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The effects of selenium on fetal growth and development in CD-1 mice exposed with mercury for the gestation period (임신 중 수은을 섭취한 CD-1 마우스 태아의 성장발육과 기형발생에 미친 셀레늄의 효과)

  • Kim, Jin-suk;Lee, Sang-mok;Choi, Seok-wha;Lee, Won-chang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 1994
  • Teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of mercury have been reported, however, there is little information about possible antidotes against mercury exposure during gestation. In order to evaluate therapeutic effects of selenium as an antidote against mercury poisoning, pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to methylmercury chloride(20ppm) through the drinking water with treatment of sodium selenite (1.0mg, 2.0mg or 3.0mg/kg b.w., subcutaneously) or BAL(5.0mg/kg b.w., subcutaneously) under the single or combination base as the therapeutic agents from day 6 to 15 of gestation. Fetal growth parameters such as body weight and crown-rump length in the mice exposed to mercury, were reduced as was placental weight compared to those in the control. Treatment of selenium(alone, combination with BAL) reduced the harmful effects induced by mercury on the fetal growth parameters even though no specific relationship between dose and therapeutic effect. The incidence of dead fetuses/resorptions and malformed fetuses(especially cleft palate) was also increased in the mercury only treated group. Selenium treatment demonostrated reduced the incidence of abnormal fetuses under the exposure of mercury. Relative maternal organ weights(liver, kidney, spleen) were increased significantly but relative brain weight was decreased as evidenced by decreased in the mercury treated mice compared to that in the control. A subtle indication of maternal mercury toxicity evidenced by changes of relative maternal organ weights, decreased water and feed consumption were also prevented efficiently by selenium treatment. The present study suggests that methylmercuric chloride is embrytoxic and teratogenic in CD-1 mice when exposured during organogenesis and that selenium administration may have therapeutic application for the treatment of mercury poisoning although more applicable study in human should be performed with caution in the future.

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Localization and characteristics of lactate and palate dehydrogenase in the sparganum and adult worm of Spirometra erinacei (만손열두조충에서 젖산탈수소효소와 말산탈수소효소의 분포와 특징)

  • Gwak, Gi-Hun;Jeon, Eun-U;Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 1996
  • This study investigated the enzyme histochemical localization and characteristics of lactate (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) related with the oxidation-reduction metabolism in the sparganum and adult of 5. erinacei. By enzyme histochemical assay, activity of LDH was strong in the tegument and subtegumental muscle layers of the adult and sparganum. Activity of MDH was strong in the tegument of the sparganum and subtegumental muscle layers of the adult. However it was weak in the tegument of the adult. By electrophoresis, 45 kDa band was major and common in LDH of adults and spargana. The 150 kDa molecule was the major and common band in MDH of adults and r -spargana (from experimentally infected rats) . By isoelectrofocusing, isoelectric points (Pl) or 4 MDH isogyme from adult worm were 6.0.6.5, 6.7 and 7.1, respectively. Pl 6.0 was the major band. The active range of pH for MDH was about pH 6-8 and the optimum pH was pH 7 The effective temperature on the MDH was about $30^{\circ}C$$50^{\circ}C$ and the optimum temperature was about 40℃ in spargana md adult worm. In the stability against heat, when MDH was heated at 85℃ for 10 seconds, the activity was denatured perfectly. Maximum activity or MDH was 19.4 unit in the s-sparganum (from snakes), 24.5 unit in the r-sparganum (from rats) and 108.0 unit in the adult worm. The maximum activity was higher in adults than in spargana. The present result showed us that the nutrients absorbed through the tegument were transferred into inner tissues and were utilized as the source of metabolism. According to the habitat of the parasite, the isozymes of LDH and MDH are activated differently, and by this different activation the sparganum and adult can adapt themselves to parasitic circumstances.

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The Role of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (두경부에 생긴 선양 낭포암의 치료에 있어서 방사선치료의 역할)

  • Kim, Won-Dong;Park, Charn-Ii;Kim, Kwang-Hyun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1992
  • Forty eight patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in the head and neck treated between 1979 and 1990 were reviewed according to treatment modalities and clinical courses. The common site of origin was minor salivary gland ($69\%$), mostly hard palate and maxillary sinus. 11 patients received radiation therapy (RT) alone and 37 patients received combined surgery and radiation therapy. The follow-up period of the survivors ranged from 4 to 118 months (median 49.5 months). The 5 year local control rate was $69.3\%$, $67.3\%$ and 83.9$\%$ in RT alone, conservative operation (OP)+RT and radical OP+RT group, respectively (p>0.05). The control of local disease was best achieved with radical OP+RT. In postoperative RT, high dose ($\ge$60 Gy) and generous field size($\ge$64 cm$^2$) yielded a better local control rate. Actuarial overall survival rate was $79.0\%$, at 5 years and $19.2\%$ at 10 years. Distant metastases (DM) developed in $40\%$ of patients, mostly in the lung. Disease-free (NED) survival rate was $45.8\%$ at 5 years and significant differences did not exist according to primary sites and treatment options. Survival rate after the onset of DM was $19.5\%$ at 5 years. Occurrence of DM tends to lower survival significantly. In an effort to find the role of RT in the treatment of ACC, our data suggest that a well-planned postoperative RT employing a high dose and generous field size can produce high local control rate and remaining urgent problem of distant metastasis demands more effective chemotherapy for the purpose of improving survival of ACC patients.

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Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer (구강암의 방사선치료)

  • Shim Jae Won;Yoo Seong Yul;Koh Kyoung Hwan;Cho Chul Koo;Yun Hyong Geun;Kim Jae Young
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.267-275
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    • 1993
  • Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery. And 70 patients received external irradiation only by $^{60}Co$ with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III+IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was $43.9\%,$ 3 year survival rates were $60.9\%$ for stage I + II, and $23.1\%$ for stage III+IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3+T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient (p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially In the view of pertainig of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage.

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Changes in CGRP-immunoreactive Nerve Fibers during Expansion of Midpalatal Suture of the Rat (백서 정중구개봉합 확대후의 CGRP 면역반응 신경섬유의 변화)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Park, Kuk-Pil;Kyung, Hee-Moon;Kwon, Oh-Won;Sung, Jae-Hyun
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 1999
  • Midpalatal suture expansion is often used for patients haying narrow maxillary arch, cleft palate, respiratory handicap with narrow nasal cavity. CGRP has been known as a modulator of pain transmission in central nervous system and a local effector to peripheral tissue causing vasodilation, increase of blood flow, modulation of immune system, regulation of macrophagic function and stimulation of bone formation. To investigate changes of CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in midpalatal suture during the expansion, immunohistochemical study was performed by using rats. Experimental rats (10 weeks, 250 gm) were divided into five groups (control, 1, 4, 7, 14 days group (each n=4) and applied orthodontic force (approximately 200gm) to upper anterior incisors. Frozen sections of midpalatal suture area were immunostained by using rabbit antisera. The results were as follows. ${\cdot}$ The CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were hardly observed in control group. ${\cdot}$ In 1 day group, the CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were more increased around the vessels than control group. ${\cdot}$ In 4 days group, the CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were more increased than control group, but not more increased than 1 day group. Vascular diameter was more enlarged. ${\cdot}$ In 7 days group, especially, hematoxilin affinity of cells was remarkable and cells were arranged along the bone margin. The CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were more reduced than 4 days group and vascular diameter was also reduced. ${\cdot}$ In 14 days group, the CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were similar to those of 7 days group and the irregularity of bone margin was almost recoverd. In Conclusion, the CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers nay be related to initial neurogenic inflammatory reaction in expanding mid-palatal suture.

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Effect of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Anesthesia on Taste Threshold (하치조신경 전달마취가 미각역치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Young-Joon;Kim, Seung-Whan;Kim, Mee-Eun;Kim, Ki-Suk
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2007
  • Iatrogenic injury following dental treatments and the use of local anesthetics may cause taste disorders. The aims of this study were to investigate quantitative and qualitative changes of taste due to unilateral inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia and further to evaluate potential effects on taste function related to anesthesia or hypoesthesia of inferior alveolar nerve, possibly occurring after dental procedure. 30 healthy volunteers in their twenties participated in this study (male to female = 1:1, mean age of $24.0{\pm}1.8$ years). Each subject received inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia on his or her right side with 2% lidocaine HCl containing 1:100,000 epinephrine. Before and after anesthesia, electrogustometric test and chemical localized test for salty, sweet, sour and bitter tastes were performed on the eight sites in the oral cavity; right and left anterior and lateral tongue and circumvallate papilla of the tongue and soft palate. Unilateral inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia produced elevation of electrical taste threshold and reduction of intensity ratings for all 4 tastes (salty, sweet, sour and bitter) over anterior and lateral tongue and circumvallate papilla on the ipsilateral side (p<0.05). Contralateral sides exhibited decreased intensity ratings for salty and sweet taste (p<0.05) on anterior and lateral tongue while there was no significant difference in electrogustometric testing. Based on the results of this study, it is assumed that unilateral local anesthesia on inferior alveolar nerve can affect chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves on the same side, leading to taste deficits. Taste intensity on the contralateral side may, in part, be deteriorated as well.

Effect of location of glass fiber pre-impregnated with light-curing resin on the fracture strength and fracture modes of a maxillary complete denture (광중합형 레진에 함침시킨 유리섬유의 위치가 상악 총의치의 파절강도와 파절양상에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Hyun-Sang;Sung, Su-Jin;Jo, Jae-Young;Lee, Do-Chan;Huh, Jung-Bo;Jeong, Chang-Mo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.279-284
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of glass fiber pre-impregnated with light-curing resin on the fracture strength and fracture modes of a maxillary complete denture. Materials and methods: Maxillary acrylic resin complete dentures reinforced with glass fiber pre-impregnated with light-curing resin (SES MESH, INNO Dental Co., Yeoncheongun, Korea) and without reinforcement were tested. The reinforcing material was embedded in the denture base resin and placed different regions (Control, without reinforcement; Group A, center of anterior ridge; Group B, rugae area; Group C, center of palate; Group D, full coverage of denture base). The fracture strength and fracture modes of a maxillary complete denture were tested using Instron test machine (Instron Co., Canton, MA, USA) at a 5.0 mm/min crosshead speed. The flexure load was applied to center of denture with a 20 mm diameter ball attachment. When fracture occurred, the fracture mode was classified based on fracture lines. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05. Results: There were non-significant differences (P>.05) in the fracture strength among test groups. Group A showed anteroposterior fracture and posterior fracture mainly, group B, C and control group showed partial fracture on center area mostly. Most specimen of group D showed posterior fracture. Conclusion: The location and presence of the fiber reinforcement did not affect the fracture strength of maxillary complete denture. However, reinforcing acrylic resin denture with glass fiber has a tendency to suppress the crack.

INTRAOSSEOUS TOOTH MIGRATION OF IMPACTED MESIODENS IN THE INVERTED POSITION (상악 정중부에 역위 매복된 과잉치의 악골 내 이동)

  • Lee, Suk-Woo;Lee, Jae-Ho;Kim, Seong-Oh;Choi, Hyung-Jun;Sohn, Hyung-Kyu;Choi, Byung-Jai
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.750-756
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    • 2008
  • Supernumerary teeth are frequently found in the anterior portion of the maxilla and develop as a result of abnormal proliferation of the dental lamina during tooth germ formation, caused by genetic or environmental factors. They may result in various complications, such as eruption interference, displacement, rotation of adjacent teeth, diastema, eruption into the nasal cavity, and development of dentigerous cyst. The optimal time for surgical extraction of supernumerary teeth has been a controversial issue. Someone prefer early surgical extraction because supernumerary teeth can cause eruption interference and displacement of adjacent teeth, eventually altering occlusion. Others prefer to delay surgical extraction until $8{\sim}10$ years of age in consideration of root maturation of the adjacent teeth and also patient's behavior. When surgical extraction of supernumerary teeth is postponed, there is possibility that impacted supernumerary teeth in the inverted or horizontal position move toward the nasal cavity, hard palate, or premolar area. When such intraosseous tooth migration is combined with the vertical growth of the maxilla, surgical approach becomes even harder. Therefore, possibility of intraosseous tooth migration should be considered as an important factor when deciding appropriate time for surgical extraction. We are presenting cases of mesiodens which showed intraosseous migration during $6{\sim}7$ years of follow-up period since the first diagnosis had been made at the $2{\sim}3$ years of age.

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Effects of drilling process in stability of micro-implants used for the orthodontic anchorage (고정원을 위한 micro-implant 매식시 drilling 유무에 따른 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Young-Il;Kim, Jong-Wan
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the mechanical and histological effect of drilling process on the stability of micro-implant used for the orthodontic anchorage. For this purpose, 32 micro-implants(Osas$^{(R)}$, Epoch medical, ${\phi}$1.6 mm) were inserted into maxilla, mandible and palate in two beagle dogs. 16 micro-implants(8 per dog) were inserted after drilling with pilot drilling bur (drill method group). 16 micro-implants(8 per dog) were inserted without drilling (drill-free method group). After 1 week, micro-implants were loaded by means of Ni-Ti coil spring (Ni-Ti springs-extension$^{(R)}$, Ormco) with 200-300 gm force. Following 12 weeks, the micro-implants and the surrounding bone were removed. Before sacrifice, the mobilities were tested with Periotest$^{(R)}$(Siemens). Undecalcified serial sections with the long axis were made and the histologic evaluations were done. The results of this study were as follow ; 1. The osseointegration was found in both of drill-free method group and drill method group 2. Two of drill method group and one of drill-free method group in 32 micro-implants were lost after loading. 3. The mobilities of drill-free method group were less than drill method group 4. The bone contact on surface of micro-implants in drill-free method group was more than drill method group but there was no significant difference between groups. 5. The bone density in threads of micro-implants in drill-free method group was more than drill method group and there was significant difference between groups. These results suggest that drill-free method in insertion of micro-implants is superior to drill method on the stabilities, bone remodeling and osseointegrations under early loading.

A Case of Kabuki Syndrome Confirmed by Genetic Analysis: A Novel Frameshift Mutation in the KMT2D Gene (분자유전학적으로 진단된 가부키 증후군 1례)

  • Park, Su Jin;Ahn, Moon Bae;Jang, Woori;Cho, Won Kyung;Chae, Hyo Jin;Kim, Myung Shin;Suh, Byung Kyu
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2017
  • Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that causes multiple birth defects and mental retardation. Mutation of the lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) gene is the primary cause of Kabuki syndrome. We report a 4-year-old Korean girl diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome based on distinctive facial features (eversion of the lower lateral eyelid, arched eyebrows, depressed nasal tip, prominent ears), skeletal anomalies, short stature, and molecular analysis, which revealed a novel frameshift mutation in the KMT2D gene. A 4-year-old patient had a past history of congenital cardiac malformations (coarctation of the aorta, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus), subclinical hypothyroidism and dysmorphic features at birth including webbed neck, short fingers, high arched palate, micrognathia and horseshoe kidney. She showed unique facial features such as a long palpebral fissure, long eyelashes, arched eyebrows with sparseness of the lateral third, broad nasal root, anteverted ears, and small mouth. Her facial features suggested Kabuki syndrome, and genetic analysis discovered a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.4379dup, p.Leu1461Thrfs*30) in exon 15 of the KMT2D gene. The diagnosis of our 4-year-old patient was made through thorough physical examination and history taking, and genetic testing. It is challenging to diagnose patients with Kabuki syndrome at birth, since the characteristic facial features are expressed gradually during growth. Clinical suspicion aroused by regular follow-ups may lead to earlier diagnosis and interventions.

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