• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pain

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Assessment of Osteoporosis Based on Changes in SNR and ADC Values on MR Diffusion Weighted Images (확산강조영상에서 신호대 잡음비, 현성 확산 계수 변화에 따른 골다공증 평가)

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Yeong-Soo
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2010
  • This study tested how S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio) ratios and ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values vary with different T-scores in a group of patients with osteoporosis. Based on DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) T-scores for L1.L4 for two groups of subjects consisting of 30 healthy people without osteoporosis and 30 patients who came for treatment of waist (lumbar or low back) pain and were suspected to have osteoporosis as judged from the simple X-ray findings, this study classified every spine into two groups of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Signal intensity measurements were made in the four regions of L1 to L4 on diffusion-weighted MR images obtained using 1.5T MR scanner, while ADC measurements were obtained from ADC map images. As an approach for quantitative analysis, the comparison of the variances in S/N ratios and ADC values for varying T-scores in the selected regions of interest was carried out based on averaged T-scores, S/N ratios, and ADC values. Also, the variances in S/N ratios and ADC values for each of the groups of osteoporosis and osteopenia, which were classified into by T-scores, were compared. For qualitative analysis, a careful naked eye examination of signal intensity differences in the area of L4 was made on T1-weighted sagittal images for each of the healthy (normal), osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups. In the qualitative analysis, it was found that for both the osteopenia group and the osteoporosis group, as T-scores deceased, the S/N ratios on diffusion-weighted MR images also decreased, with the greatest decrease in the S/N ratio found in the osteoporosis group. Additionally, among the three groups, the lowest S/N ratio was found in the osteoporosis group. With respect to ADC map, it was found that for both the osteopenia group and the osteoporosis group, as T-scores deceased, the ADC values on diffusion-weighted MR images also decreased, with the greatest decrease in the ADC values found in the osteoporosis group. Additionally, among the three groups, the lowest ADC value was found in the osteoporosis group. On the other hand, in the qualitative analysis, the osteoporosis group showed the highest signal intensity. Additionally, among the three groups, the lowest signal intensity was found in the healthy (normal) group. It was found that as osteoporosis progressed, S/N ratio and ADC decreased, whereas signal intensity increased on T1-weighted images. Also, in diagnosing osteoporosis, MRI tests turned out to be (more) effective.

Deduction and Verification of Optimal Factors for Stent Structure and Mechanical Reaction Using Finite Element Analysis (스텐트의 구조 및 기계적인 반응에 대한 최적인자 도출과 유한요소해석법을 통한 검증)

  • Jeon, Dong-Min;Jung, Won-Gyun;Kim, Han-Ki;Kim, Sang-Ho;Shin, Il-Gyun;Jang, Hong-Seok;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2010
  • Recently, along with technology development of endoscopic equipment, a stent has been developed for the convenience of operation, shortening of recovery times, and reduction of patient's pain. To this end, optimal factors are simulated for the stent structure and mechanical reaction and verified using finite element analysis. In order to compare to present commercialized product such as Zilver (Cook, Bloomington, Indiana, USA) and S.M.A.R.T (Cordis, Bridgewater Towsnhip, New Jersey, USA), mechanical impact factors were determined through Taguchi factor analysis, and flexibility and expandability of all the products including ours were tested using finite element analysis. Also, important factors were sought that fulfill the optimal condition using central composition method of response surface analysis, and optimal design were carried out based on the important factors. From the centra composition method of Response surface analysis, it is found that importat factors for flexibility is stent thickness (T) and unit area (W) and those for expandability is stent thickness (T). In results, important factors for optimum condition are 0.17 mm for stent thickness (T) and $0.09\;mm^2$ for unit area (W). Determined and verified by finite element analysis in out research institute, a stent was manufactured and tested with the results of better flexibility and expandability in optimal condition compared to other products. Recently, As Finite element analysis stent mechanical property assessment for research much proceed. But time and reduce expenses research rarely stent of optimum coditions. In this research, Important factor as mechanical impact factor stent Taguchi factor analysis arrangement to find flexibility with expansibility as Finite element analysis. Also, Using to Center composition method of Response surface method appropriate optimized condition searching for important factor, these considering had design optimized. Production stent time and reduce expenses was able to do the more coincide with optimum conditions. These kind of things as application plan industry of stent development period of time and reduce expenses etc. be of help to many economic development.

Comparison of Tiletamine/Zolanzepam, Xylazine - Tiletamine/Zolazepam and Medetomidine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam Anesthesia in Dogs (개에서 Tiletamine/Zolazepam, Xylazine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam과 Medetomidine-Tiletamine/Zolazepam의 마취효과)

  • Kwon, Young-Sam;Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Jang, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2003
  • The cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of tiletamine/zolazepam(TZ, 10 mg/kg IV), xylazine-tiletamine /zolazepam(XTZ, X: 1.1 mg/kg IM, TZ: 10 mg/kg IV) and medetomid-ine-tiletamine/zolazepam(MTZ, M: 30$\mu\textrm{g}$/kg IM, TZ: 10 mg/kg IV) were evaluated to 15 healthy mongrel dogs (4.16$\pm$0.65 kg). These dogs were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups(Control, XTZ, MTZ) with 5 dogs in each group. All experimental animals were premedicated with atropine(0.03 mg/kg, IM). Xylazine or medetomidine were administered to dogs in XTZ group and MTZ group 10 minutes after atropine injection. TZ was administered 20 minutes after atropine injection in all groups. The loss of pain response at pedal reflex and ear pinching tests in XTZ and MTZ groups were much longer compared with those of Control group(P < 0.01). All dogs in this study showed head rocking and hypersalivation during recovery time. Body temperature decreased progressively during experimental period in all groups, but it was not significant. After TZ injection, heart beat rate significantly increased 10 and 20 minutes in Control group, and 20 and 40 minutes in XTZ group(P < 0.05). Respiratory rate significantly decreased 0,10,20 and 40 minutes after 72 injection in XTZ and MTZ groups. In Control group, systolic arterial pressure (SAP) 20 minutes. diastolic arterial pressure(DAP) 10 minutes and mean arterial pressures (MAP) 10 and 20 minutes after 72 injection significantly decreased(P < 0.05). In XTZ group, SAP, DAP and MAP significantly decreased 20 and 40 minutes after 72 injection(P < 0.05). Thus, it was considered that XTZ and MTZ were useful in a canine surgical treatment that requires long anesthetic duration and deep analgesia.

Antinociceptive Efficacy of Korean Bee Venom in the Rat Formalin Test (랫드의 포르말린 시험에서 한국산 봉독의 항통각 효과)

  • Lee, Eun-Goo;Kim, Joong-Hyun;Han, Tae-Sung;Cho, Ki-Rae;Kim, Myung-Hwan;Park, Woo-Dae;Han, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Gon-Hyung;Choi, Seok-Hwa
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.499-502
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    • 2007
  • The study was performed to assess the antinociceptive efficacy of Korean bee venom(BV) in the rat formalin test. Korean BV was collected using BV collector devices in which an electrical impulse is used to stimulate the worker bee(Apis mellifera L.) to sting and release venom. After collection, whole Korean BV was evaporated until dry using BV collector. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats(weighing 260-270, 6 weeks old). Rats divided into 4 groups, each comprising 8 rats. BV was diluted and amounts of 6 mg/kg body weight(BW), 0.6 mg/kg BW and 0.06 mg/kg BW were tested. BV was subcutaneously injected to produce an antinociceptive effect and the antinociceptive efficacy was evaluated using a rat formalin test. BV was subcutaneously injected into an acupoint(Zusanli, ST36) at 15 min prior to 1% formalin($50{\mu}l$) injection. The antinociceptive effect observed during 60 min following formalin administration. BV produced antinociceptive efficacy from 10 to 60 min after formalin injection. The antinociceptive efficacy of Korean BV showed a dose-dependent response. These results suggest that Korean BV may be a suitable and preferred choice for antinociceptive efficacy in pain management.

Anti-Obestic Effects of Artemisiae Capillaris Herba, Artemisia Capillaris Stem Aqueous Extracts on the High Fat Diet Supplied Mice (고지방 사료 급여 마우스에서 인진쑥 추출물의 항비만 효과)

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;Kim, Dae-Dong;Ku, Sae-Kwang;Kim, Ju-Wan;Jang, Kwang-Ho;Oh, Tae-Ho;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.348-365
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    • 2010
  • Artemisia capillaries THUNB is a perennial herb that belongs to the family compositae spp. and the most common plant among the various herbal folk remedies used in treatment of abdominal pain, hepatitis, chronic liver disease, jaundice and coughing in Korea. The object of this study is to observe the dosage-dependent anti-obestic effects of an aqueous extracts of dried aqueous extracts of stems of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. [Artemisiae capillaris Herba, In-Jin in Korean, INJ] on 45%/Kcal high fat diet (HFD) supplied mice. 45%/Kcal rodent HFD are supplied to ICR mice from 1 week before initiation of INJ administration throughout the 12 weeks, and after the end of 12 weeks of 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg/day of INJ administration, the efficacy was divided into five categories 1) hypoglycemic, 2) hepato-protective, 3) nephroprotective, 4) hypolipemic, and 5) anti- obesity effects. The effects were compared to those of simvastatin (for hypolipemic activity), silymarin (for hepatoprotective and free radical scavenger effects) and metformin (for hypoglycemic and related anti-obesity effects). 7 animals per group (8 groups; total 56adapted mice on HFD were selected base on the body weight at 6 days after initiation of HFD supply) were used in this experiment. INJ and all three different reference drugs were directly suspended or dissolved in distilled water, and administered at a volume of 10 mL/kg, once a day for 84 days from 1 week after HFD supply. As results of 91 days of continuous HFD supply, mice showed marked obese states, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, liver damages and kidney damages. These mean the obesity, diabetes, diabetic hepatopathies, nephropathies and hyperlipemia were induced by HFD supply. After end of 84 days of continuous treatment of three different dosages of INJ, all diabetes related complications were inhibited; relatively favorable anti-obesity, hypolipemic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and nephroprotective effects. These favorable effects showed relatively good dose-relations between all three different dosages of INJ treated, and INJ 250 mg/kg showed enough favorable effects on diabetes and related four complications tested as compared with one of each three different references. Otherwise, the efficacy of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg of INJ was somewhat slighter than those of all three reference drugs. Therefore, the suitable effective dosage of INJ is considered as 250 mg/kg/day in the present study. The overall anti-obesity effects of INJ 250 mg/kg-treated group was similar or more favorable than those of metformin 250 mg/kg-treated group, and INJ 250 mg/kg showed slighter hypoglycemic effects with silymarin 100 mg/kg and metformin 250 mg/kg, similar hypolipemic effects with simvastatin 10 mg/kg, and similar hepatoprotective effects with silymarin 100 mg/kg, and similar nephroprotective effects with that of silymarin 100 mg/kg and metformin 250 mg/kg, respectively. Obese, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, steatohepatitis and related nephropathies induced by HFD supply were dramatically inhibited by 84 days of continuous treatment of all three different dosages of INJ. It is, therefore expected that INJ extracts will be a favorable alternative agent for diet-related diabetes and complications.

A Study on Social Efficacy of Senior Citizens in Welfare Centers in Some Areas according to Their Subjective Oral Health and Their Quality of Life related to Oral Health (일부지역 노인복지관 노인들의 주관적 구강건강상태에 따른 사회적 효능감 및 구강건강관련 삶의 질에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hong-Ryurn;Ku, In-Young;Moon, Seon-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1000-1009
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    • 2014
  • This study selected 582 senior citizens who used 6 senior welfare centers in 7 districts, Daegu and analyzed questionnaires for them from January 9 through June 5, 2013 in order to look into their subjective oral health, social efficacy and quality of life according to their subjective cognition of oral health and their quality of life related to oral health according to sociodemographic characteristics and drew the following conclusions: Sex was statistically significant in toothache and xerostomia; age, in oral health, dysmasesis, toothache, periodontal complications and xerostomia; the level of education, in oral health, dysmasesis, toothache and periodontal complications; and the number of family members living together, in dysmasesis, toothache, periodontal complications, xerostomia and halitosis. Their responses to the question about their social efficacy according to oral health included: 'My oral health is not good' 3.11 points; and 'My jaw crackles or hurts' 1.99 points. In social efficacy according to their cognition of oral health, their health was 2.05 points while in the quality of life, their health was 3.41 points. In the scores of the quality of life related to oral health, for their health, functional limitation was 2.13 points; physical pain, 2.53; psychological discomfort, 2.17; physical limitation, 2.31; degradation of psychological ability, 2.06; degradation of social ability, 1.81; and social disadvantage, 1.99. In sum, it is judged that senior citizens' quality of life as well as their oral health will be enhanced when active seeking for plans to prevent the progress of oral diseases is sufficiently considered through continuously providing oral health education for the promotion of geriatric oral health and developing preventive programs.

The Relationship between Dementia and Oral Health in Some Elderly in Daejeon (대전 일부 노인의 치매와 구강건강의 관계)

  • Go, Hye-Bin;Kim, Min-Gyeong;Kim, Jin-Young;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Park, Young-Seo;Seo, Seung-Hyeon;Hwang, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.481-487
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    • 2016
  • The elderly population with dementia is rapidly growing in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and oral health in 197 subjects aged ${\geq}65$ years. The questionnaire included questions on subjective health status, subjective health concern, subjective oral health status and behavior, mastication ability, Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), and Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaires (KDSQ). Oral examination was conducted by a single dentist to evaluate upper or lower denture use, and determine the numbers of remaining and functioning teeth, including implant and fixed prosthesis. The subjects who required a dementia test (KDSQ-C [cognition] of ${\geq}6$) had significant differences in systemic disease prevalence rate, subjective health status, subjective health concern, KDSQ-V (vascular disease) score, KDSQ-D (depression) score, subjective oral treatment need, key food mastication ability and OHIP-14 score compared to the healthy subjects. The proportion of denture wearers, total remaining teeth, total functioning teeth, toothbrushing frequency, oral pain severity, symptoms of periodontal disease, subjective oral health status, and subjective oral health concern showed no significant differences between the two groups. KDSQ-C and OHIP-14 scores showed a strong positive relationship, while KDSQ-C score and total remaining teeth or key food mastication ability showed a weak negative relationship. In the multiple regression analysis, the KDSQ-D, KDSQ-V, and OHIP-14 scores influenced the KDSQ-C scores. We suggest a relationship between oral health and cognitive impairment.

Comparison of Radiologic Parameters between Weight Bearing Affected Both Ankle and Single Ankle in Ankle Exam (체중부하 상태의 족관절 검사시 양측 족관절 동시 검사와 편측 족관절 검사의 방사선학적 비교)

  • Cha, Sangyoung;Shin, Jaehan;Choi, Namgil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to analyze the results of radiologic parameters compared both leg weight bearing position to single leg weight bearing position in ankle osteoarthritis. Between January 2016 and June 2016, 25 patients (50 ankles) who visited our Hospital to treat ankle pain. In radiographic assessment, We masured tibial anterior surface angle(TAS), tibial medial malleolar angle(TMM), talar tilting angle(TT), joint space width(JSW), tibiotalar joint space, fibulotalar joint space of ankle as radiologic parameters. On the right leg of the both leg weight bearing position, TAS was $87.24^{\circ}$, TT was $6.44^{\circ}$, TMM was $26.76^{\circ}$, fibulotalar joint space was 0.98mm. Right leg of the single leg weight bearing position, TAS was $88.93^{\circ}$, TT was $2.41^{\circ}$, TMM was $19.77^{\circ}$, fibulotalar joint space was 1.6mm. And then, on the left leg of the both leg weight bearing position, TAS was $87.25^{\circ}$, TT was $5.71^{\circ}$, TMM was $23.92^{\circ}$, fibulotalar joint space was 1.22 mm and left leg of the single weight bearing position, TAS was 88.75, TT was $3.19^{\circ}$, TMM $21.45^{\circ}$, fibulotalar joint space was 1.22 mm. There are unsimilarity between measure values of TAS and tibiotalar joint space. As the result of test of weight bearing ankle study, it would be more exact to examine to measure one side in the first time rather than both to conclude on accurate measurement.

Ethanol Extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson Induces G1 Cell Cycle Arrest by Regulating Akt/GSK-3β/p53 Signaling Pathways in AGS Gastric Cancer Cells (AGS 위암세포에서 Akt/GSK-3β/p53 신호경로 조절을 통한 벌사상자 에탄올 추출물의 G1 Cell Cycle Arrest 유도 효과)

  • Lim, Eun Gyeong;Kim, Eun Ji;Kim, Bo Min;Kim, Sang-Yong;Ha, Sung Ho;Kim, Young Min
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.417-425
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    • 2017
  • Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is distributed in China and Korea, and the fruit of C. monnieri is used as traditional Chinese medicine to treat carbuncle and pain in female genitalia. In this study, we examined the anti-proliferation and cell cycle arrest effects of ethanol extracts from C. monnieri (CME) in AGS gastric cancer cells. Our results show that CME suppressed cell proliferation and induced release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in AGS cells by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology was altered by CME in a dose-dependent manner. In order to identify the cell cycle arrest effects of CME, we investigated cell cycle analysis after CME treatment. In our results, CME induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Protein kinase B (Akt) plays a major role in cell survival mechanisms such as growth, division, and metastasis. Akt protein regulates various downstream proteins such as glycogen synthase kinase-$3{\beta}$ (GSK-$3{\beta}$) and tumor protein p53 (p53). Expression levels of p-Akt, p-GSK-$3{\beta}$, p53, p21, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were determined by Western blot analysis. Protein levels of p-Akt, p-GSK-$3{\beta}$, and cyclin E were reduced while those of p53, p21, and p-CDK2 (T14/Y15) were elevated by CME. Moreover, treatment with CME, LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor), BIO (GSK-$3{\beta}$ inhibitor), and Pifithrin-${\alpha}$ (p53 inhibitor) showed that cell cycle arrest effects were mediated through regulation of the Akt/GSK-$3{\beta}$/p53 signaling pathway. These results suggest that CME induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase via the Akt/GSK-$3{\beta}$/p53 signaling pathway in AGS gastric cancer cells.

Characteristics and Clinical Correlations of Staphylococcus aureus Discovered in Stools from Children Hospitalized at a Secondary Hospital (일개 이차병원에 입원한 소아의 분변에서 발견된 황색포도알균의 특징과 임상적 연관성)

  • Shin, Eun Hye;Eun, Byung Wook;An, Young Min;Song, Mi Ok
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Research on the clinical role of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children has been scarce. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical correlation of S. aureus detection in children with AGE. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from children with symptoms of AGE who visited a secondary hospital between January 2012 and December 2015. The samples were sent to the Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment to test for pathogenic organisms. Clinical patterns were analyzed through medical record review. Results: Among the 663 participants, the bacteria detection rate was 26.2% (n=174), the virus detection rate was 29.7% (n=197), and the non-detection rate was 43.1% (n=286). S. aureus was tested positive from 102 cases and was confirmed as a single pathogen in 53 cases. It was the third most common pathogen. The prevalence by age was highest (45.3%) in 0-2 year-olds. Most cases occurred in summer. Symptoms included diarrhea (71.7%), vomiting (67.9%), fever (49.1%), and abdominal pain (37.7%). Only vomiting showed a significant difference between the S. aureus group and the non-detection group (67.9% vs. 43.0%; P=0.001). Among enterotoxins, the higher incidence of vomiting was associated with classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE) and SEH (P=0.027). Conclusions: S. aureus was the bacteria commonly isolated from children with AGE. Our study identified cases of staphylococcal AGE in children based on fecal samples and confirmed the characteristic symptoms, affected age groups, seasonal distribution, and correlation with enterotoxins.