, one of three NS was applied: A) a commercial organic fertilizer (CF), B) poultry litter (PL), and C) control (NF). Overall, GMS had greater effects on the variables than did NS. GC mulch supplied greater nutrients, followed by WC, SP, and MB mulches. SP trees had lower foliar [N] in the first two years than the GC and WC trees. GC-and WC-treated trees had larger trunk cross sectional area than the SP and MB trees.

Alternative Nutrient Cycles for Terrestrial Plants, Positive Feedbacks through Detrital Processes, and Nutrient Use Efficiency (육상식물 중심의 영양소 순환 경로와 부식과정에 의한 양성 되먹임과정, 그리고 영양소 이용효율)

  • Lee, Dowon;Thomas P. Burns
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.115-131
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    • 1993
  • Six nutrient cycles involving terrestrial plants are identified and characterized. Plants affect biotic and abiotic cycles through their effects on soil properties. They determine their internal nutritional status and nutrient concentrations in their environment via internal and external cycles. Contributions of organic matter to mycorrhizal, trophic, and detrital mediated external cycles and alterations of nutrient concentrations by plants can promote positive feedbacks leading to increased availability and retention of soil nutrients in open systems. Recognizing alternative cycles through plants leads to a definition of nutrient use efficiency for ecosystems: the ratio of system production to nutrient content of organic matter. A simple graph model to predict changes of nutrient use efficiency during primary succession is then presented.

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Assessment of Energy Efficiency and Nutrient Balance in Organic Rice Farming Area (벼유기농업단지 에너지효율 및 양분수지 평가)

  • Gil, Geun-Hwan;Kang, Jong-Gook;Lee, Kyung-Do;Lee, Jang-Hee;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Kim, Jae-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2008
  • Energy efficiency and nutrient balance are good methods for environmental assessment of the environmentally-friendly agriculture. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate the energy efficiency and nutrient balance of the organic rice farming, and 2) to suggest a solution to improvement the energy efficiency and nutrient balance. The set of estimation was performed at the organic rice farming area (8.9 ha) in Wanju-gun during the paddy cultivation period from 2006 to 2007. The organic farming complex consists of four weeding methods using 1) duck, 2) apple snail, 3) duck and apple snail and 4) hands and machinery. Results from this estimation should that the organic rice farming area was less efficient than conventional rice farming. The efficiency of organic farming area in 2006 was higher than in 2007. For the calculation of the nutrient balance, the N, P and K contents of input materials (cattle manure, milk vetch, mixed oilcake, rice bran, rice straw and barley straw) and output (farm products) were analysed. Annual environmental loads of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ were estimated at 4.4 kg/10a, 13.8 kg/10a and 14.5 kg/10a, respectively. Cattle manure had the largest portion among the inputs items and nutrient concentration of cattle manure was high. Thus energy efficiency and nutrient balance depend on cattle manure input. Therefore it is necessary to control the manure input to improve the efficiency of organic rice farming.

Physico-chemical properties between organic and conventional kiwifruit orchards in Korea

  • Cho, Y.;Kim, B.;Cho, H.;Jeong, B.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.242-246
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    • 2011
  • Organic kiwifruit orchard soils were compared with conventional ones in Korea. Soil structure of organic soil had higher gaseous and liquous phase as well as soil porosity in the surface soil. Although the nutritional level of each orchards were quite different among soils, the analysis of both system revealed that organic kiwifruit orchard soil had similar or even higher nutrient level (N and organic matter content in surface soil) compared to conventional ones. The organic matter content of deep soil also had the high tendency in deep soil of organic soil. Higher level of nitrogen in organic surface soil is presumably due to the excessive application of organic compost and liquid fertilizer rather than the contribution by grasses such as green manure. Available phosphorous level of organic system was quite high but similar in surface soil of both system, compared to the recommended level. Potassium, calcium and magnesium levels were also enough in organic kiwifruit orchard soils.

Sustenance and Enhancement of Soil Fertility for Organic Farming by Legumes and Green Manure (두과.녹비작물 재배를 통한 유기농법 토양비옥도의 유지와 증진)

  • 장경란;손상목
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.97-110
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    • 2000
  • An organic agriculture should be managed by mixed farming in farm unit as a closed recycling system. Due to restricted purchased of fertilizers from outside, organic farmer has to deal with limited amount of nutrient source in farm unit. Especially the supply of the essential nutrient, nitrogen, mostly depends on legumes fixing nitrogen optimizing the site-adapted crop rotation. Dynamics of humus and metabolic plant carbon and active soil carbon compartment in active and passive humuspool by rotation system was explained, and dynamics of potentially mineralizable nitrogen in organic nitrogen and biomass was discussed. It was also discussed comparison of ammonia emission, potential greenhouse effect, primary energy input, acidification potential, CO2 emission between organic and conventional farming, the nitrate-nitrogen dynamic in the soil profile by organic, integrated and conventional farming system. In conclusion, it was suggested for Korean Organic Agriculture that the importance of legumes and green manures in rotation system for increase/maintenance of soil ferfility, and was pointed out the need of investment for environment impact of Korean organic farming implement.

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Effects of Organic Materials on Changes in Soil Nutrient Concentrations and Nutrient Uptake Efficiency in Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) (유기자재 처리가 토양의 양분동태 변화와 수수$^*$수단그라스의 양분이용 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Youn;Choi, Hyun-Sug;Lee, Sang-Min;Jung, Jung-Ah;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate soil nutrient concentrations and fertilizer recovery of sorghum- sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as affected by organic nutrient sources. The treatments included livestock compost, alfalfa hay, oilcake, and chemical fertilizer. Nutrient applications were made at the rates equivalent to approximately 210 kg N per hectare. The oilcake and alfalfa materials had the lowest C : N ratio, but the livestock compost had the highest C:N ratio such as 33.7 : 1. The livestock compost resulted in the highest input to ground surface, which increased nutrient concentrations in soil. The oilcake and alfalfa materials with low C : N ratios increased N-mineralization rate in soil compared to livestock. The N uptake efficiency in plants treated by alfalfa or oilcake was approximately 60% of those treated with chemical fertilizer; but those with livestock compost had N uptake efficiency lower than 20%. The $P_2O_5$ uptake efficiency was the highest in the plants treated with the alfalfa hay, but the lowest in those with livestock compost. Recommendation of organic material selection should consider C:N ratio of the raw materials based on the individual crop requirement.

A Study on the Development of Regional Livestock Industry Based on Sustainable Agriculture in Korea (친환경농업을 위한 지역축산발전 방향에 관한 연구)

  • Sim, Jae-Chun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.339-355
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    • 2005
  • Nutrient balance is important to develop environmentally friendly agriculture. Phosphorus surplus in nutrient balance was more serious than that of nitrogen. Nitrogen and phosphorus exceeded twice the requirement at 30 cities/counties and 32 among 165, respectively. Given livestock waste and optimal nutrient balance, the proper number of animal feeding was 1.68LU/ha. Considering livestock waste only, the optimal number of livestock feeding was 3,918,000LU (heads) and, including fertilizer that would be 2,288,000LU. It is recommended to introduce the regional control system to regulate nutrient input and output, and the trading system of livestock feeding rights to control that.

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