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The Current Status of Utilization of Palliative Care Units in Korea: 6 Month Results of 2009 Korean Terminal Cancer Patient Information System (말기암환자 정보시스템을 이용한 우리나라 암환자 완화의료기관의 이용현황)

  • Shin, Dong-Wook;Choi, Jin-Young;Nam, Byung-Ho;Seo, Won-Seok;Kim, Hyo-Young;Hwang, Eun-Joo;Kang, Jina;Kim, So-Hee;Kim, Yang-Hyuck;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Recently, health policy making is increasingly based on evidence. Therefore, Korean Terminal Cancer Patient Information System (KTCPIS) was developed to meet such need. We aimed to report its developmental process and statistics from 6 months data. Methods: Items for KTCPIS were developed through the consultation with practitioners. E-Velos web-based clinical trial management system was used as a technical platform. Data were collected for patients who were registered to 34 inpatient palliative care services, designated by Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs, from $1^{st}$ of January to $30^{th}$ of June in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. Results: From the nationally representative set of 2,940 patients, we obtained the following results. Mean age was $64.8{\pm}12.9$ years, and 56.6% were male. Lung cancer (18.0%) was most common diagnosis. Only 50.3% of patients received the confirmation of terminal diagnosis by two or more physicians, and 69.7% had an insight of terminal diagnosis at the time of admission. About half of patients were admitted to the units on their own without any formal referral. Average and worst pain scores were significantly reduced after 1 week when compared to those at the time of admission. 73.4% faced death in the units, and home-discharge comprised only 13.3%. Mean length of stay per admission was $20.2{\pm}21.2$ days, with median value of 13. Conclusion: Nationally representative data on the characteristics of patients and their caregiver, and current practice of service delivery in palliative care units were obtained through the operation of KTCPIS.

The Association between Family Support, Activities of Daily Living and Depression among Hospitalized Older Patients with Chronic Diseases (만성질환 입원노인의 가족지지 및 일상생활 수행능력과 우울과의 관련성)

  • Kim, Jeong Yi;Ryu, So Yeon;Han, Mi Ah;Choi, Seong Woo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to identify the association between family support, activities of daily living (ADL) and depression among hospitalized older patients with chronic diseases. Methods: This study subjects were 100 elderly patients with chronic diseases including chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus and et al. in a general hospital. The collected data were patient characteristics, family support, ADL, and depression by structured questionnaire and medical chart review. The used statistical analyses were t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean scores of family support, ADL and depression were $49.95{\pm}8.68$, $8.65{\pm}2.65$, $6.66{\pm}3.78$, respectively. The prevalence rate of depression was 64.0%. In simple analysis, the statistically significant associated factors with depression were age, spouse, economic status, social activity, subjective health status, and number of pain. Depression had statistically a significant positive correlation with ADL and a negative correlation with family support. The final result of hierarchial multiple regression analysis (Model 3), the factors related to depression were family support (b=-.135, p<.001), subjective health status (b=2.510, p=.001). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop and apply the program for controlling the depression of elderly patients with health education, reinforcement of supportive systems in hospital. And, further multidisciplinary studies should be done.

The Risk Factors Related to Constipation in High School Students (고등학생 변비의 위험요인에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Yoon-Soo;Lee, Sok-Goo;Kim, Jeong-Yeon
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.15-28
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the status of bowel health behaviors, prevalence of constipation and risk factors related to self-reported constipation in high school students. Methods: The study subjects were 1,882 students of six high schools located in a metropolitan city, who were selected by the accidental sampling from June to August, 2002. We analyzed the data by frequency analysis, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression using SPSS ver. 10.0. Results: The result of this study were summarized as follows: 1. A prevalence rate of self-reported constipation was 25.2%. A rate in male students was 13.4% and in female students 36.5%. 2. In regard to therapeutic behavior, 52.1% of study student with change in bowel habit had not find particular counsellor, 38.9% of the student had counselling with parents. 16.3% of students in constipation group had taken laxative medicine for treating the constipation. 73.5% of the student in constipation group had suffered from anal pain during defecation, but 48.0% in normal group. 41.6% of the student in constipation group had a experience of rectal bleeding after defecation, but 23.7% in normal group. So constipation related symptoms distribution had showed statistically significant difference between two group. 3. From the multivariate analysis by self-reported method, the risk factors related to the constipation were sex(female), experience of diet for weight reduction, absence of the breakfast and intake of vegetable more than 3 times per weeks. Conclusions: we had reconfirmed that we should improve eating habits to prevent and treat the constipation in a result of this study. Intervention that is target to girl students, abstain from weight reduction diet, regularity of taking meals, intake more vegetables, stress management should be provided to prevent the constipation especially in Korean high school students. Further prospective designed study are needed to establish the causal-effect relationship between so many risk factors with constipation.

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Gender Difference in Quality of Life After Controlling for Related Factors among Korean Young-old and Old-old Elderly (한국 전·후기 노인의 삶의 질 관련요인과 성별 차이)

  • Chung, Younghae;Cho, Yoo Hyang
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.176-186
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: As a sequel to the former analysis of the quality of life (QoL) among young-old and old-old in Korea, this research was aimed to identify factors related to the quality of life and the gender difference after controlling for the related factors among Korean elderly. Methods: Selected elderly data of 1,339 subjects from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 was analyzed. In this survey, QoL was measured using Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) instrument. Data were analyzed using complex survey data analysis on IBM-SPSS 20.0. The related factors were identified using general linear models with backward elimination. The gender difference was tested also using general linear models. Results: The distributions of educational level, family income level, and presence of cohabitant were different between male and female elderly in both young-old and old-old age group. So were the health behaviors and perceived health, and experience of stress, depression, and suicidal thoughts. QoL and its subscales- mobility, self care, daily living, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression- were consistently better among male elderly regardless of age group. Among the variables considered, education, family income level, presence of cohabitant, perceived health, age group and BMI were found to be related to the QoL at p=.05, and presence of chronic diseases at p=.10. The difference in QoL between male and female elderly after controlling for the variables was statistically significant. Conclusion: Improving QoL is particularly important for the elderly. In order to improve QoL of the elderly, age- and gender- differences need to be considered when developing services and programs for the elderly.

Clinical Evaluation of TightRope Cranial Cruciate Ligament Technique for Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficiency in Dogs (전방 십자인대 결손을 보이는 개에서 TightRope을 이용한 치료방법 평가)

  • Yoon, Hun-Young;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Jeong, Soon-Wuk
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 2012
  • Nine dogs presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Konkuk University and Woosung Animal Hospital with a history of pelvic limb lameness. On physical examination, 9 dogs all showed a consistent weight bearing lameness and mild muscle atrophy. There was cranial drawer sign with pain in 9 dogs. Mediolateral radiographic projection revealed cranial subluxation of the tibial tuberosity in a tibial compression view. The right and left stifle joints were affected in 7 dogs and 2 dogs respectively. TightRope cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) technique for treatment of CCL deficiency was performed. Polyester and nylon were used to stabilize the stifle in 3 dogs and 6 dogs respectively. Suture sizes were 0.8 mm (n = 2), 0.9 mm (n = 4), 1.1 mm (n = 2), and $1.1mm{\times}2$ strands (n = 1) in diameter. Mean (${\pm}SD$) surgical duration was $48.3{\pm}8.5$ minutes (range 35 to 60 minutes). Preoperative and postoperative mean (${\pm}SD$) cranial drawer signs were $8.6{\pm}1.6$ mm (rage 7 to 12 mm) and $1.2{\pm}1.0$ mm (rage 0 to 3 mm) respectively. Immediate postoperative radiographs of the affected limb revealed no evidence of cranial subluxation of the tibial tuberosity in a tibial compression view of 9 dogs. Normal limb function was regained in 8 dogs within 8 weeks postoperatively. A consistent weight bearing lameness resolved in all dogs after TightRope CCL technique, but reoccurred in one dog (case No. 6) 2 weeks after surgery. Cranial subluxation of the tibial tuberosity was identified in a tibial compression test. During the second surgery, breakage of surgical button was identified and a tibial wedge osteotomy was performed. Based on surgical time, complication, stifle stability, and functional recovery, the present study indicated that TightRope CCL technique is effective treatment for the dogs with CCL deficiency.

Is a Fast-track Critical Pathway Possible in Gastric Cancer Surgery? (위암 수술 후 조기회복을 위한 임상진료 지침서의 활용이 가능한가?)

  • Yi, Jeong-Min;Hur, Hoon;Kim, Sung-Keun;Song, Kyo-Young;Chin, Hyung-Min;Kim, Wook;Park, Cho-Hyun;Park, Seung-Man;Lim, Keun-Woo;Jeon, Hae-Myung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The postoperative hospital stay after gastric cancer surgery is usually 8 to 14 days. The main reason for a prolonged hospital stay may be the 3 to 4 day period of postoperative starvation. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a critical pathway for early recovery after gastric cancer surgery, and this pathway included early postoperative feeding. Materials and Methods: One hundred three consecutive patients who underwent gastric resection and reconstruction for gastric cancer from October 2007 to June 2008 at St. Mary's Hospital were prospectively enrolled in a fast-track critical pathway. The pathway included minimal preoperative procedures, optimal pain relief, proper fluid administration, early mobilization and early enteral nutrition at postoperative 1 day. The exclusion criteria were determined preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. Results: Of the 103 patients, 19 patients were excluded for preoperative (5), intraoperative (7) and postoperative (7) reasons. Eighty-four patients (81.6%) were included in the fast-track critical pathway. Sixty-eight (88.6%) of 84 patients were discharged at the planned 8 day after surgery during the initial period of the study, and the postoperative hospital stay was shortened up to 6 days during the more recent period. Postoperative complications occurred in 22 patients (26.2%), and these were gastrointestinal track-related complications in 6 cases (3 cases of ileus, 1 case of stasis and 2 cases of leakage) and infection-related complications in 8 cases. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of morbidity according to the clinic-operative features that included age, gender, stomach resection and lymphadenectomy. Conclusion: The fast-track critical pathway with using the available exclusion criteria was a valid option for patients who underwent gastric cancer surgery.

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Effect of Aprepitant in Patient with Gastroparesis and Related Disorders (위마비증과 만성 구역 구토 증후군 환자에서 Aprepitant의 효과)

  • Jung, Kyoungwon;Park, Moo In
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.72 no.6
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    • pp.325-328
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    • 2018
  • 위마비증(gastroparesis)이나 만성 구역 구토 증후군(chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting)으로 인한 구역과 구토에 대한 치료는 일반적으로 사용하는 위장관 촉진제에 만족스럽지 못한 경우가 많고, 여러 부작용으로 인하여 장기적으로 사용하기 어려워 보다 효과적인 치료 방법이 필요하다. 최근 미국에서 발표된 본 연구는 위마비증이나 연관 증후군 환자에서 구역과 구토 증상을 줄이기 위한 aprepitant(neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist) 치료의 효과를 분석한 것으로, 향후 일반적인 치료에 불응성 위마비증 환자에서 새로운 약제 사용을 시도해볼 수 있어 소개하고자 한다. 본 Aprepitant for the Relief of Nausea (APRON) 연구는 기질적 질환을 배제하기 위하여 최근 2년 이내 위내시경이 정상이며, 적어도 6개월 이상 조기 포만감(early satiety), 식후 만복감(postprandial fullness), 팽만감(bloating) 그리고 명치부 통증(epigastric pain)을 유발하는 증상과 함께 만성적인 구역이 있는 18세 이상의 성인 중 4시간의 위배출 검사를 시행받은 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 객관적인 지표로 0점에서 45점까지 보이는 9-증상 Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index(GCSI)가 2주 이상 총 21점 이상이며, 0-100 mm의 visual analog scale (VAS)의 7일간의 구역 증상 평균 25 mm 이상인 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 일주일에 3일 이상 narcotics를 사용하였거나 와파린이나 pimozide, terfenadien, astemizole, cisapride를 복용하였던 환자, 2배 이상으로 간 효소 수치상승을 보이거나 Child-Pugh score 10점 이상, aprepitant에 알레르기를 보이는 환자는 제외되었다. 그렇지만 metoclopramide나 erythromycin을 안정적으로 사용 중인 환자는 제외되지 않았다. 위배출 검사는 2시간에서 60% 이상 남아 있거나 4시간에서 10% 이상 남아 있는 경우에 지연된 것으로 정의되었으며, 지연된 위배출 검사 결과 자체는 환자의 등록 기준에 포함되진 않았다. 등록 기준에 포함된 환자는 1:1로 무작위 배정되어 하루 한 번 125 mg의 aprepitant 복용군과 위약군으로 나누어져 연구가 진행되었으며, 약제 복용 4주간 2주 간격으로, 그리고 복용 후 2주 뒤까지 구역 증상의 호전 정도와 약제 안전성을 확인하였다. 이러한 효과를 판정하기 위하여 환자가 방문하는 동안 GCSI를 포함한 Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms (PAGI-SYM), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, daily VAS, daily diary version of the GCSI 그리고 정신 측정 도구와 삶의 질 도구인 Patient health Questionnaire 15와 Short Form 36 version이 측정되었다. 구역에 대한 aprepitant와 위약의 치료 효과의 일차적 판정은 이전 항암 요법에 대한 aprepitant 연구와 같이 28일 평균 VAS 25 mm 미만이거나 치료 전 7일간의 VAS와 비교하여 28일 치료 기간 동안 25 mm 이상 감소한 경우로 정의하였고, 이차 결과는 구역의 매일 시간, 치료 중 구역이 없는 날짜의 퍼센트, PAGI-SYM score의 개선 등으로 확인하였다. 2013년 4월부터 2015년 7월까지 총 126명의 환자가 등록되어 aprepitant군 63명, 위약군 63명으로 무작위 배정되었다. 전체의 57%인 72명에서 위배출 지연이 보였으며, 나머지 43%에서는 정상 또는 빠른 위배출 소견을 보여 만성적으로 설명할 수 없는 구역과 구토에 포함된 환자군으로 확인되었다. 또한 29%에서 당뇨를 가지고 있었으며, 8%에서 수면제를 사용하고 있었다. 최종적으로 aprepitant군은 59명, 위약군은 63명이 연구를 끝까지 종료하였다. 일차 결과에서 aprepitant 군 46%, 위약군 40%의 구역 호전을 보여 두 치료군 간에 통계적으로 의미 있는 차이는 보이지 않았다(상대 위험도 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.7; p=0.43). 그러나 일차 분석의 두 가지 척도(28일 평균 VAS 25 mm 미만과 기저 VAS보다 평균 28일 VAS의 25 mm 이상 감소)를 모두 함께 고려한 민감도 분석에서는 aprepitant군이 37% (22/59)로 위약군의 17%(11/63)에 비하여 통계적으로 의미 있는 구역의 호전을 보였다(상대 위험도 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.1; p=0.01). 또한 이차 분석을 살펴보면 aprepitant군에서 PAGI-SYM 중증도 지수로 확인하였을 때, 구역(1.8 vs. 1.0; p=0.005)과 구토(1.6 vs. 0.5; p=0.001)의 중증도 및 매일 구역 시간의 감소를 보였고, 28일 동안 구역이 없는 날짜의 퍼센트 증가 소견을 보였다. 다른 이차 결과 분석에서 aprepitant군이 PAGI-SYM 중증도 지수의 GCSI 종합 점수(1.3 vs. 0.7; p=0.001), 상당한 증상호전, 구역 구토의 세부 점수, 팽만감 세부 점수 그리고 위식도 역류 증상 점수에서 호전을 보였고, 매일 일기로 표현한 daily diary version of the GCSI에 상복부 통증 중증도, 전체 증상 그리고 Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale의 종합 점수에서 호전을 보였다. 연구 중 발생한 부작용은 주로 경증과 중등도 정도의 부작용이 주로 발생하였지만, aprepitant군(35% vs. 17% 위약군, p=0.04)에서 더 많이 발생하였다. 결론적으로 위마비증 또는 위마비증 유사 증후군으로 인한 만성 구역 및 구토 환자의 무작위 시험에서 aprepitant는 VAS 점수를 통한 주요 결과를 분석하였을 때는 구역의 중증도를 호전시키지 못하였지만 다른 이차적 결과에 대해서는 위약군에 대하여 호전 소견을 보였다. 따라서 aprepitant에 효과적인 반응을 보이는 위마비증 환자를 감별하는 추가 임상시험이 필요할 것으로 판단된다.

Mid-Term Results of Fixed Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up (고정형 슬관절 단일 구획 치환술의 중기 추시 결과: 최소 5년 추시)

  • Oh, Jeong Han;Joo, Il-Han;Kong, Dong-Yi;Choi, Choong-Hyeok
    • Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes, and the complications of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) using a fixed bearing prosthesis after 5-year follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six knees (25 patients) that underwent fixed bearing UKA between May 2003 and August 2011 were included. The subjects were 3 males (3 knees) and 22 females (23 knees), and the average age was 63.5 years. The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (23 knees) and osteonecrosis (3 knees). The mean follow-up duration was 67 months (from 60 to 149 months). The clinical evaluation included pre- and postoperative American knee society knee and function score, and range of motion. The radiology evaluation included standing antero-posterior, lateral view, and fluoroscopic film to analyze the postoperative alignment and osteolysis. Results: The mean American Knee Society knee score and function score were improved from 42.0 and 57.5 to 87.9 and 85.0, respectively (p<0.001). The mean preoperative and postoperative range of motion was $132.9^{\circ}$ and $132.5^{\circ}$, respectively. The mean femorotibial angle were varus $0.5^{\circ}$ preoperatively and valgus $2.2^{\circ}$ postoperatively. A radiolucent line was observed in 2 knees; one knee had a stable implant, while in the other knee, patellofemoral arthritis was identified during UKA. Diffuse pain of the knee joint with tenderness of the medial joint line was identified at the follow-up, so conversion to total knee arthroplasty was recommended. No other complications, such as osteolysis, infections, postoperative stiffness, and dislocation, were encountered. Conclusion: The midterm results of fixed bearing UKA were clinically and radiologically satisfactory.

The Therapeutic Effect of Sclerocorneal Lens in Coexisting Corneal Ectasia and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (각막확장증과 스티븐스존슨증후군 합병증 환자에서 미니공막렌즈의 치료 효과 1예)

  • Baek, Jin Uk;Park, Chang Hyun;Na, Kyung Sun;Kim, Hyun Seung
    • Journal of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
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    • v.59 no.10
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    • pp.968-973
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We report short-term treatment effects of a mini-scleral lens in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and corneal ectasia. Case summary: A 54-year-old female who had been diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and keratoconus presented with persistent right eye pain and decreased visual acuity. Therapeutic lenses, topical antibiotic eye drops, and topical steroid eye drops were used; however the symptoms were not controlled, then the patient was treated with a mini-scleral contact lens in the right eye. At the time of the first visit to our hospital 17 years ago, and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the right eye was logMAR 0.22. However, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and corneal ectasia were severe and cataract surgery was considered because of worsening cataracts, but the patients refused this surgery. At the time, the BCVA of the right eye was then reduced to logMAR 1.10. On ophthalmic examination, there was conjunctival fibrosis and corneal neovascularization of the right eye. The symptoms were not managed with a using a therapeutic lens, and then the patient was prescribed a mini-scleral contact lens. After wearing the mini-scleral contact lens, the corneal and conjunctival neovascularization was reduced. After 6 months, the BCVA of the right eye improved to logMAR 0.60. Conclusions: In patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and corneal ecstasia, mini-scleral contact lens can be considered as a useful treatment option for visual improvement and symptom control.

Classifications by Materials and Physical Characteristics for Neolithic Pottery from Jungsandong Site in Yeongjong Island, Korea (영종도 중산동 신석기시대 토기의 재료학적 분류와 물리적 특성)

  • Kim, Ran Hee;Lee, Chan Hee;Shin, Sook Chung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.122-147
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    • 2017
  • The Jungsandong sites are distributed across quartz and mica schist formations in Precambrian, and weathering layers include large amounts of non-plastic minerals such as mica, quartz, felspar, amphibole, chlorite and so on, which form the ground of the site. Neolithic pottery from Jungsandong exhibits various brown colors, and black core is developed along the inner part for some samples, and sharp comb-pattern and hand pressure marks can be observed. Their non-plastic particles have various composition, size distribution, sorting and roundness, so they are classified into four types by their characteristic mineral compositions. I-type (feldspar pottery) is including feldspar as the pain component or mica and quartz. II-type (mica pottery) is the combination of chloritized mica, talc, tremolite and diopside. III-type (talc pottery) is with a very small amount of quartz and mica. IV-type (asbestos pottery) is containing tremolite and a very small amount of talc. The inner and outer colors of Jungsandong pottery are somewhat heterogeneous. I-type pottery group shows differences in red and yellow degree, depending on the content of feldspar, and is similar to III-type pottery. II-type is similar to IV-type, because its red degree is somewhat high. The soil of the site is higher in red and yellow degree than pottery from it. The magnetic susceptibility has very wide range of 0.088 to 7.360(${\times}10^{-3}$ SI unit), but is differentiated according to minerals, main components in each type. The ranges of bulk density and absorption ratio of pottery seem to be 1.6 to 1.7 and 13.1 to 26.0%, respectively. Each type of pottery shows distinct section difference, as porosity and absorption ratio increase in the order as follows: I-type (organic matter fixed sample) < III-type and IV-type < I-type < II-type (including IV-type of IJP-15). The reason is that differences in physical property occur according to kind and size of non-plastic particles. Although Jungsandong pottery consists of mixtures of various materials, the site pottery has a geological condition on which all mineral composition of Jungsandong pottery can be provided. There, it is thought that raw materials can be supplied from weathered zone of quartz and mica schist, around the site. However, different constituent minerals, size and rock fragments are shown, suggesting the possibility that there can be more raw material pits. Thus, it is estimated that there may be difference in clay and weathering degree.