• Title/Summary/Keyword: Output

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Determination of output factors by 1D method for 6MeV electron (1D 방법에 의한 6MeV 전자선의 output 인자 결정)

  • 유명진
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2002
  • Output factors for 6MeV electron were directly measured under the condition of an individual beam cutout and these factors were compared with the output factors by 1D method which is an easy means to predict the output factors of electron beam. Output factors by 1D method are defined as output factors of rectangular fields where one side is always equal to the side of the square reference field and the output of an arbitrary rectangular field X, Y is given by the product of the 1D output factors. The output of very large square fields is overestimated using 1D method for the 6MeV electron, but it results in agreement with measured data under the condition of an individual cutout within 1% error adopting a correction factor $CF=C\times$[(X-10)(Y-10)/$\mid$(X-10)(Y-10)$\mid^{1/2}]$.

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Optimal Output-feedback Control for Discrete-time Linear System with Time-delayed Output (이산시간 선형 시스템의 출력 시간지연을 이용한 최적 출력제어)

  • Jung, Chul-Hwan;Ham, Chang-Shik
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • 1988.07a
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    • pp.909-912
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    • 1988
  • This paper proposed the new control law which is defined by instantaneous output and time delayed output. To analyze the system with time delayed output, the way which transforms output time delayed systems into instantaneous output systems is presented. The output responses were more improved by the new control law then that of the instantaneous output control law. The algorithm for simulation and a numerical example are presented.

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GLOBAL ASYMPTOTIC OUTPUT TRACKING FOR A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

  • Alimhan, Keylan;Inaba, Hiroshi
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2005.06a
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    • pp.557-560
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    • 2005
  • This paper considers a global asymptotic output tracking problem with a prescribed constant reference signal for a class of single-input and single output-output nonlinear systems. It is shown that under some mild conditions on such a system there is a smooth output feedback achieving global asymptotic output tracking and such a smooth output controller is explicitly constructed by a new design method proposed. The usefulness of our result is illustrated by a numerical example.

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Mismatching Problem between Generic Pole-assignabilities by Static Output Feedback and Dynamic Output Feedback in Linear Systems

  • Kim Su-Wood
    • International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.56-69
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, it is clearly shown that the two well-known necessary and sufficient conditions mp n as generic static output feedback pole-assignment and mp + d(m+p) n+d as generic minimum d-th order dynamic output feedback pole-assignment on complex field, unbelievably, do not match up each other in strictly proper linear systems. For the analysis, a diagram analysis is newly created (which is defined by the analysis of 'convoluted rectangular/dot diagrams' constructed via node-branch conversion of the signal flow graphs of output feedback gain loops). Under this diagram analysis, it is proved that the minimum d-th order dynamic output feedback compensator for pole-assignment in m-input, p-output, n-th order systems is quantitatively decomposed into static output feedback compensator and its associated d number of arbitrary 1st order dynamic elements in augmented (m+d)-input, (p+d)-output, (n+d)-th order systems. Total configuration of the mismatched data is presented in a Table.

Output regulation of nonlinear sampled-data systems (비선형 샘플치 시스템의 출력조절)

  • 정선태
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 1996.10b
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    • pp.391-394
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    • 1996
  • The effects of time-sampling on nonlinear output regulation problem is investigated. Output regulatedness is preserved under time sampling as in linear systems, however output regulatability is not robust with respect to time-sampling, and thus one needs to seek an approximate nonlinear sampled-data output regulator.

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A Study on Output Voltage Stabilization of 20W Class Multi-output QR Flyback Converter for Auxiliary Power (20W급 보조전원용 다출력 QR 플라이백 컨버터의 출력전압 안정화에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Jeong Sang;Gil, Yong Man;Kim, Hyun Bae;Ahn, Tae Young
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.157-160
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, a 20W class multi-output QR flyback converter for auxiliary power supply was designed to stabilize 4 output voltages, and the efficiency and load characteristics were compared and analyzed. It was checked if each output affects other output characteristics through experiment. As a result, the experimental circuit reached a high efficiency of 82.5% or more at a load power of over 20W, and the maximum power loss was 2.6W. Consequently, it was confirmed that all of 4 output voltages of the multi-output QR flyback converter constructed in this paper were stabilized within 0.5% in full-load range, and each output was independently controlled in an electrically isolated state.

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Operation Scheme to Regulate the Active Power Output and to Improve the Forecasting of Output Range in Wind Turbine and Fuel-Cell Hybrid System (출력변동 저감 및 출력범위 예측 향상을 위한 풍력-연료전지 하이브리드 시스템의 운영방법)

  • Kim, Yun-Seong;Moon, Dae-Seong;Won, Dong-Jun
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.531-538
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    • 2009
  • The paper deals with an operation scheme to improve the forecasting of output range and to regulate the active power output of the hybrid system consisting of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and a fuel-cell. The power output of the wind turbine fluctuates as the wind speed varies and the slip power between the rotor circuit and power converter varies as the rotor speed change. The power fluctuation of a DFIG makes its operation difficult when a DFIG is connected to grid. A fuel cell system can be individually operated and adjusted output power, hence the wind turbine and fuel cell hybrid system can overcome power fluctuation by using a fuel-cell power control. In this paper, a fuel-cell is performed to regulate the active power output in comparison with the regulated active power output of a DFIG. And it also improves the forecasting of output range. Based on PSCAD/EMTDC tools, a DFIG and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC) is simulated and the dynamics of the output power in hybrid system are investigated.

Characteristics of Output Voltage and Input Current of Quasi Z-Source Converter with a Diode-Capacitor Output Filter (다이오드-커패시터 출력필터를 갖는 Quasi Z-소스 컨버터의 입력 전류와 출력전압 특성)

  • Lim, Young-Cheol;Kim, Se-Jin;Jung, Young-Gook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.16-28
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    • 2012
  • This paper proposes a quasi Z-source converter(QZSC) with a diode-capacitor output filter to improve the output DC voltage boost ability. The proposed converter has the same quasi Z-source network topology compared with the conventional converter. But the proposed method is adopted a diode-capacitor filter as its output filter, since the conventional method is used an inductor-capacitor as its output filter. Under the condition of the same input-output DC voltage, the proposed method has more lower shoot-through duty ratio than the conventional method. Also, because the proposed converter has same voltage boost factor under lower shoot-through duty ratio compared with the conventional converter, the proposed converter can be operated with the lower capacitor voltage of Z-source network and the lower input current. To confirm the validity of the proposed method, PSIM simulation and a DSP based experiment were performed to acquire the output DC voltage 120[V] under the input DC voltage 80[V]. And the capacitor voltage and inductor current in Z-source network, the output voltage of each converter were compared and discussed.

A Single-Phase Embedded Z-Source DC-AC Inverter by Asymmetric Voltage Control (비대칭 전압 제어를 이용한 단상 임베디드 Z-소스 DC-AC 인버터)

  • Oh, Seung-Yeol;Kim, Se-Jin;Jung, Young-Gook;Lim, Young-Cheol
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.306-314
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    • 2012
  • In case of the conventional DC-AC inverter using two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitor voltages, for generating the AC output voltage, the output capacitor voltages of its each DC-DC converter must be higher than the DC input voltage. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter using two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitor voltages. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with common DC source and output AC load. The AC output voltage is obtained by the difference of the output capacitor voltages of each converter. Though the output capacitor voltage of converter is relatively low compared to the conventional method, it can be obtained the same AC output voltage. Moreover, by controlling asymmetrically the output capacitor voltage, the AC output voltage of the proposed system is higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed system, a DSP(TMS320F28335) based single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter was made and the PSIM simulation was performed under the condition of the DC source 38V. As controlled symmetrically and asymmetrically the output capacitor voltages of each converter, the proposed inverter could produce the AC output voltage with sinusoidal waveform. Particularly, in case of asymmetric control, a higher AC output voltage was obtained. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed system was measured as 95% and 97% respectively in case of symmetric and asymmetric control.

A Study on Measurement of Output Dose in X-ray Unit (X-선장치에서 출력선량 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Eon;Lee, Sang Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2020
  • In order to control the quality of X-ray images and patient exposure, it is necessary to document the output dose(air absorption dose(mGy)) output from the X-ray unit from the measurement. The purpose of this study is to find an equation that can calculate the output dose from the measurement of the output dose and output factor(Of) of the X-ray Unit. The output dose and output factors of the X-beam irradiated from the X-ray unit were measured using an XR multi-detector. The output dose calculation formula was obtained by fitting the measured output dose divided by the tube current-exposure time product(mAs) and the set tube voltage with Allometric1. The final output dose calculation formula was obtained by multiplying this formula with the output factor. It is considered that the obtained final output dose calculation formula will be useful for all tube voltages, tube currents, exposure times, field sizes, and distances.