• Title, Summary, Keyword: PAH (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon)

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Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon at Kongsfjorden in Spitsbergen, Svalbard Islands (북극 스발바드 군도 스피츠베르겐섬 콩스피요르드에서의 다환 방향족 탄화수소화합물의 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Gi Beom;Ha, Seong Yong;An, In Yeong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.819-826
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    • 2004
  • In order to elucidate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration and its origin in arctic area, four arctic brown algae (Laminaria saccharina, L. digita, Alaria esculenta, Desmarestia aculeata), one marine invertebrate (Echinoidea) and sediments were collected from Kongsfjorden in Spitsbergen from the late July to early August, 2003. In case of macroalgae, the young blade part above growth point and the old stipes and blades beneath growth point were separated and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an attempt to check the mechanism of uptake in macroalgae to accumulate PAH. There was no difference in PAH concentrations between sampling sites (Stations B and C), species, and blades beneath and above growth point. PAH concentrations in all samples collected in this study were relatively higher than those reported in other areas of arctic. Especially, station C, which is known as an unpolluted area, showed 10 times higher PAH concentration (8,765 ng/g) in sediment than station A (694 ng/g) around harbor. In addition high PAH concentration, station C had very higher proportion of methylated PAH to parent PAH in sediment than station A. Source analysis using PAH isomer pair ratios as indicators showed that Kongsfjorden area seemed to be relatively contaminated with PAH derived from direct petroleum input.

Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) on Shell Repair in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

  • Cho, Sang-Man;Lee, You-Me;Jeong, Woo-Geon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2011
  • In order to understand effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) on shell repair of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shell regeneration experiments were carried out using oysters drilled a hole on the right valve. The change of pH and hemocytic characteristics in both extrapallial fluid and hemolymph were observed during the shell repair. The thickness of mantle tissue was apparently decreased, while necrosis in epithelium and periostracal gland was increased in response to PAH exposure. Our finding suggested that PAH could adversely influence on shell repair.

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Farmed Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) around Tongyeong, Korea

  • Cho, Sang-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2010
  • To evaluate the culture conditions in oyster-farming waters, chemical and biological measurements were made in seawater and oysters from six bays around Tongyeong in November and December 2003. Nutrient levels in the seawater were higher in the western area than in the eastern area, in contrast to particulate organic matter and dissolved oxygen levels. The mean total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ({\sum}PAH) content of the oysters was 194.5-375.9 ng/g dry weight, with four-ring compounds constituting 34.1%-79.6% of PAH. Despite wide temporal variations, a "western > eastern" spatial distribution of PAH was apparent. These low concentrations of PAHs indicate that Tongyeong waters are pristine in terms of PAH contamination. Among the hemocytic biomarkers, only lysosomal activity was significantly reduced in Hansan-Goje Bay, but did not correlate closely with PAH content. This finding indicates that the impact of PAH on cultured oysters is negligible around Tongyeong waters.

Toxicological Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Quinones Contaminated in Diesel Exhaust Particles

  • Kumagai, Yoshito;Taguchi, Keiko
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2007
  • Accumulated epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that prolonged exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pulmonary dysfunction. While diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain large variety of compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a dominant component contaminated in DEP. This article reviews effects of two PAH quinones, 9,10-phenanthraquinone (9,10-PQ) and l,2-naphthoquinone (l,2-NQ), on vascular and respiratory systems.

Atmospheric Polycyclic and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Iron-manufacturing City

  • Hayakawa, Kazuichi;Tang, Ning;Morisaki, Hiroshi;Toriba, Akira;Akutagawa, Tomoko;Sakai, Shigekatsu
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2016
  • Total suspended particulates (TSP) in the atmosphere were collected for 2 weeks during winter in Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan, a typical iron-manufacturing city. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in TSP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorescence and chemiluminescence detectors, respectively. No relationship was observed between the atmospheric PAH and NPAH concentration, or the atmospheric PAH and TSP concentration. However, there was a tendency that the atmospheric PAH concentration was higher when the wind blew from the coke-oven plant. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of 1-nitropyrene to pyrene, which is a suitable indicator of the contribution made by automobiles and coal combustion systems to urban air particulates, were smaller in Muroran and the values were close to those observed in particulates from coal combustion systems. Therefore, these results show that the PAH and NPAH compositions for Muroran are characteristic of an iron-manufacturing city.

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) MOLECULES IN THE DISKS AROUND LOW MASS STARS

  • Kim, Kyoung Hee
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.36.1-36.1
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    • 2015
  • We present $5-14{\mu}m$ Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 14 T Tauri stars which show Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) features and reside in 0.7 pc from ${\Theta}_1$ Ori C. The spectral types of nine out of 11 stars have spectral type information, with types ranging from K7-M5. These stars do not supply strong enough UV photons to excite PAH emission in their disks. Therefore, we consider the detection of PAH emission in disks around low mass stars illuminated by an external source of UV photons, namely, from Trapezium OB association, including ${\Theta}_1$ Ori C. The morphological features of PAH emission from most disks around K-M type host stars are unique, not belonging to any known classes of PAH features. We found that the PAH emission strengths decrease as the projected distance of the objects from ${\Theta}_1$ Ori C increase. We suggest future far-IR and submm/mm observations for better understanding of the characteristics and distribution of PAHs in these disks.

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Complexation of Co-contaminant Mixtures between Silver(I) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • Yim, Soo-Bin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.871-879
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    • 2003
  • The complexation of co-contaminant mixtures between Ag(I) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules (naphthalene, pyrene, and perylene) were investigated to quantify the equilibrium constants of their complexes and elucidate the interactions between Ag(I) and PAH molecules. The apparent solubilities of PAHs in aqueous solutions increased with increasing Ag(I) ion concentration. The values, K$_1$ and K$_2$ of equilibrium constants of complexes of Ag(I)-PAHs, were 2.990 and 0.378, 3.615 and 1.261, and 4.034 and 1.255, for naphthalene, pyrene, and perylene, respectively, The K$_1$and K$_2$ values of PAHs for Ag(I) increased in the order of naphthalene < pyrene < perylene and naphthalene < pyrene ≒ perylene, respectively, indicating that a larger size of PAH molecule is likely to have more a richer concentration of electrons on the plane surfaces which can lead to stronger complexes with the Ag(I) ion. For the species of Ag(I)-PAH complexes, a 1:1 Ag(I) : the aromatic complex, AgAr$\^$+/, was found to be a predominant species over a 2:1 Ag(I) : aromatic complex, Ag$_2$Ar$\^$++/. The PAH molecules with four or more aromatic rings and/or bay regions were observed to have slightly less affinity with the Ag(I) ion than expected, which might result from inhibiting forces such as the spread of aromatic $\pi$ electrons over o wide molecular surface area and the intermolecular electronic repulsion in bay regions.

Atmospheric Behaviors of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in East Asia

  • Hayakawa, Kazuichi;Tang, Ning;Kameda, Takayuki;Toriba, Akira
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2007
  • Hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are mainly originated from imperfect combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal. The consumptions of not only petroleum but also coal have been increasing in the East Asian countries. This review describes the result of international collaboration research concerning characteristics and major contributors of atmospheric PAHs and NPAHs in cities in Japan, Korea, China and Russia. We collected airborne particulates in ten cities in the above countries and six PAHs and eleven NPAHs were determined by HPLC methods using fluorescence and chemiluminescence detections. The total PAH concentrations were much higher in Chinese cities (Fushun, Tieling, Shenyang and Beijing) than those in other cities (Vladivostok, Busan, Kanazawa, Kitakyushu, Sapporo and Tokyo). The total NPAH concentrations were also higher in Chinese cities than those in the other cities. The [NPAH]/[corresponding PAH] ratios are much larger in diesel-engine exhaust particulates than those in coal-burning particulates. The [1-nitropyrene]/[pyrene] ratio of airborne particulates was much smaller in the four Chinese cities, suggesting that coal combustion systems such as coal heaters were the main contributors. On the other hand, the ratios were larger in Korean and Japanese cities, suggesting the large contribution of diesel-engine vehicles.

Biodegradation of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) Using Immobilized Cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (고정화 Phanerochaete chrysosporium을 이용한 다환 방향족 화합물의 분해)

  • 서윤수;류원률;김창준;장용근;조무환
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.247-253
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    • 2000
  • This study was aimed to enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAHS) biodegradation rate by repeated-batch treatment using immobilized cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In the repeated-batch operations with 30 mg/L of pyrene the maximum degradation rate was 6.58 mg/L day. As the number of batches increased the concentration of immobilized cells significantly decreased and the degradation rate and specific acitivity gradually increased to a maximum value and then decreased. To have PAH degradation activity and cell mass recovered one batch of cultivation using the growth medium instead of the PAH-degrading medium was carried in the course of repeated-batch operations. This maximum degradation rates of pyrene and anthracene were 4.29 and 4.46 mg/L$.$day respectively. Overall the rate of PAH degradation could be enhanced 2.5-30 folds by using immobilized cells compared to the case of using suspended cells.

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