• Title, Summary, Keyword: Peristaltic flow

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Effect of Intraruminal Sucrose Infusion on Volatile Fatty Acid Production and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Sheep

  • Kim, K.H.;Lee, S.S.;Kim, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.350-353
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    • 2005
  • Effects of sucrose supplement on the pattern of VFA production and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were examined in sheep consuming basal diet of grass silage (2.5 kg fresh wt/d) that was provided in 24 equal meals each day by an automatic feeder. Four mature wethers were allocated to four experimental treatments in a 4${\times}$4 Latin square design with periods lasting 14 days. The treatments were (1) the basal diet, (2) supplemented with 150 g sucrose and 7.0 g urea, (3) 300 g sucrose and 13 g urea, and (4) 450 g sucrose and 20 g urea given as a continuous intraruminal infusion for 24 h. All infusions were given in 2 litres of aqueous solution per day using a peristaltic pump. The effect of sucrose level on rumen mean pH was significantly linear (p<0.01). There were not significant differences in the concentration of ammonia-N, total VFA and the molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate with the level of sucrose infusion. The molar proportions of isobutyric acid (p<0.05) and isovaleric acid (p<0.001) were significantly reduced when the infused amount of sucrose was increased. The flow of microbial N was linearly (p<0.001) increased with sucrose and urea level. High levels of readily fermentable carbohydrate in a ration reduced the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. It was demonstrated that of the individual fatty acids, only the molar proportion of isovalerate showed a significant negative correlation (R2=$0.3501^{**}$) with the amount of microbial N produced and a significant positive correlation (R2=$0.2735^{**}$) with the efficiency of microbial growth.

Collection of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms from infected humans after praziquantel treatment

  • Shen, Chenghua;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Jeong-Keun;Bae, Young-Mee;Choi, Min-Ho;Oh, Jin-Kyoung;Lim, Min-Kyung;Shin, Hai-Rim;Hong, Sung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.149-152
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    • 2007
  • A cohort was established for evaluation of cancer risk factors in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. As one of the cohort studies, stools of 947 residents (403 males and 544 females, age range: 29-86 years) were screened for Clonorchis sinensis eggs using both Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall egg positive rate of C. sinensis was 37.7% and individual EPG (eggs per gram of feces) counts ranged from 24 to 28,800. Eight egg positive residents voluntarily joined a process of collection of the passed worms after praziquantel treatment. A total of 158 worms were recovered from 5 of the 8 treated persons, ranged from 3 to 108 in each individual. The worms were $15-20 mm{\times}2-3 mm$ in size, and showed brown-pigmented, red, or white body colors. This is the first collection record of C. sinensis adult worms from humans through anthelmintic treatment and purgation. The adult worms of C. sinensis may be paralyzed by praziquantel and then discharged passively through bile flow in the bile duct and by peristaltic movement of the bowel.

PIV Measurement of Pulsatile Flows in 3D Curved Tubes Using Refractive Index Matching Method (3차원 곡관에서의 굴절률 일치법을 이용한 맥동 유동의 PIV 측정)

  • Hong, Hyeon Ji;Ji, Ho Seong;Kim, Kyung Chun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.511-517
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    • 2016
  • Three-dimensional models of stenosis blood vessels were prepared using a 3D printer. The models included a straight pipe with axisymmetric stenosis and a pipe that was bent $10^{\circ}$ from the center of stenosis. A refractive index matching method was utilized to measure accurate velocity fields inside the 3D tubes. Three different pulsatile flows were generated and controlled by changing the rotational speed frequency of the peristaltic pump. Unsteady velocity fields were measured by a time-resolved particle image velocimetry method. Periodic shedding of vortices occurred and moves depended on the maximum velocity region. The sizes and the positions of the vortices and symmetry are influenced by mean Reynolds number and tube geometry. In the case of the bent pipe, a recirculation zone observed at the post-stenosis could explain the possibility of blood clot formation and blood clot adhesion in view of hemodynamics.

Quantitative Analysis of Citrate in Foods Using a Potentiometric Enzyme Biosensor (전위차법 효소 바이오센서를 이용한 식품의 구연산 정량분석)

  • Kwon, Ji-Young;Kim, Mee-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2006
  • Potentiometric biosensor using flow injection analysis system was developed to determine citrate concentration in foods. Biosensor system consisted of sample injector, peristaltic pump, enzyme reactor, carbonate ion selective solid-state electrode, reference electrode, detector, and recorder. Enzyme reactor was prepared with immobilized citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Carbonate ions produced through enzyme reactions of citrate were potentiometrically detected by ion selective electrode. Optimum conditions for biosensor system were investigated. Interference effect of major sugars and organic acids was less than 5% on citrate biosensor system. Citrate concentrations in fruit juices were determined by biosensor and gas chromatography. No significant difference was observed between two analytical methods. Results indicate citrate biosensor is useful in determining citrate concentration in foods.

실관 생물반응기대 고정화된 Enterococcus faecalis RKY1에 의한 숙신산 생산특성

  • 위영중;윤종선;류화원
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.182-188
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    • 2002
  • Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 cells were immobilized in an asymmetric hollow fiber bioreactor for application to the continuous production of succinic acid. The media was fed into shell-side of the module using a peristaltic pump, and the products were collected through lumen-side outlet. The number of hollow fibers within the module did not affect the bioreactor efficiency in the transverse operated hollow fiber bioreactor. The steady state at the outlet of hollow fiber bioreactor was reached after 24 hr cultivation at flow rate of 0.25 mL/mim, 12 hr at 0.5 L/min, and 9 hr at 1.0 mL/mm, respectively. The succinate and fumarate concentrations within the hollow fiber bioreactor, however, were as changeful as increasing the flow rate. During continuous operation with the flow rates between 0.5 and 2.0 mL, the productivity of succinate was 8.0-10.9 g/L $.$ hr at 30 g/L fumarate, 4.9-14.9 g/L hr at 50 g/L fumarate, and 7.2-17.1 g/L hr at 80 galL fumarate, respectively.

Synthesis of Structured Lipids from Corn Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid with Immobilized Lipase-Catalyzed Reaction (옥수수유와 conjugated linoleic acid로부터 고정화 효소를 이용한 재구성지질의 합성)

  • Cho, Eun-Jin;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.797-802
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    • 2003
  • Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by esterification of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a continuous packed-bed column reactor. The effects of flow rate, reaction temperature, and substrate molar ratios were studied. The reaction was catalyzed by TL IM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa). Results of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis by GC showed that the incorporated CLA isomers were mainly cis9, trans11- and trans 10, cis12-CLA. Slower flow rates yielded higher incorporation, and maximum incorporation of CLA was obtained with a molar ratio of 1:3 (corn oil: CLA) at a temperature of $55^{\circ}C$. The obtained SLs had iodine values ranging from 120 to 128. The SLs were composed of TAG $(98{\sim}99%)$, 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerol ($0.7{\sim}1.3%$), and a small amount of monoacylglycerol.

정전구동 방식의 연동형 마이크로펌프의 제작

  • Hong, Pyo-Hwan;Jeong, Dong-Geon;Gong, Dae-Yeong;Pyo, Dae-Seung;Lee, Jong-Hyeon;Lee, Dong-In;Jo, Chan-Seop;Kim, Bong-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.448-448
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    • 2013
  • 최근 생물학적 분석 기구에서 시료를 처리, 분리, 검출, 샘플링 또는 분석하기 위해 사용되는 마이크로펌프(Micropump)에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 또한 전자소자의 성능과 신뢰성의 증진을 위한 전자소자의 열 문제를 해결하기 위해 냉각장치로 마이크로 펌프가 적용되기도 한다. 그 외에도 마이크로펌프는 다양한 분야에 응용이 가능하다. 마이크로펌프는 작동 방식에 따라 압전형, 공압형, 열공압형, 연동형 등의 여러 종류로 분류되고 있다. 그중에서도 최근에는 연동형 마이크로 펌프의 개발이 각광받고 있다. 기존의 연동형 펌프들은 다중 챔버를 가지고 있으며, 각각의 챔버 내에서 Dead volume이 많이 발생할 뿐만 아니라 이상적인 연동운동과는 차이가 많이 나는 문제점을 가지고 있다. 또한 압전방식과 열공압방식은 느린 응답성으로 인해 효율적인 유체 이동이 어렵다. 본 논문에서는 이상적인 연동운동을 구현하기 위하여 기존의 연동형 펌프의 단점을 보완하고, 하나의 챔버에 다중전극 구조를 가지는 정전기력방식의 연동형 펌프를 개발하였다. 정전기력방식으로 펌프를 구동함으로써, 저전력으로 펌프구동이 가능하며, 하나의 챔버에 다중전극을 설치함으로써 이상적인 연동운동을 재현하였다. 그리고 Dead volume을 최소화 하였다. 또한, 빠른 반응속도로 인해 효율적인 유체 이동을 실현시킬 수 있었다. 본 연구에서 제안된 마이크로 펌프의 구성은 크게 챔버, 박막, Inlet/outlet hole으로 구성되었다. 챔버는 Si-wafer에 wet etching 공정으로 제작 하였고 그 위에 알루미늄 박막을 200 nm 증착시켰다. 챔버는 가로 32 mm, 세로 5 mm, 깊이는 $15{\mu}m$, 부피는 $200{\mu}l$으로 제작되었다. 박막은 폴리이미드(polyimide)를 사용하여 $3{\mu}m$의 두께로 제작 되었으며, 폴리이미드 박막 사이에는 200 nm 두께의 4개의 알루미늄 박막 전극을 삽입시켰다. 삽입된 4개의 전극에 개별적인 전기신호를 보냄으로써 연동운동이 가능하다. Inlet/outlet hole은 직경 2 mm의 크기로 제작되었으며, 튜브를 연결하여 유체가 흐를 수 있는 체널을 형성하였다. 제작된 마이크로 펌프의 구동전압은 115 V이며, 인가되는 주파수를 1 Hz~100 KHz까지 변화시켜 유량을 측정하였다. 작동 유체는 공기이며, 유량측정은 튜브 내에 물방울을 삽입하여 시간에 따른 이동거리를 관측하였다. 측정결과 2.2 KHz에서 2.4 mm/min의 가장 높은 유량을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 제안된 연동형 마이크로펌프는 이상적인 연동운동이 가능함으로써 기존의 연동형 방식의 문제점을 보완하였으며, 생명과학, 의학, 화학 등의 분야에서 적용이 가능하리라 기대된다.

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Quantitative Analysis of Ergosterol as a Biomarker of Mold-contaminated Foods Using the Enzyme Biosensor (효소 바이오센서를 이용한 식품의 곰팡이 오염 지표물질인 Ergosterol 정량분석)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Jong-Won;Kim, Mee-Ra
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.252-259
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    • 2009
  • Ergosterol is the significant component of the cell wall of fungi. Its presence is regarded as evidence of fungi contamination in grain and other foods. Many studies on ergosterol detection have been carried out using chemical methods, but those methods required complicated pre-treatments and long analysis times. In this study, an amperometric biosensor was developed for fast and precise ergosterol detection. The biosensor system used the electron transfer of hydrogen peroxide produced from the reaction of ergosterol with cholesterol oxidase. The biosensor system consisted of a peristaltic pump, a syringe loading sample injector, an enzyme reactor, a fabricated flow-through cell containing a working electrode, a reference electrode and a counter electrode, and a potentiostat/recorder. The working electrode was prepared by coating modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) on glassy carbon electrode. The $MWNT-NH_2$ coated glassy carbon electrode linearly responded to hydrogen peroxide in the range of $1{\times}10^{-5}{\sim}8{\times}10^{-5}$ M with a detection limit of $10^{-7}$ M in the basic performance test. The currents produced from the ergosterol biosensor showed the linearity in a range from $1.0{\times}10^{-6}$ M to $1.0{\times}10^{-5}$ M ergosterol.