• Title/Summary/Keyword: PCBs

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The Concentrations of Endocrine Disrupter (PCBs and DDE) in the Serumand Their Predictors of Exposure in Korean Women (일부 한국 성인 여성들의 혈중 내분비계 장애물질 농도 및 그 노출요인의 연구)

  • 민선영;정문호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.127-137
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    • 2001
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are halogenated aromatic compounds with the empirical formula $C_{12}$ $H_{10-n}$C $l_{n}$(n=1~10), and are a mixture of possible 209 different chlorinated congeners. PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluids for capacitors and transformers, plasticizers, lubricant inks and paint addirives. Once released into the environment, PCBs persist for years because they are so resistant to degradation. In addition to their persistence in the environment, PCBs in ecological food chains undergo biomagnification because of their high degree of lipophilicity. In 1970s, the worldwide production of PCBs was ceased and the import of PCBs was prohibited since 1983 in Korea. In spite of these actions, many PCBs seems to be still in use. The environmental load of PCBs will continue to be recycled through air, land, water, and the biosphere for decades to come. This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of PCBs in the serum samples of 112 women by GC/MSD and GC/ECD. The main results of this study were as follows. 1. PCBs were detected in all samples. The mean $\pm$SD levels of PCBs in the serum were 3.613$\pm$0.759 ppb, and median were 3.828 ppb. 2. The correlation coefficients of the concentrations of 13 PCB congeners were from minimum, 0.7913 to maximum, 0.9985, and all was significant(p=0.0001). The correlation coefficient between the concentrations of PCBs and p,p'-DDE was 0.9641(p=0.0001). 3. There was a positive association between age and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ; $R^2$=0.86, $\beta$=0.08023, p<0.001). 4. There was a positive association between total lipids in the serum and PCBs' concentrations (simple linear regression ; $R^2$=0.7058, $\beta$=0.00486, p<0.001). 5. For possible predictors of PCBs and p,p' -DDE levels in the serum, age adjusted model (Y=$\beta$$_{0}$+$\beta$$_1$age+ $B_2$X) was applied. For BMI, major residential area, wether to eat caught fish by angling, where to eat caught fish by angling(by parents in the past), fish consumption, meat consumption, meat consumption, and dairy consumption, there was no association. For total conception frequency and lactation frequency and lactation period, there was negative association.ion.

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Determination of byproducts after treatment in PCBs-containing transformer oils (PCBs 함유 절연유의 처리 후 부산물 배출특성 연구)

  • Shin, Sun Kyoung;Park, Jin Soo;Kang, Young Yeul;Hwang, Seung Ryul;Kim, Young Sik
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.201-211
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    • 2008
  • The treatment efficiency of PCBs containing wastes has been investigated. The samples treated by electron beam and de-chlorination method were analyzed to verify the byproducts before treatment and after treatment. In the treated samples by electron beam irradiation, PCBs were not detected by comparing the peak matching using the Korean official waste test method. On the other hand, PCBs congeners were detected by analyzing individual isotope method using HRGC/HRMS. Most of PCB congeners in waste were decomposed to 3-chlorobiphenyls, lower chlorinated congener produced during the treatment of electron beam. In the chemical dechlorination treatment, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs in treated samples were lower than those of regulation criteria in Waste & POPs management law and the after treatment concentration were satisfied to the regulation criteria. Also, dioxins were not observed after the physio-chemical treatment processes of PCBs containing wastes.

The State-of-the-Art on Technologies for Treatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) Pollutants (잔류성 유기오염물질 Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) 분해 처리 기술 현황)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Sea, Bongkuk
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2005
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls, (PCBs) are a group of highly toxic chlorinated industrial chemicals used as dielectrics, coolants and lubricants in electrical transformers. This article reviewed the state-of-the-art on technologies for decomposition of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one of the persistent organic materials (POPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of decontaminating PCBs contaminated pollutants using treatment technologies such as chemical dechlorination, photodegradation and biological transformation.

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Concentration Characteristics of PCBs in Pine Needle and Soil at Rural Area (교외지역에서 소나무 잎과 토양 중 PCBs의 농도 특성)

  • Shin Eun-Sang;Yeo Hyun-Gu
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • This study was to investigate concentration characteristics of atmospheric PCBs in soil sample and pine needle at rural area. Profiles of PCB congener detected in pine needle and soil sample have a difference that low molecular PCBs mainly existed in pine needle, whereas high molecular PCBs were mainly existed in soil sample because of their different vapor pressure and octanol-air partitioning coefficient($K_{OA}$) of each congeners. Correlation coefficients(r) of PCB congeners simultaneously detected in soil and pine needle were significant (r>0.71, p<0.01), which showed that PCB congeners patterns of atmosphere could be estimated in using pine needle and soil sample indirectly. The contributions(%) of higher molecular PCBs(>penta-CB) to total PCBs in soil sample were higher than those of pine needle and the contribution of lower molecular PCBs(

Quantiflcation of Human Exposure and Analysis of PCBs in Contaminated Some Site (특정지역에서 토양중 PCB의 분석과 인체노출량평가)

  • 이효민;박송자;김명수;윤은경;최시내;김선태;박종세
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 1997
  • PCBs are classified as B2 (Probable human carcinogen) based on the induction of hepatocellular carcinomas in rats and mice from IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System). About 20 years ago, PCBs were phased out for electrical use in Korea, but PCBs were continuously used in the other field. Lately, there has been increasing concern on possible effects of contaminated soil to the other environment and human health. The purpose of this study is to determine PCBs level in soil at some site and to assess the human exposure doses according to exposure routes for people living within sites which expected to be exposed to PCBs. Pollution level of PCBs on the site was monitored using gas liquid chromatography. To assess the transport of PCBs in soil to plant and to air, various transfer factors(diffusion coefficient, bioconcentration factor etc.) were considered in simple calculations. To calculate the residential exposure doses by routes, some equations were considered using assumption value, which define inhalation, ingestion (soil, plant) and derreal uptake pathway. Computated results will be used as risk assessment information for human health evaluation on contaminated soil.

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Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Soil by Perchlorination (염소화법에 의한 토양 중 Polychlorinated Biphenyls의 잔유분석)

  • Moon, Moon, Chul-Ho;Choi, Choi, Sang-Ki;Kim, Kim, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.249-258
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    • 1995
  • PCBs have been measured using GC-ECD, GC-MS, GC-ELCD, HPLC, TLC, NMR and Immunoassay. The analysis of PCBs using GC-ECD include the peak pattern method as none derivatization and the Perchlorination method as derivatization. This study was conducted to establish the perchlorination method with Sbcls from PCBs to decachlorinated biphenyl(DCB). The aroclor 1242 of PCBs was chlorinated and then, converted into the DCB which showed a single peak in GC-ECD chromatogram. The detection limit of DCB was 2pg. The quantification detection concentration of PCBs extracted with soxhlet was 0.5ng/g in the soil. PCBs were not detected in the suburban soil, but 174ng/g in the soil of industrial complex. Mean PCBs concentration of Shinchun stream at Kumho river and Jinchun stream at Nakdong river was calculated average 낙ngjg in 각e sediment. PCBs concentration in the sediment of Kumho river near 2-7km from conjunction with Nakdong river was average 154ng/g. PCBs concentration in the sediment of Nakdong river near conjunction with Kumho river was average 159ng/g.

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The Distributions of PCBs in Inchon Coastal Sediments (인천연안 퇴적물 중 PCB의 분포)

  • Lee, Dong Hoon;Kim, Kyeo Keun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.287-299
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    • 2002
  • The residue levels of total PCBs in the surface samples were detected low concentration compared to the coastal area in Korea, and the PCBs pattern were very similarly to the arochlor mixture(1016+1232+1248+1260). The selected area divided into three area(Kanghwa:A, Yellow:B and Jangdo:C) by depending on the chlorine ratio. The PCBs were mainly detected dichlorinated and trichlorinated biphenyls in far sea, and heptachlorinated and octachlorinated biphenyls in the near the Incheon coastal area. The residue levels of PCBs were detected 0.72${\sim}$9.20 ng/g in the surface samples, 1.60~3.00 ng/g for Kanghwa and 0.34~9.20 ng/g for Jangdo in the core samples, and the PCBs concentration increased from bottom to top.

Concentrations of PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) in coastal sediments of Korea (국내 연안 퇴적물내 PCBs(Polychlorinated Biphenyls) 오염도 현황)

  • Kim, Gi-Whan;Lee, Yoon
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.9-12
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    • 1996
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) is one of major toxic pollutants in marine environments, This artificial chlorinated compound has been found in freshwater, seawater, soil, sediments and organismes living in various environments. Because of its toxicity and degradability, its uses in industrial processes have been banned after 1984 in Korea. Coastal area is an important environment for agriculture, industry, transportation, reduction of pollution loads through biogeochemical processes, cycling of nutrients and recreation. Input of pollutants from land and freshwater has been occurring through runoff, rivers and estuaries. Concentrations of PCBs were determined with GC-ECD. Concentrations of PCBs were in the range of 1.0 - 19.2 ng/g-dry weight of sediment(g-d.w.) at Ulsan, 4.5 -8,2 ng/g-d.w. at Onsan, 2.7 - 33.5 ng/g-d.w. at Masan and 4.0 - 60.7 ng/g-d.w. in Kwangyang, In Inchon area, PCBs were not detected in sediments. In sediments of Nakdong estuary, the distribution of PCBs' concentrations was 0.19 - 303 ng/g-d.w.

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Reduction of PCBs in Contaminated Marine Sediments by Using Fenton-like Reaction with Surfactants (유사-펜톤 반응과 계면활성제에 의한 해양퇴적물의 PCBs 정화)

  • Choi, Jin Young;Kim, Kyoungrean
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.340-348
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    • 2015
  • Removal efficiency of PCBs in contaminated marine sediments treated by Fenton-like oxidation combined with surfactant was investigated in this research in order to achieve remediation of PCBs. A washing treatment using various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (1% and 15%) and surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 60 and Tween 80) was evaluated at various conditions in laboratory scale experiments. The mean removal efficiencies of tPCBs varied from 24.1 to 46.7% in the sediments for 1 hour duration of the treatments. The concentration of tPCBs in contaminated marine sediments after the simultaneous treatment with hydrogen peroxide and surfactant satisfied the domestic environmental standards for the beneficial use of sediments. When suitable surfactant was used for Fenton-like oxidation, the removal efficiency of tPCBs at low concentration of hydrogen peroxide was similar to that at high hydrogen peroxide concentration. Thus the efficient removal of PCBs in contaminated marine sediments could be achieved through treatment with Fenton-like oxidation combined with surfactant washing.

Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants through Subcritical Water Degradation (아임계수 분해를 이용한 난분해성 물질로 오염된 토양의 정화 연구)

  • Choi, Jae-Heon;Lee, Hwan;Lee, Cheol-Hyo;Kim, Ju-Yup;Oh, Seok-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2015
  • This study examined remediation of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants by using subcritical water. Our results showed that removal efficiency of PCBs from soil and treatment temperature were linearly proportional under subcritical conditions. The removal efficiency as increased as reacting period increased. PCBs contaminating fine particles in soil were less effectively removed than those in entire contaminated soil. Reaction of the zero-valent iron and PCBs under subcritical condition produced dechlorinated product, where most of the PCBs were oxidised while little remained as dechlorinated. Other organic pollutants, such as TPH, BTEX, TCE/PCE, and chlorpyrifos, were removed by more than 90% at $300^{\circ}C$. Considering removal efficiency and identification of by-products, we suggest that subcritical water treatment may be effectively applied to soils contaminated with various persistent organic pollutants.