• Title/Summary/Keyword: Overexpanded

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Study of Starting Pressure of a Supersonic Ejector with a Second-Throat (이차목을 갖는 초음속 이젝터 작동압력에 대한 연구)

  • Jin, Jung-Kun;Kwon, Se-Jin;Kim, Se-Hoon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.934-939
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    • 2005
  • Starting pressure of a supersonic ejector with a second-throat was investigated. In case of mixing chamber length longer than a critical length, starting pressure is in proportion to length of the mixing chamber. In this study, we assumed that the ejector starts when the primary supersonic flow reaches inlet of the second-throat and the distance of the supersonic flow traveling can be expressed by multiplying an empirical factor to the first diamond shock length of overexpanded flow. To calculate the overexpanded supersonic flow, a mixing model was employed to compute secondary flow pressure and the result was applied to back pressure condition of overexpanded flow calculation. In the result, for three cases of primary nozzle area ratio, we could get accurate model of predicting the starting pressure by selecting a suitable empirical factors around 3.

Supersonic Jet Noise Control via Trailing Edge Modifications

  • Kim, Jin-Hwa;Lee, Seungbae
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1174-1180
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    • 2001
  • Various experimental data, including mixing areas, cross correlation factors, surface flow patterns on nozzle walls, and far field noise spectra, was used to draw a noise control mechanism in a supersonic jet. In the underexpanded case, mixing of the jet air with ambient air was significantly enhanced as presented before, and mixing noise was also dramatically reduced. Screech tones, in the overexpanded case, were effectively suppressed by trailing edge modifications, although mixing enhancement was not noticeable. From mixing and noise performance of nozzles with modified trailing edges, enhancing mixing through streamwise vortices seems an effective way to reduce mixing noise in the underexpanded flow regime. However, screech tones in the overespanded flow regime is well controlled or suppressed by making shock cells and/or spanwise large scale structures irregular and/or less organized by a proper selection of trailing edges. The noise field in the overexpanded flow regime was greatly affected by the symmetricity of the nozzle exit geometry. In the underexpanded flow regime, the effects of the symmetricity of the nozzle exit on mixing were negligible.

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Visualization of Underexpanded Jet Structure from Square Nozzle

  • Tsutsumi, Seiji;Yamaguchi, Kazuo;Teramoto, Susumu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 2004
  • Numerical and experimental investigation were car-ried out to clarify the flow structure of underexpanded jet from a square nozzle. The square nozzle rep-resents one of the clustered combustors of a linear aerospike engine. From the numerical results, the three-dimensional shock wave of the underexpanded square jet was found to be composed of two shocks. One is the intercepting shock which corresponds to the shock observed in two-dimensional planar jet. The other is the recompression shock divided into two types. The expansion fans coming from the nozzle edges interact with each other at the comers of the nozzle exit, and overexpanded regions are generated. Therefore one of the two recompression shocks is formed at the comers of the nozzle exit behind the overexpanded regions. As the jet goes downstream, the overexpanded regions grow larger to coalesce at the symmetry planes. Then, the other type of the recompression shock is generated. The three-dimensional shock structure formed by the intercepting shock and the recompression shocks dominates the expansion of the jet boundary. The shock detection algorithm us-ing CFD results was developed to reveal the relation between the shock waves and the jet boundary, and it was found that the cross-sectional jet shape becomes cross-shape. The key features observed in the numerical investigation were verified by the experimental results. The shock structure at the diagonal plane was in good agreement with the experimental schlieren images. Moreover, the cross-sections visualized by the Mie scattering method confirmed that the cross-section of the jet becomes cross-shape.

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A Computational Study on the Shock Structure and Thrust Performance of a Supersonic Nozzle with Overexpanded Flow (과대팽창이 발생하는 초음속노즐의 충격파 구조와 추력성능에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Bae, Dae Seok;Choi, Hyun Ah;Kam, Ho Dong;Kim, Jeong Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • Overexpanded flow of an axisymmetric thruster nozzle is numerically simulated to investigate effects of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) on the shock structure and thrust performance. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-${\omega}$ SST turbulence model are solved utilizing FLUENT solver. As the NPR is raised, thrust performance monotonically increases with the shock structure and flow-separation point being pushed toward the nozzle exit. It is also discussed that the flow structure at nozzle-exit plane which is immediately affected by a position of nozzle-interior shocks and expansion waves, has strong influence upon the thrust performance of thruster nozzle.

Flow Characteristics of 2 Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle in Overexpanded Conditions (2차원 초음속 노즐의 과대팽창 유동 특성)

  • 김성돈;정인석;최정열
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2002
  • In the modern propulsion systems, requited thrust is obtained using a nozzle. Sometimes shock and induced boundary layer separation is generated in an over-expanded convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle. It occurs because the nozzle expansion ratio is too large for a given nozzle pressure ratio (NPR). This phenomenon can be explained that it redefines effective nozzle geometry, shorer nozzle geometry and lower pressure ratio, in a given pressure ratio. Numerical studies were conducted about a fixed geometry 2D nozzle in overexpanded condition and compared with Hunter's experimental result. For the numerical simulation of the supersonic nozzle, Navier-Stokes equations are considered and as a turbulent model, $\kappa$-$\varepsilon$ /$\kappa$-$\omega$ blended SST two equation turbulent model is used. The characteristics of $\lambda$-shape shock systems due to the interaction of shock and boundary layer was investigated in a low NPR. And the result of comparison of thrust value shows that a fixed geometry nozzle can cover required flight mission.

A hybrid numerical flux for supersonic flows with application to rocket nozzles

  • Ferrero, Andrea;D'Ambrosio, Domenic
    • Advances in aircraft and spacecraft science
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.387-404
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    • 2020
  • The numerical simulation of shock waves in supersonic flows is challenging because of several instabilities which can affect the solution. Among them, the carbuncle phenomenon can introduce nonphysical perturbations in captured shock waves. In the present work, a hybrid numerical flux is proposed for the evaluation of the convective fluxes that avoids carbuncle and keeps high-accuracy on shocks and boundary layers. In particular, the proposed flux is a combination between an upwind approximate Riemann problem solver and the Local Lax-Friedrichs scheme. A simple strategy to mix the two fluxes is proposed and tested in the framework of a discontinuous Galerkin discretisation. The approach is investigated on the subsonic flow in a channel, on the supersonic flow around a cylinder, on the supersonic flow on a flat plate and on the flow in a overexpanded rocket nozzle.

A Study of Lateral Force Fluctuations in Over-Expanded Nozzle Flow (과팽창 노즐 유동에서 발생하는 측력변동에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Sung;Cha, Yong-Su;Vincent, Lijo;Kim, Heuy-Dong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.253-256
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    • 2009
  • In the present paper, experimental and numerical fundamental analyses of the occurrence of lateral force in overexpanded thrust nozzle were carried out. Investigation of the lateral force fluctuations in an thrust nozzle for the shutdown transient was presented. Wall pressure distribution and Schlieren Photographs as NPR were presented. Pressure peak is observed during transition of RSS to FSS.

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A Fundamental Study of the Supersonic Microjet (초음속 마이크로 제트 유동에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Jeong, M.S.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, H.D.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.622-627
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    • 2001
  • Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under- and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results, two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length.

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INVESTIGATION ON CRITERION OF SHOCK-INDUCED SEPARATION IN SUPERSONIC FLOWS

  • Heuy-Dong KIM
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • pp.69-83
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    • 1995
  • A great number of experimental data indicating shock-induced separation(SIS) in internal or external supersonic flows were reviewed to make clear the mechanism of SIS and to present the criterion of turbulent boundary layer separation. The interesting conclusions were obtained for the considerably wide range of flow geometries that the incipient separation is almost independent of the flow geometries, and that it is relatively unaffected by changes in gas specific heat, and boundary layer Reynolds number, Furthermore, the pressure rise necessary to separate boundary layer in external flows was found to be applicable to SIS in overexpanded propulsion nozzles. This is due to the fact that the SIS phenomenon caused by the interaction between shock waves and turbulent boundary layers is processed through a supersonic deceleration. This is, the SIS in almost all of interacting flow fields is governed by the concept of free interaction, and criterion of SIS is only a Function of upstream Mach number.

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