• Title/Summary/Keyword: PCBs

Search Result 478, Processing Time 0.109 seconds

Proteome in Toxicological Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (프로테오믹스를 이용한 내분비계 교란물질 환경독성 연구)

  • 김호승;계명찬
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.87-100
    • /
    • 2003
  • It is important to understand the potential human health implications of exposure to environmental chemicals that may act as hormonally active agents. It is necessary to have an understanding of how pharmaceutical and personal care products and other chemicals affect the ecosystem of our planet as well as human health. Endocrine disruption is defined as the ability of a chemical contaminating the workplace or the environment to interfere with homeostasis, development, reproduction, and/or behavior in a living organism or it's offspring. Certain classes of environmentally persistent chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and some pesticides can adversely effect the endocrine systems of aquatic life and terrestrial wildlife. Research continues to support the theory of endocrine disruption. However, endocrine disruption researches have been applied to proteomics poorly. Proteomics can be defined as the systematic analysis of proteins for their identity, quantity and function. It could increase the predictability of early drug development and identify non-invasive biomarkers of tonicity or efficacy. Proteome analysis is most commonly accomplished by the combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D/E) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) sr protein chip array and SELDI-TOF MS. Proteomics have an opportunity to play an important role in resolving the question of what role endocrine disruptors play in initiating human disease. Proteomics can also play an imfortant role in the evaluation of the risk assessment and use of risk management and risk communication tools required to address public health concerns related to notions of endocrine disruptors. Understanding the need for the proteomics and possessing knowledge of the developing biomakers used to abbess endocrine activity potential will he essential components relevant to the topic of endocrine disruptors.

Developing a Questionnaire to Assess Exposure to Food-Borne Hazards (식품으로 인한 유해물질 노출평가를 위한 설문지 개발)

  • Shin, Sang-Ah;Choi, Seul-Ki;Kim, Hye-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Youn;Shin, Sang-Hee;Lee, Jung-Won;Yu, Soo-Hyun;Nam, Hye-Soen;Yoon, Hae-Jung;Joung, Hyo-Jee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.44 no.1
    • /
    • pp.61-73
    • /
    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to develop a reliable dietary questionnaire to assess human exposure to food-borne hazards. Eleven food-borne hazards were chosen as a priority control list through a literature review and advisory committees. The 11 food-borne hazards were phthalate, aflatoxin, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and acrylamide. The characteristics, exposure level, and paths of these hazards were reviewed, and questionnaire items were identified to assess human exposure from the literature. A questionnaire was developed for each selected food based on its characteristics. Based on the items in the individual questionnaires, a comprehensive questionnaire, which contained demographic characteristics, job information, socioeconomic factors, health related lifestyles, and dietary behaviors, was developed. A 99-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess food-borne hazard exposure was also developed. The FFQ included frequency of food intake during the previous year, container type for purchasing and storing food, and cooking method. The questionnaire developed in this study could be applied to assess dietary factors during an exposure assessment of food-borne hazards in a large population. A validation study for the questionnaire is needed before applying it to surveys.

Study on Biochemical Pollutant Markers for Diagnosis of Marine Pollution I. Changes in Lipid Components of Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow Sea (해양오염의 진단을 위한 생화학적 오염지표에 관한 연구 I. 황해산 넙치 (Paralichthys olivaceus)의 지질성분의 변화)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dong-Woo;Moon, Young-Sil;Park, Chung-Kil;Kim, Jae-II;Yang, Dong-Beom
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 1997
  • For the recent years, considerable efforts have been made to rationalize the techniques of research and monitoring of biological effects of marine pollutants such as heavy metals, polychlorinate biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphorus pesticides. This study was designed as a part of efforts to investigate the biochemical pollutant markers for diagnosis of marine pollutions by the changes in lipid components of the flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Yellow Sea of Korea. Homoglobin levels in serum of cultured and wild flounders in Yellow Sea were significantly lower (5 - 15% and 20 -25 % , respectively) than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Triglyceride (TG) contents in serum of cultured flounders in Yellow Sea were 10 - 40% higher than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol contents in serum of flounders in Yellow Sea were significantly 10-15% and 30-35% (cultured), and 10-20% (wild), respectively, higher than those of wild flounder in Pohang. Atherogenic index (AI) and T-Chol/PL rations in serum of cultured and wild flounders in Yellow sea were significantly 20-45% and 10-!5%, 6-35% and 15-35%, respectively, higher than those of wild flounder in pohang. These results suggest that near-coastal waters as well as neritic waters of the Yellow Sea might be affected by pollutant input.

  • PDF

Prioritizing Management Ranking for Hazardous Chemicals Reflecting Aggregate Exposure (통합노출을 고려한 유해물질 관리의 우선순위 선정)

  • Jeong, Ji-Yoon;Jung, Yoo-Kyung;Hwang, Myung-Sil;Jung, Ki-Kyung;Yoon, Hae-Jung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.349-355
    • /
    • 2012
  • In this study, we configured a system which ranks hazardous chemicals to determine their management priorities based on experts' opinions and the existing CRS (chemical ranking and scoring). Aggregate exposure of food, health functional food, oriental/herbal medicine and cosmetics have been taken into account to determine management priority. In this study, 25 hazardous chemicals were selected, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, etc. These 25 materials were ranked according to their 1) risk (exposure or hazard) indexes, 2) exposure source-based weight, and 3) public interests, which were also formed based on the existing priority ranking system. Cadmium was scored the highest (178.5) and bisphenol A the lowest (56.8). Ten materials -- cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, tar, acrylamide, benzopyrene, aluminium, benzene, and PAHs -- scored higher than 100. Eight materials -- aflatoxin, manganese, phthalate, chromium, nitrate/nitrite, ethylcarbamate, formaldehyde, and copper -- recorded scores in the range from 70 to 100. Also evaluated as potential risks were 7 materials; sulfur dioxide, ochratoxin, dioxins, PCBs, fumonisin, methyl mercury, and bisphenol A, and these materials were scored above 50. Then we compared risk index and correlation coefficient of total scores to confirm the validity of the total scores; we analyzed correlation coefficient of parameter and indicator. We discovered that the total score and weight, which has incorporated public interests, were high and statistically significant. In conclusion, the result of this study contributes to strengthening risk assessment and risk management of hazardous chemicals.

Study on the Screening System of Organic Resources for Agricultural Utilization (유기성 자원의 농업적 활용을 위한 선별체계 연구)

  • Lim, Dong-Kyu;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kwon, Soon-Ik;So, Kyu-Ho;Sung, Ki-Suk;Koh, Mun-Hwan;Lee, Jeong-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.38 no.2
    • /
    • pp.92-100
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to find suitable methods for screening organic resources useful for compost. Twenty-seven industrial and domestic sludges were collected from various cities and industrial areas. Contents of organic matters in the sludges were in the range of 79.3-98.0%, and the contents were much higher than the regulation level (60%) for raw materials of compost. Contents of total nitrogen were in the range of 0.8-2.6%. Contents of Fe and Al were very high. Content of HEM was highest in textile sludge ($257mg\;kg^{-1}$) and the contents in the others were in the range of $12.6-90.3mg\;kg^{-1}$. Content of PAHs was lowest in food sludge ($739.1{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$ and pulp-mill sludge had the highest PAHs content ($3461.8{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$). $Microtox^{(R)}$ $EC_{50}$ values were higher in the sludges which were classified as a possible material in composting after analysis and investigation. Lettuce root elongation and $EC_{50}$ values were relatively lower in pulp-mill sludge, sewage sludge 3 (Large city), food sludge and leather sludge. Therefore, mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic compounds (HEM, PAHs, PCBs), and bioassay ($Microtox^{(R)}$ $EC_{50}$, Relative root elongation test) are recommended to be included in the screening system of raw material of compost in addition to the current regulation with organic matter and 8 heavy metals.

Environmental Pollutants in Streams of Andong District and Insect Immune Biomarker (안동지역 하천의 환경오염물질과 곤충면역 생체지표 분석)

  • Ryoo Keon Sang;Ko Seong-Oon;Cho Sunghwan;Lee Hwasung;Kim Yonggyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
    • /
    • v.44 no.2
    • /
    • pp.97-108
    • /
    • 2005
  • Samples of water, soil, and sediment were taken from 10 streams near Andong, Korea in May 2004. To assess the degree of environmental pollution of each stream, chemical pollutants such as total notrogen (T-N), total phosphorus (T-P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals, organophosphorus pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCB congeners were analyzed by standard process tests or U.S. EPA methods. In addition, biomarkers originated from insect immune systems of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were used to analysis of the environmental samples. Except Waya-chun stream showing T-N content of 9.12 mg/L, most streams were contaminated with relatively low levels of overall pollutants in terms of T-N, T-P, and COD, compared to their acceptable environmental levels designated by the Ministry of Environment. Contents of Pb and Cd in samples of each stream were much lower than environmentally permissible levels. However, several times higherconcentrations of Pb and Cd were found in locations at Mi-chun, Kilan-chun, and Hyunha-chun streams, in comparison with other streams. Diazinon, parathion, and phenthoate compounds among organophosphorus pesticides were detected as concentrations of 0.19, 0.40, and $1.13\;{\mu}g/g$, respectively, from soil sample collected in the vicinity of Mi-chun stream. On the other hand, 16 organochlorine pesticides and 12 dioxin-like PCB congeners, known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, selected in this study were not found above the limit of detection. Biomarker analyses using insect immune responses indicated that Waya-chun stream was suspected as exposure to environmental pollutants. Limitation and compensation of both environmental analysis techniques are discussed.

Development of Method for Possibility Assessment on Organic Resources for Using Raw Material of Compost (유기성자원의 퇴비원료로 활용 가능성 평가방법 개발)

  • Lim, Dong-Kyu;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Seong, Ki-Seog;So, Kyu-Ho;Shin, Jung-Du;Lee, Jeong-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.77-84
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to find a system for screening organic resources with 16 species, 62 samples which were selected to randomizing point from city, province and industrial areas in the whole country. Content of organic matters were $65.3%{\sim}98.0%$ in all samples so that they were largely over than 60%, raw material regulation of compost. Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were $0.7{\sim}4.8%\;and\;0.8{\sim}5.0$, they could look for effect of the nitrogen and phosphorus supply as a raw material of compost. In case of 8 elements concentrations of heavy metal, they were too high to use as raw materials of compost which were over to regulation limit in Cu, Cr, Ni, and As from fiber industry, Ni from food company and leather industry, and the others are adapt to limit levels. HEM contents fro the highest to $113mg\;kg^{-1}$ from liber industry and PAHs content were the highest to $3,462ug\;kg^{-1}$ from paper-mill manufacture. Distribution of PAHs concentiations were naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene>fluoroanthene>acenaphthene. $Microtox{(R)}\;EC_{50}$ values for bioassay were pharmaceutical company>paper-mill manufacture>industrial area sewage sludge>fiber industry>urban sewage sludge>metropolitan sewage sludge. HEM between Zn, Cu, and Ni was significant at the 99% and between Cd was significant at the 95%, Microtox between Hg and BEM significant at the 95%.

Estimation of fire Experiment Prediction by Utility Tunnels Fire Experiment and Simulation (지하공동구 화재 실험 및 시뮬레이션에 의한 화재 설칠 예측 평가)

  • 윤명오;고재선;박형주;박성은
    • Fire Science and Engineering
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-33
    • /
    • 2001
  • The utility tunnels are the important facility as a mainstay of country because of the latest communication developments. However, the utilities tunnel is difficult to deal with in case of a fire accident. When a cable burns, the black smoke containing poisonous gas will be reduced. This black smoke goes into the tunnel, and makes it difficult to extinguish the fire. Therefore, when there was a fire in the utility tunnel, the central nerves of the country had been paralyzed, such as property damage, communication interruption, in addition to inconvenience for people. This paper is based on the fire occurred in the past, and reenacting the fire by making the real utilities tunnel model. The aim of this paper is the scientific analysis of the character image of the fire, and the verification of each fire protection system whether it works well after process of setting up a fire protection system in the utilities tunnel at a constant temperature. The fire experiment was equipped with the linear heat detector, the fire door, the connection water spray system and the ventilation system in the utilities tunnel. Fixed portion of an electric power supply cable was coated with a fire retardant coating, and a heating tube was covered with a fireproof. The result showed that the highest temperature was $932^{\circ}c$ and the linear heat detector was working at the constant temperature, and it pointed at the place of the fire on the receiving board, and Fixed portion of the electric power supply cable coated with the fire retardant coating did not work as the fireproof. The heating tube was covered with the fireproof about 30 minutes.

  • PDF