• Title/Summary/Keyword: PCBs

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Expanding the Substances of Water Quality Standard for the Protection of Human Health Based on Risk Assessment (인체 위해성기반 수질환경기준 항목 확대를 위한 연구)

  • An, Youn-Joo;Nam, Sun-Hwa;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2008
  • Water quality standards (WQS) are mandatory to guarantee the human health and protection of aquatic ecosystems, and maintain the condition of suitable water quality. The present WQS for the protection of human health in Korea contain nine substances (As, Cd, $Cr^{6+}$, CN, Pb, Hg, ABS, organophosphorus compounds and PCBs), but it is insufficient to preserve the human and aquatic ecosystem from a variety of chemicals. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the substance of WQS for the protection of human health. In this study, we chose the 20 chemicals from 43 chemicals of the project entitled 'Development of Integrated Methodology for Evaluation of Water Environment'. The methodology for calculating water quality criteria was amended from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)'s equation for deriving ambient water quality criteria for the protection of human health. The factors including fish intake, drinking water intake, and human body weight used in the equation reflected Korean situations. The monitoring values were derived from the water quality monitoring data in Korean four main rivers. The orders of priorities of chemicals were evaluated by human health risk assessment, and the proposed WQS was derived by technical and economic analyses. These results were reflected to expand the WQS for the protection of human health.

Assessment of Persistent Organic and Heavy Metal Contamination in Busan Coast: Application of Sediment Quality Index (부산 연안해역의 잔류성 유기오염물질과 중금속 오염평가: 퇴적물 오염지수 적용)

  • Han, Gi Myung;Hong, Sang Hee;Shim, Won Joon;Ra, Kong Tae;Kim, Kyung Tae;Ha, Sung Yong;Jang, Mi;Kim, Gi Beum
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.171-184
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    • 2016
  • In order to assess the level of contamination and identify the priority contaminants in the Busan coast, intensive sediment sampling was conducted and persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals were analyzed. The Sediment Quality Index (SQI) was derived based on the contaminant data by comparing with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) established in Korea, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. Toxic contaminants were found to be widely distributed across the coast. Among organic contaminants, PAHs showed the highest concentration, followed by butyltins, nonylphenols, PBDEs, DDTs, PCBs, HCHs and CHLs. Heavy metals were also abundantly detected with the highest concentration of Zn followed by Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > As > Cd > Hg. Compared to organic contaminants, most heavy metals, except for Cu and Hg, were homogeneously distributed along the coast in a good relationship with total organic carbon of sediment particles. In general, the concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were highest at the inner part of harbor areas with a tendency to decline from inside areas to the outside, indicating the high loading of pollutants from harbors. A high exceedance for low-SQGs and high-SQGs was found for TBT, p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, Cu and Zn. The SQI scores calculated from low-SQGs and high-SQGs were in the range of 18-100 and 54-100, respectively. The inner part of Busan Harbor, Dadaepo Harbor, and Gamcheon Harbor were observed as being regions of concern. Overall, TBT, Cu, and p,p'-DDT were the chemicals most frequently exceeding SQGs and influencing SQI scores.

Protective Effect of Cornu Cervi Parvum Extract on Toxicity Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Rat (다이옥신-유도 독성에 대한 녹용 추출물의 방어효과)

  • Hwang Seock Yeon;Yang Jin Bae;Chang Cheoul Soo;Lee Young Chan;Lee Hyung Chul
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.674-679
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    • 2002
  • The toxicity and bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continues to be a focus of research in human and various species. The main human exposure is via the dietary route. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Cornu Cervi Parvum extract on clinical parameters and hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rat (SD rat) accutely exposured to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Male SD rats received single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of TCDD (40 ㎍/kg), and administered 10 or 20 mg/kg/day of the ethanol extract oral injection for 4 weeks from 1 week before TCDD treatment. The gain in body weight was less in group treated with TCDD than in CON group, while that of C/H+ TCDD group (Cornu Cervi Parvum extract 20 mg/kg/day) increased. The decrease in spleen and testis weight caused by TCDD was prevented by Cornu Cervi Parvum extract 20 mg/kg/day. The fluctuation in BUN content, WBC and platelet count by TCDD intoxication were significantly attenuated by the ethanol extract treatment (20 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks). Treatments of rats with the extract (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) were significantly reduced AST and ALT levels compared with TCDD-treated group. Moderate swelling of hepatocytes, hyperchromatism, acidophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuolation were observed in TCDD-treated animals (TCDD group). The administration of EtOH extract 10 or 20 mg/kg along with TCDD significantly alleviated the liver histopathological alteration induced by TCDD. These results suggest that Cornu Cervi Parvum extract can be useful as a protective agent against TCDD, an endocrine disruptor.

Hot Air Injection/Extraction Method for the Removal of Semi-Volatile Organic Contaminants from Soils (토양내 저휘발성 유류오염물 제거를 위한 고온공기 주입/추출기술 연구)

  • Gu Chung-Wan;Ko Seok-Oh
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.6-12
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    • 2005
  • Contamination of soils and groundwater by leakage of petroleum compounds from underground storage tanks (USTs) has become great environmental issues. Conventional methods such as soil vapor extraction (SVE) used for the remediation of unsaturated soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds might not be applied for the removal of semi-volatile organic compounds such as diesel fuels and PCBs, which have low volatility and high hydrophobicity. The objective of this study is to develop a hot air injection method to remove semi-volatile compounds. Additionally, operation parameters such as temperature, air flow rate, and water content are evaluated. Experimental results show that diesel ranged organics (DROs) are removed in the order of volatility of organic compounds. As expected, removal efficiency of organics is highly dependent on the temperature. It is considered that more than $90\%$ of organic contaminants whose carbon numbers range between 17 and 22 can be removed efficiently by the hot air injection-extraction method (modified SVE) over the $100^{\circ}C$. It is also found that increased air flow rate resulted in high removal rate of contaminants. However, air flow rate over 40 cc/min is not effective for the operation aspects, due to mass transfer limitation on the volatilization rate of the contaminants. The effect of the water content on the decane removal is minimal, but some components show large dependence on the removal efficiency with increasing water content.

A Study on the PCDDs/PCDFs Contents in the Flue Gas of Muncipal Solid Waste Incinerator(III) -Emission Concentration Varying the Combustion Temperature- (쓰레기소각로 배출가스의 PCDDs/PCDFs 함유량에 관한 연구(III) -소각로 연소 온도변화에 따른 보일러 후단에서의 배출 농도 변화-)

  • Shin, S.K.;Chung, Y.H.;Lee, J.I.
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.540-549
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    • 1999
  • The combustion temperature was controlled between $880^{\circ}C$ to $1070^{\circ}C$ to find the relation the combustion temperature and emission amount of PCDDs/PCDFs in the Municipal solid waste incinerator. The emission amount of PCDDs/PCDFs decreased when the temperature increased in the rear of the boiler. The PCDDs/PCDFs concentration were detected $7.82ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ at $880^{\circ}C$, $6.97ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ at $970^{\circ}C$ and $6.13ng-TEQ/Nm^3$ at $1070^{\circ}C$. Also, The chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, and PCB concentration decreased by increasing the temperature from $880^{\circ}C$ to at $1070^{\circ}C$, and the isomer of the prescsors had a tendency to emit the higbly cbiorinated compounds.

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Comparative Study on Biological Effects of Gamma-Radiation and Bisphenol A with Tradescantia Micronucleus Assay (자주달개비 미세핵 분석법을 이용한 비스페놀 에이 및 감마선의 생물학적 영향 비교 연구)

  • 신해식;송희섭;현성희;이진홍;김진규
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 2002
  • Some of synthetic chemicals can net as an endocrine disrupting substance in higher animals. Dioxins, DDT, PCBs and bisphenol A (BPA) are classified into endocrine disruptors and aye under a strict control in many countries. This research was designed to compare the clastogenic effects of BPA to those of ionizng radiation to establish the relaltive effectiveness of BPA by means of Tradescantia micronucleus assay. For the uptake of the BPA through the stems, groups of fresh cuttings of Tradescantia BNL 4430 weve placed in BPA solutions of 0 to 4 $\mu$M for 6 hours under continuous aeration. The other groups of the cuttings were irradiated with 0 to 0.5 Gy of gamma- rays. The frequencies of micronucleus showed a positive dose- response relationship in the range of 0 to 0.5 Gy, and a clear concentration-response relationship in the experimental range of BPA concentrations. By comparing the two experimental results, it is possible to estimate the BPA concentration and its equivalent radiation dose for a fixed value of MCN frequency. BPA of $ll.8\mu{M}$ can give rise to 53.3 MCN/100 tetrads, which is the same frequency induced by 25 cGy of gamma- rays. It is of biological importance that clinical symptoms start to develop after a whole body exposure to radiation higher than 25 cGy. The results indicate that the pollen mother cells are an excellent biological end- point for toxicity test of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A, cotylphenol and nonylphenol.

Composition, Source, and Regional Concentration of PBDEs in Pine Needles (소나무 잎 중 PBDEs의 조성, 발생원 및 지역적 농도)

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Cho, Ki-Chul;Chun, Man-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.829-835
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    • 2006
  • The composition, source, and regional concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs) were measured in pine needles with several sites in Korea. Homologs specific analysis confirmed that hepta-BDE(bromodiphenyl ethers) through deca-BDE were predictive indicator for total PBDEs concentration(Pearson's correlation coefficient r>0.96, p<0.001). Deca-BDE were detected in relatively very high concentration compared to other PBDE congeners in all samples. The similarity of between congeners profile to those of Bromkal 70-5DE and DE-71, the commercial mixture of PBDEs, indicates these mixtures are source of PBDEs observed in these sites. Also, BDE-47, -99, -100, -206, -207, and -209 were the dominant congeners in all samples, suggesting that the widely used commercial penta- and deca-BDE technical mixture were the original sources. However, Pearson's correlation coefficients of between BDE-209 and BDE-47, -99, -100 were insignificant, which implied that tetra-BDE and penta-BDE may originate from secondary sources such as air-plant partition in manner similar to that of the PCBs, while deca-BDE formulation still has primary sources.

Electro-refining Characteristics of PCB-based Copper Anode for the Enrichment of Precious Metals (귀금속 농축을 위한 PCB 기반 양극동의 전해정련 특성)

  • Ahn, Nak-Kyoon;Shim, Hyun-Woo;Park, Kyung-Soo;Park, Jeung-Jin
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2018
  • In this study, scarp of PCB containing copper and precious metals was manufactured as an anode, and electrorefining experiments were conducted on change of $H_2SO_4$ concentration and current density. Through electrolytic refining experiments, the concentration of Cu and slime recovered from each electrode was analyzed, element behavior was confirmed, and current efficiency was also calculated. As the $H_2SO_4$ concentration was increased, the current efficiency and the purity of Cu decreased, but the precious metals in the anode slime were maximally concentrated with 2.0 M $H_2SO_4$. In addition, as the current density was increased, the current efficiency decreased and the purity of Cu showed a tendency to increase, and the precious metals in the anode slime were maximally concentrated with $300A/m^2$. As a result of the pilot scale experiments, the Au content was 8,705 mg/kg, the Ag content was 35,092 mg/kg in the anode slime. As compared with the initial content, Au was concentrated 16 times and Ag concentrated 14 times.

Persistent Organic Pollution and Arsenic Contamination in Asia Pacific Water: Case Study of Emerging Environmental Problems in Vietnam

  • Pham, Viet.H.
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 2007
  • This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the present status of several environmental problems caused by emerging toxic substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and arsenic in various environmental media in Vietnam. Monitoring data reported during the 1990s demonstrated elevated contamination of DDTs in most of these compartments in Vietnam. Studies in frame of the Asia-Pacific Mussel Watch Program revealed that fish, mussels and resident birds from Vietnam contained higher concentrations of DDTs as compared to other countries in region, suggesting the role of Vietnamese environment as a significant emission source of DDT in the Southeast Asian region. The estimated dietary intakes of PCBs and DDTs for Vietnamese were relatively high among Asian developing countries, suggesting potential risk for humans posed by thesechemicals. Widespread contamination of some endocrine active compounds such as alkylphenols and phthalates was observed at various sites along the coasts of northern and middle Vietnam. The presence of significant source of bisphenol-A along Red River estuary was revealed with the concentrations comparable to those reported for developed nations. A case study on seasonal variation of alkylphenols and phthalates in surface water of river delta and estuary of north and middle Vietnam indicated the differences in distribution of these compounds between dry and rainy seasons. Higher concentrations of alkylphenols and phthalates were found in dry season in estuary; while the contrasting pattern was observed in the river delta, showing elevated residues in rainy season. This result suggests the different behavior of alkylphenols and phthalates in river delta and coastal environment. From ecotoxicological perspectives, concentrations of bis-phenol A and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalates [DEHP] in surface water from some locations in Vietnam exceeded the guideline values for Ecotoxicological Effects and the Environmental Risk Limit, respectively, suggesting potential for toxic implications on aquatic wildlife. Widespread and elevated arsenic contamination was discovered inour recent surveys in groundwater in a large area of suburban areas of Hanoi city, the capital of Vietnam. The most recent investigation in 4 villages showed about more than 50 % of groundwater samples contained As concentrations exceeding 50 g/L (the WHO and Vietnamese standard). In particular, in Son Dong villages, 58 % of samples analyzed contained As concentrations higher than 200 g/L. Good correlations were found in As concentrations in water and hair and urine of peoples in corresponding families, suggesting the chronic exposure to As by people living in As-contaminated ground water areas. In Son Dong village, As levels in hair (mean: 1.7 mg/kg dry wt) and urine (g/g creatinine) exceeding the reference values recommended by WHO, suggesting potential for human risk posed by long term accumulation of As in human body. Future studies should be focused on the time trends of POPs and EDCs in biota in Vietnam in order to predict future trend of contamination and to reveal new clues for understanding possible toxic impacts on aquatic organisms. The issues of arsenic contamination in groundwater and their chronic toxic implications on human health should be systematically investigated in the future.

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Stray Light Analysis of a Compact Imaging Spectrometer for a Microsatellite STSAT-3 (과학기술위성3호 부탑재체 소형영상분광기 미광 해석)

  • Lee, Jin Ah;Lee, Jun Ho
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 2012
  • This paper reports on the stray light analysis results of a compact imaging spectrometer (COMIS) for a microsatellite STSAT-3. COMIS images Earth's surface and atmosphere with ground sampling distances of 27 m at the 18~62 spectral bands (0.4 ~ 1.05 ${\mu}m$) for the nadir looking at an altitude of 700 km. COMIS has an imaging telescope and an imaging spectrometer box into which three electronics PCBs are embedded. The telescope images a $27m{\times}28km$ area of Earth surface onto a slit of dimensions $11.8{\mu}m{\times}12.1mm$. This corresponds to a ground sampling distance of 27 m and a swath width of 28 km for nadir looking posture at an altitude of 700 km. Then the optics relays and disperses the slit image onto the detector thereby producing a monochrome image of the entrance slit formed on each row of detector elements. The spectrum of each point in the row is imaged along a detector column. The optical mounts and housing structures are designed in order to prevent stray light from arriving onto the image and so deteriorating the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The stray light analysis, performed by a non-sequential ray tracing software (LightTools) with three dimensional housing and lens modeling, confirms that the ghost and stray light arriving at the detector plane has the relative intensity of ${\sim}10^{-5}$ and furthermore it locates outside the concerned image size i.e. the field of view of the optics.