• Title, Summary, Keyword: Perceived workload

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Effects of Shift Pattern and Expertise on Perceived Workload and Performance for Aviation Security Screeners (항공보안검색요원의 교대근무유형과 경력에 따른 주관적 업무부하와 수행)

  • Chung, Eun Kyoung;Shin, Younghwan;Sohn, Young Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • The study examined the effects of shift pattern and expertise on perceived workload and performance for aviation security screeners. 18 security screeners participated in this study, in which data were analyzed by dividing them into two groups (experts vs. less-experts). We measured their perceived workloads and performances (i.e., reading time through X-ray) as a function of shift pattern and time condition. As a result, highly experienced screeners (experts) showed high workload during the morning shift, while lowly experienced screeners (less-experts) reported high workload during the full-day and the afternoon shifts. In addition, less-experts took a longer time to inspect the baggage when they worked for the full-day and the afternoon shifts. Particularly, in the last time slot of the full-dat shift, expert screeners had a high workload, while both groups showed a high-level of workload at around 17:30 in the afternoon shift.

Relationships of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms and Perceived Workload among Hospital Workers

  • Ryu, Tae-Beum;Song, Joo-Bong;Yun, Myung-Hwan;Lim, Ji-Hyoun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.687-694
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    • 2012
  • Objective: This study aims to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders(MSD) among Korean hospital workers and to analyze the relationship of MSD symptoms and workload perceived by workers. Background: Despite of high exposure to the MSD risk factors and high MSD symptom prevalence among health care workers, there were not enough studies of MSD prevalence among the hospital workers. Method: This study designed a survey based on Nordic questionnaire to obtain MSD symptoms and the degree of four perceived workloads: work repetition, urgency, physical exertion and satisfaction. In this survey, 1,846 workers in a hospital participated. The prevalence of MSD was analyzed for each body part, and MSD cases, which were predetermined in this study, were identified. The relationship between the MSD cases and each perceived workload was analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The pain in the shoulder was the most prevalent among the workers as 52%, and the low back(37%) and leg discomfort(36%) followed. The MSD cases, in which degree of pain was more than severe, were also the most prevalent in the shoulder(13%). Female workers had higher rate of MSD cases than the males. Among the four workload variables, the physical exertion was the statistically related to MSD cases for all the body parts. In addition, the others also had significant relation to MSD cases except one or two body parts. Conclusion: This study found that Korean hospital workers had MSD symptoms mainly in the shoulder, low back and legs in order, and the perceived workload surveyed in this study was highly correlated with MSD symptoms. Application: This study provides another evidence that subjective physical exertion perceived by workers is an important factor to explain MSD cases as same as the objective one.

The Influence of Safety Climate, Safety Leadership, Workload, and Accident Experiences on Risk Perception: A Study of Korean Manufacturing Workers

  • Oah, Shezeen;Na, Rudia;Moon, Kwangsu
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.427-433
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of workers' perceived workload, accident experiences, supervisors' safety leadership, and an organization's safety climate on the cognitive and emotional risk perception. Methods: Six hundred and twenty employees in a variety of manufacturing organizations were asked to complete to a questionnaire. Among them, a total of 376 employees provided valid data for analysis. To test the hypothesis, correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS program, version 23. Results: The results indicated that workload and accident experiences have a positive influence and safety leadership and safety climate have a negative influence on the cognitive and emotional risk perception. Workload, safety leadership, and the safety climate influence perceived risk more than accident experience, especially for the emotional risk perception. Conclusion: These results indicated that multilevel factors (organization, group, and individual) play a critical role in predicting individual risk perceptions. Based on these results, therefore, to reduce risk perception related with unsafe behaviors and accidents, organizations need to conduct a variety of safety programs that enhance their safety climate beyond simple safety-related education and training. Simultaneously, it needs to seek ways to promote supervisors' safety leadership behaviors (e.g., site visits, feedback, safety communication, etc.). In addition, it is necessary to adjust work speed and amount and allocate task considering employees' skill and ability to reduce the workload for reducing risk perception.

A Story on Teachers' Workload (교사의 업무 부담을 둘러싼 이야기)

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Soo;Hong, Chang-Nam;Hwang, Soon-Young;Lee, Yu-Na;Kim, Hye-Na
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.1440-1458
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' workload and its sources from teachers' perspective. Toward the purpose, interviews with and essays written by teachers were analyzed to interpret the meaning of teachers' workload and examine the relationship between their workload and social forces. The results indicated that teachers' workload could be fully understood when amount, intensity and nature of teachers' work were considered together. Among them the nature of work centered on non-educational affairs was perceived most serious problem by the teachers. However, most of the teachers felt helpless at their situation largely made by socio-structural factors including neoliberalism, bureaucracy and authoritarianism. Such a submissive reaction of teachers interacted with the forces to contribute to sustain their predicament.

Relationship of EMG and Subjective Discomfort Ratings for Repetitive Handling of Lightweight Loads

  • Lee, Inseok;Jo, Sungpill
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.565-575
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    • 2014
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of weight of load and time on the physical workload of repetitive upper-limb tasks with handling light weight loads using EMG and perceived discomfort, and to investigate the relationship between EMG and perceived discomfort for those repetitive tasks of moving light weight loads. Background: Repetitive upper-limb motion is known as one of the main risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders, and a lot of repetitive tasks are carried out while handling light weight loads in the industry. In evaluating the workload of repetitive tasks handling light weight loads, EMG and perceived discomfort can be used, though their relationship in those work conditions are not much investigated. Method: A laboratory experiment with 18 healthy males were conducted to record EMG signals from 5 muscle sites of the right arm and shoulder and rate perceived discomforts for the body parts and the whole body while carrying out repetitive materials-handling tasks for 52min. The subjects were divided into 3 groups which handled the loads of 1kg, 2kg and 3kg, respectively. ANOVAs were conducted to analyze the effects of the weight and time on RMS of EMG amplitude (normalized RMS: NRMS), median frequency of power spectrum of EMG (normalized MDF: NMDF) and perceived discomfort. The correlations between NRMS and NMDF and perceived discomfort were also analyzed. Results: Statistically significant muscular fatigue effects were not found from NRMS and NMDF in most muscles, while there were significant increases of discomfort as the task time elapsed. It was shown that there were an increasing trend of the muscular activity as the weight of load increased and a decreasing trend of median frequency of EMG of upper and lower arms as time elapsed. It was found that there were significant negative correlations between NMDFs from the lower arm and discomfort ratings, though the relationships were weak. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the working conditions adopted in this study were not enough to induce muscular fatigue, while there was significant increase in perceived discomfort. A further study is necessary to integrate the objective and subjective measures for more reliable and sensitive evaluation of workload of repetitive tasks of handling light weight loads. Application: This study can be used as a basic study for the evaluation of workload of repetitive tasks handling light weight loads.

Moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job burnout in dietitians and chefs of institutional foodservice

  • Lee, Kyung-Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.80-87
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    • 2011
  • The objectives of the study were to investigate job burnout and leader-member exchange (LMX) levels as well as to evaluate buffering effects of LMX on burnout among dietitians and chefs at institutional foodservices. Hypotheses were proposed based on the Job Demands-Resources model and LMX theory. The study population consisted of dietitians and chefs who were in charge of managing unit operations in a nationwide contract management company. Positive/negative affectivity, workload, job burnout, and LMX scales that bad been validated in previous research were adopted A total of 552 questionnaires were distributed and 154 responses were returned. Results indicated that respondents' burnout levels were moderate and emotional exhaustion was greater than cynicism. In terms of LMX, the surveyed dietitians and chefs showed higher respect toward their supervisors than loyalty. When positive affectivity and negative affectivity were controlled, workload influenced emotional exhaustion and professional efficacy significantly. With affectivity and workload controlled, however, LMX did not influence any dimensions of burnout. The moderating effect of LMX on the relationship between workload and cynicism was significant. That is, the effect of workload on cynicism was weak if the dietitians and chefs perceived the relationship with their supervisor positively. Based on the findings and literature reviewed, how to mitigate job burnout among foodservice managers is discussed.

Comparison of Different Work/Rest Schedules of a Repetitive Upper-limb Task Based on Perceived Discomfort and Heart Rate (지각불편도와 심박수를 이용한 상지 반복 작업 작업/휴식 일정의 작업부하 비교)

  • Lee, In-Seok;Haslam, Roger;Song, Young-W.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2008
  • Many automobile assembly workers often do several cycles of tasks continuously, i.e., without breaks, to get a longer break. This is not recommended since the dose of fatigue increases exponetially with time and it takes much longer time to recover. In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of work/rest schedules on workload of a repetitive upper-limb task. Eleven male subjects participated in the experiment, in which simulated screw driving tasks were carried out repetitively with 3 different work/rest schedules: standard breaks(1 cycle of work at a time, 60 20-s breaks), medium breaks(5 cycles of work at a time, 12 100-s breaks), and long breaks(10 cycles of work at a time, 6 200-s breaks). The result showed that medium- and long-breaks schedules significantly increased the level of perceived discomfort and %HRR as compared to the standard-break schedule. The subjects' preference was not statistically different among work/rest schedules, which might be caused from the absolutely low level of workload of the experimental tasks. From the results, it is recommended to have frequent and shorter breaks rather than infrequent and longer breaks to decrease the level of physical workload. A more expanded studies, however, should be carried out to provide more practical safety guidelines on the work practice of continuous working without breaks among automobile assembly workers.

A Questionnaire Survey on Occupational Disease of Fisheries (어선선원(漁船船員)들의 직업 관련성 질병 실태 조사)

  • Kim, Jae-Ho;Chang, Seong-Rok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to find out morbidity rate and pattern of occupational disease and affect of variables related disease of Fishing sailors'. The subjects this study were 624 fisheries sailors' who took a safety education course in Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology. This questionnaire was focused on finding the basic data for prevention of occupational disease and promotion health on the fishing sailors'. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, cross tab by SPSS package. The result of this study are as follow. 1) The morbidity rate within recent 12 months was 70.2%. There were significant differences of occurred disease in age, rank, perceived health status, fatigue symptoms, rest time, workload, overtime duration 2) The more aging(p<0.01), perceived fatigue(p<0.01), workload(p<0.01), overtime(p<0.05) and the less perceived health status(p<0.01), rest time(p<0.01), the higher morbidity rate. 3) Considering disease unable to work more than 4 hour, the number of those who had musculoskeletal disease were 20.9%, which revealed the highest rate, digestive disease 14.3%, traumatic disease 13.5%.

Development and Assessment of Shovel Applying Foothold

  • Lim, Cheolmin;Lee, Kyungsuk;Kim, Kyungran;Kim, Hyocher;Seo, Mintae;Kim, Seongwoo;Chae, Hyeseon
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2016
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a farming shovel to reduce workload, which helps farmers lower the risk of musculoskeletal disease. Background: Most of work using farming tools including shovels requires repetitive works and awkward postures on body parts, and it could possibly cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is necessary to develop and distribute farm equipment and tools in order to reduce physical workload. Method: To improve the most uncomfortable task perceived by ten farmers during the work with a shovel, the improved shovel was designed and made as a prototype for experiment for the comparison of the existing and improved shovels. Twenty males were recruited for this experiment, and muscle activity (%MVC) of six body parts and subjective discomfort ratings by body parts while working with a shovel were measured. A paired t-test was performed to compare physical workload between the existing shovel and the developed one. Results: A shovel applying foothold tied between shaft and blade was designed, which can help workers reduce repetitive bending of back and pressures for upper limbs while digging soil. According to compared evaluation of the developed shovel and the existing shovel, the developed shovel's %MVCs in all experimental muscles were significantly lower than those of the existing shovel. The developed shovel showed the biggest drop in perceived subjective discomfort rating of back, followed by arm and neck, compared to the existing shovel. Conclusion: It was confirmed that attaching a foothold to a shovel was an effective way of reducing workload in back and upper limbs during digging. Application: In the near future, if we put the prototype of developed shovel to practical use after making up for defects, it will help farm work environment be healthier and safer.

Work Load Dependency of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) (심박변이도의 운동부하 의존성)

  • Kwon J.H.;Kim C.S.;Eom G.M.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.641-642
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of work load on heart rate variability (HRV) which is widely used marker of the autonomic nervous system activity. Average heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and the power spectrum of heart rate variability were investigated in seven healthy males during exercise at various work loads. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the average heart rate during exercise, group 1 with lower heart rate and group 2 with higher heart rate. HF component showed decrease followed by increase with workload. Accordingly, the LF/HF ratio showed increase followed by decrease with workload. The peak in LF/HF ratio of group 1 was at the lower workload than that of group 2.

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