• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phase encoding

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Artifacts Improvement by using the Echo Planar Imaging and Pre-Saturation Pulse Band techniques of Reduced Field-Of-View in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Examination (유방 자기공명영상검사에서 감소된 영상영역의 에코평면영상기법과 사전포화기법 사용에 의한 인공물 개선)

  • Lee, Jaeheun;Kim, Hyunjin;Im, Inchul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted in reducing the involuntary motion artifacts because of lungs and heart movements as well as the aliasing artifacts generated during the use of the reduced-FOV EPI technique while performing breast MRI. Performed on a total of 38 obesity female subjects who visited the clinic for pre-examination before surgery within the period from August 1 to November 30, 2014. The 3.0T MRI scanner equipped with a breast scanning coil. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were each used for the evaluation of the acquired images while an Paired T-test and Wilcoxon rank test were performed to check the statistical significance. The variation ratio rose by 15.69% with the additional application of a pre-saturation pulse in the lesion, by 13.72% near the lesion, and 20.63% in the fat and the contrast-to-noise ratio rose by 10.58% in and near the lesion and by 12.03% in the lesion and fat, respectively. there were increases of 22.05% and 21.42% at 0 and 1000 respectively in qulitative evaluation and growth of 16.10% in apparent diffusion coefficient. it showed a statistically significant result(p<0.05) in signal to noise ratio, contrast to noise ratio, diffusion slope coefficient and apparent diffusion coefficient. The involuntary movements artifacts that occur in the phase encoding direction and the aliasing artifacts are considered to be reduced to obtain the best image in the additional use of the pre-saturation pulse as DWI is acquired.

Thermoresistant properties of bacterioferritin comigratory protein against high temperature stress in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Schizosaccharomyces pombe에 존재하는 bacterioferritin comigratory protein의 고온 스트레스에 대한 열저항적 성질)

  • Ryu, In Wang;Lee, Su Hee;Lim, Hye-Won;Ahn, Kisup;Park, Kwanghark;Sa, Jae-Hoon;Jeong, Kyung Jin;Lim, Chang-Jin;Kim, Kyunghoon
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.398-405
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    • 2016
  • The Schizosaccharomyces pombe structural gene encoding bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) was previously cloned using the shuttle vector pRS316 to generate the BCP-overexpressing plasmid pBCP10. The present work aimed to evaluate the thermoresistant properties of BCP against high temperature stress using the plasmid pBCP10. When the S. pombe cells were grown to the early exponential phase and shifted from $30^{\circ}C$ to $37^{\circ}C$ or $42^{\circ}C$, the S. pombe cells harboring pBCP10 grew significantly more at both $37^{\circ}C$ and $42^{\circ}C$ than the vector control cells. After 6 h of the shifting to higher incubation temperatures, they contained the lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrite content, an index of nitric oxide (NO), than the vector control cells. After the temperature shifts, total glutathione (GSH) content and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were much higher in the S. pombe cells harboring pBCP10 than in the corresponding vector control cells. Taken together, the S. pombe BCP plays a thermoresistant role which might be based upon its ability both to down-regulate ROS and NO levels and to up-regulate antioxidant components, such as total GSH and SOD, and subsequently to maintain thermal stability.

CACB-Q2PSK Modulation for Efficient Bandwidth Utilization and Constant Amplitude Signal Transmission (효율적인 대역폭 이용과 정진폭 신호 전송을 위한 CACB-Q2PSK 변조)

  • Hong, Dae-Ki
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we propose new modulation schemes using the conventional CACB modulation with constant amplitude property. Also the proposed modulation schemes supports high transmission data rate by increasing the spectral efficiency. In order to obtain the high spectral efficiency, the $Q^2$PSK and CA-$Q^2$PSK are used. We explain the simplest combining modulation scheme of CACB and $Q^2$PSK (i.e., CACB-$Q^2$PSK). However, this modulation scheme cannot support the constant amplitude property. Hence the first CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK (or CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK I) modulation scheme is proposed for the constant amplitude property. In the modulation scheme, the redundant constant amplitude encoding (spectral efficiency decrease) is required. Therefore, the second CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK (or CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK II) modulation scheme is proposed retaining the constant amplitude and the spectral efficiency. Computer simulations show that the proposed CACB-CA-$Q^2$PSK II is the efficient modulation scheme.

Recent Studies on the Edible Plant Vaccine for Prophylactic Medicine against Microorganism-Mediated Diseases (세균성 질병 예방을 위한 식물 경구 백신 연구 동향)

  • Hahn Bum-Soo;Jeong Young-Jae;Roh Kyung-Hee;Park Jong-Sug;Cho Kang-Jin;Kim Yong-Hwan;Kim Jong-Bum
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.233-241
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    • 2005
  • Plants have considerable advantages for the production of antigenic proteins because they provide an inexpensive source of protein and an easy administration of vaccine. Since a publication describing edible plant vaccine of HBsAg in 1992, a number of laboratories around the world have studied the use of plants as the bioreactor to produce antigenic proteins of human or animal pathogens. Over the last ten years, these works have been mainly focused on three major strategies for the production of antigenic proteins in plants: stable genetic transformation of either the nuclear or plastid genome, or transient expression in plants using viral vectors. As many antigenic proteins have been expressed in tobacco, also several laboratories have succeeded to express genes encoding antigenic proteins in other crop plants: potato, tomato, maize, carrot, soybean and spinach. At present many works for the production of edible plant vaccine against bacteria-mediated diseases have mostly performed the studies of enterotoxins and adhesion proteins. Also the development of new-type antigens (pili, flagella, surface protein, other enterotoxin and exotoxin etc.) is required for various targets and more efficacy to immunize against microorganism pathogens. Many works mostly studied in experimental animals had good results, and phase I clinical trial of LTB clearly indicated its immunogenic ability. On the other hand, edible plant vaccines have still problems remained to be solved. In addition to the accumulation of sufficient antigen in plants, human health, environment and agriculture regulation should be proven. Also oral tolerance, the physiological response to food antigens and commensal flora is the induction of a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness, needs to be addressed before plant-derived vaccine becomes a therapeutic option.

Sesquiterpenoids Bioconversion Analysis by Wood Rot Fungi

  • Lee, Su-Yeon;Ryu, Sun-Hwa;Choi, In-Gyu;Kim, Myungkil
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.19-20
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    • 2016
  • Sesquiterpenoids are defined as $C_{15}$ compounds derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), and their complex structures are found in the tissue of many diverse plants (Degenhardt et al. 2009). FPP's long chain length and additional double bond enables its conversion to a huge range of mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic structures. A number of cyclic sesquiterpenes with alcohol, aldehyde, and ketone derivatives have key biological and medicinal properties (Fraga 1999). Fungi, such as the wood-rotting Polyporus brumalis, are excellent sources of pharmaceutically interesting natural products such as sesquiterpenoids. In this study, we investigated the biosynthesis of P. brumalis sesquiterpenoids on modified medium. Fungal suspensions of 11 white rot species were inoculated in modified medium containing $C_6H_{12}O_6$, $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ for 20 days. Cultivation was stopped by solvent extraction via separation of the mycelium. The metabolites were identified as follows: propionic acid (1), mevalonic acid lactone (2), ${\beta}$-eudesmane (3), and ${\beta}$-eudesmol (4), respectively (Figure 1). The main peaks of ${\beta}$-eudesmane and ${\beta}$-eudesmol, which were indicative of sesquiterpene structures, were consistently detected for 5, 7, 12, and 15 days These results demonstrated the existence of terpene metabolism in the mycelium of P. brumalis. Polyporus spp. are known to generate flavor components such as methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate; 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyl benzoic acid; 3-hydroxy-5-methyl phenol; and 3-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl phenol in submerged cultures (Hoffmann and Esser 1978). Drimanes of sesquiterpenes were reported as metabolites from P. arcularius and shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Fleck et al. 1996). The main metabolites of P. brumalis, ${\beta}$-Eudesmol and ${\beta}$-eudesmane, were categorized as eudesmane-type sesquiterpene structures. The eudesmane skeleton could be biosynthesized from FPP-derived IPP, and approximately 1,000 structures have been identified in plants as essential oils. The biosynthesis of eudesmol from P. brumalis may thus be an important tool for the production of useful natural compounds as presumed from its identified potent bioactivity in plants. Essential oils comprising eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids have been previously and extensively researched (Wu et al. 2006). ${\beta}$-Eudesmol is a well-known and important eudesmane alcohol with an anticholinergic effect in the vascular endothelium (Tsuneki et al. 2005). Additionally, recent studies demonstrated that ${\beta}$-eudesmol acts as a channel blocker for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and it can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (Seo et al. 2011). Variation of nutrients was conducted to determine an optimum condition for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes by P. brumalis. Genes encoding terpene synthases, which are crucial to the terpene synthesis pathway, generally respond to environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and available nutrients (Hoffmeister and Keller 2007, Yu and Keller 2005). Calvo et al. described the effect of major nutrients, carbon and nitrogen, on the synthesis of secondary metabolites (Calvo et al. 2002). P. brumalis did not prefer to synthesize sesquiterpenes under all growth conditions. Results of differences in metabolites observed in P. brumalis grown in PDB and modified medium highlighted the potential effect inorganic sources such as $C_4H_{12}N_2O_6$, $KH_2PO_4$, $MgSO_4$, and $CaCl_2$ on sesquiterpene synthesis. ${\beta}$-eudesmol was apparent during cultivation except for when P. brumalis was grown on $MgSO_4$-free medium. These results demonstrated that $MgSO_4$ can specifically control the biosynthesis of ${\beta}$-eudesmol. Magnesium has been reported as a cofactor that binds to sesquiterpene synthase (Agger et al. 2008). Specifically, the $Mg^{2+}$ ions bind to two conserved metal-binding motifs. These metal ions complex to the substrate pyrophosphate, thereby promoting the ionization of the leaving groups of FPP and resulting in the generation of a highly reactive allylic cation. Effect of magnesium source on the sesquiterpene biosynthesis was also identified via analysis of the concentration of total carbohydrates. Our current study offered further insight that fungal sesquiterpene biosynthesis can be controlled by nutrients. To profile the metabolites of P. brumalis, the cultures were extracted based on the growth curve. Despite metabolites produced during mycelia growth, there was difficulty in detecting significant changes in metabolite production, especially those at low concentrations. These compounds may be of interest in understanding their synthetic mechanisms in P. brumalis. The synthesis of terpene compounds began during the growth phase at day 9. Sesquiterpene synthesis occurred after growth was complete. At day 9, drimenol, farnesol, and mevalonic lactone (or mevalonic acid lactone) were identified. Mevalonic acid lactone is the precursor of the mevalonic pathway, and particularly, it is a precursor for a number of biologically important lipids, including cholesterol hormones (Buckley et al. 2002). Farnesol is the precursor of sesquiterpenoids. Drimenol compounds, bi-cyclic-sesquiterpene alcohols, can be synthesized from trans-trans farnesol via cyclization and rearrangement (Polovinka et al. 1994). They have also been identified in the basidiomycota Lentinus lepideus as secondary metabolites. After 12 days in the growth phase, ${\beta}$-elemene caryophyllene, ${\delta}$-cadiene, and eudesmane were detected with ${\beta}$-eudesmol. The data showed the synthesis of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with bi-cyclic structures. These compounds can be synthesized from FPP by cyclization. Cyclic terpenoids are synthesized through the formation of a carbon skeleton from linear precursors by terpene cyclase, which is followed by chemical modification by oxidation, reduction, methylation, etc. Sesquiterpene cyclase is a key branch-point enzyme that catalyzes the complex intermolecular cyclization of the linear prenyl diphosphate into cyclic hydrocarbons (Toyomasu et al. 2007). After 20 days in stationary phase, the oxygenated structures eudesmol, elemol, and caryophyllene oxide were detected. Thus, after growth, sesquiterpenes were identified. Per these results, we showed that terpene metabolism in wood-rotting fungi occurs in the stationary phase. We also showed that such metabolism can be controlled by magnesium supplementation in the growth medium. In conclusion, we identified P. brumalis as a wood-rotting fungus that can produce sesquiterpenes. To mechanistically understand eudesmane-type sesquiterpene biosynthesis in P. brumalis, further research into the genes regulating the dynamics of such biosynthesis is warranted.

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Mytilin B, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Hemocyte of the Hard-shelled Mussel, Mytilus coruscus : Isolation, Purification, and Characterization (참담치(Mytilus coruscus) 혈구(hemocyte) 유래 항균 펩타이드 mytilin B의 정제 및 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Min Jeong;Oh, Ryunkyoung;Kim, Young-Ok;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kong, Hee Jeong;Kim, Joo-Won;Park, Jung Youn;Seo, Jung-Kil;Kim, Dong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1301-1315
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    • 2018
  • We purified an antimicrobial peptide from the acidified hemocyte extract of Mytilus coruscus by $C_{18}$ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was 4041.866 Da based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometer (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the 25 amino acids of the N-terminus sequence were identified. Comparison of this sequence of the purified peptide with the N-terminus sequences of other antimicrobial peptides revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We also identified a 312 bp open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 103 amino acids based on the obtained amino acid residues. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF and the amino acid sequence also revealed 100% identity with the mytilin B precursor of Mytilus coruscus. We synthesized two antimicrobial peptides with an alanine residue in the C-terminus, and designated them mytilin B1 and B2. These two antimicrobial peptides showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus parauberis (minimal effective concentration, MECs $41.6-89.7{\mu}g/ml$), gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio ichthyoenteri (MECs $7.4-39.5{\mu}g/ml$), and the fungus Candida albicans (MECs $26.0-31.8{\mu}g/ml$). This antimicrobial activity was stable under heat and salt conditions. Furthermore, the peptides did not exhibit significant hemolytic activity or cytotoxic effects. These results suggest that mytilin B could be applied as alternative antibiotic agent, and they add to the understanding of the innate immunity of hard-shelled mussels.

Analysis of Quantization Noise in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems (자기공명영상 시스템의 양자화잡음 분석)

  • Ahn C.B.
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : The quantization noise in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is analyzed. The signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SQNR) in the reconstructed image is derived from the level of quantization in the signal in spatial frequency domain. Based on the derived formula, the SQNRs in various main magnetic fields with different receiver systems are evaluated. From the evaluation, the quantization noise could be a major noise source determining overall system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in high field MRI system. A few methods to reduce the quantization noise are suggested. Materials and methods : In Fourier imaging methods, spin density distribution is encoded by phase and frequency encoding gradients in such a way that it becomes a distribution in the spatial frequency domain. Thus the quantization noise in the spatial frequency domain is expressed in terms of the SQNR in the reconstructed image. The validity of the derived formula is confirmed by experiments and computer simulation. Results : Using the derived formula, the SQNRs in various main magnetic fields with various receiver systems are evaluated. Since the quantization noise is proportional to the signal amplitude, yet it cannot be reduced by simple signal averaging, it could be a serious problem in high field imaging. In many receiver systems employing analog-to-digital converters (ADC) of 16 bits/sample, the quantization noise could be a major noise source limiting overall system SNR, especially in a high field imaging. Conclusion : The field strength of MRI system keeps going higher for functional imaging and spectroscopy. In high field MRI system, signal amplitude becomes larger with more susceptibility effect and wider spectral separation. Since the quantization noise is proportional to the signal amplitude, if the conversion bits of the ADCs in the receiver system are not large enough, the increase of signal amplitude may not be fully utilized for the SNR enhancement due to the increase of the quantization noise. Evaluation of the SQNR for various systems using the formula shows that the quantization noise could be a major noise source limiting overall system SNR, especially in three dimensional imaging in a high field imaging. Oversampling and off-center sampling would be an alternative solution to reduce the quantization noise without replacement of the receiver system.

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Analysis of Image Distortion on Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Weighted Imaging

  • Cho, Ah Rang;Lee, Hae Kag;Yoo, Heung Joon;Park, Cheol-Soo
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.381-386
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to improve diagnostic efficiency of clinical study by setting up guidelines for more precise examination with a comparative analysis of signal intensity and image distortion depending on the location of X axial of object when performing magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (MR DWI) examination. We arranged the self-produced phantom with a 45 mm of interval from the core of 44 regent bottles that have a 16 mm of external diameter and 55 mm of height, and were placed in 4 rows and 11 columns in an acrylic box. We also filled up water and margarine to portrait the fat. We used 3T Skyra and 18 Channel Body array coil. We also obtained the coronal image with the direction of RL (right to left) by using scan slice thinkness 3 mm, slice gap: 0mm, field of view (FOV): $450{\times}450mm^2$, repetition time (TR): 5000 ms, echo time (TE): 73/118 ms, Matrix: $126{\times}126$, slice number: 15, scan time: 9 min 45sec, number of excitations (NEX): 3, phase encoding as a diffusion-weighted imaging parameter. In order to scan, we set b-value to $0s/mm^2$, $400s/mm^2$, and $1,400s/mm^2$, and obtained T2 fat saturation image. Then we did a comparative analysis on the differences between image distortion and signal intensity depending on the location of X axial based on iso-center of patient's table. We used "Image J" as a comparative analysis programme, and used SPSS v18.0 as a statistic programme. There was not much difference between image distortion and signal intensity on fat and water from T2 fat saturation image. But, the average value depends on the location of X axial was statistically significant (p < 0.05). From DWI image, when b-value was 0 and 400, there was no significant difference up to $2^{nd}$ columns right to left from the core of patient's table, however, there was a decline in signal intensity and image distortion from the $3^{rd}$ columns and they started to decrease rapidly at the $4^{th}$ columns. When b-value was 1,400, there was not much difference between the $1^{st}$ row right to left from the core of patient's table, however, image distortion started to appear from the $2^{nd}$ columns with no change in signal intensity, the signal was getting decreased from the $3^{rd}$ columns, and both signal intensity and image distortion started to get decreased rapidly. At this moment, the reagent bottles from outside out of 11 reagent bottles were not verified from the image, and only 9 reagent bottles were verified. However, it was not possible to verify anything from the $5^{th}$ columns. But, the average value depends on the location of X axial was statistically significant. On T2 FS image, there was a significant decline in image distortion and signal intensity over 180mm from the core of patient's table. On diffusion-weighted image, there was a significant decline in image distortion and signal intensity over 90 mm, and they became unverifiable over 180 mm. Therefore, we should make an image that has a diagnostic value from examinations that are hard to locate patient's position.

Association between the Human Surfactant Protein-A(SP-A) Gene Locus and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Korean Population (한국인에서 만성폐쇄성폐질환과 인체 폐 표면 활성제 단백-A 유전자 대립형질의 상관관계)

  • Na, Joo Ock;Oh, Myung Ho;Choi, Jae Sung;Seo, Ki Hyun;Kim, Yong Hoon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.638-644
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    • 2006
  • Backgrounds: This study investigated whether or not a polymorphism in the gene encoding the surfactant protein A(SP-A) has any bearing on the individual susceptibility to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) in a genetically homogenous Korean population. Methods: The genotypes of 19 COPD patients and 20 healthy neonates as controls were tested using a polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the SP-A gene. Results: The specific frequencies of the 6A2 and 6A18 alleles of SP-A1 and the 1A2 allele of SP-A2 were much higher in the COPD group than control group (p<0.05). However, the frequencies of the 6A3 and 6A4 alleles of SP-A1 and the 1A0 allele of SP-A2 in the COPD group were significantly lower than the control group. In the COPD group, the frequencies of the +50 locus genotypes GG of SP-A1 and the +9 locus genotypes CC of SP-A2 were 85.0% and 60.6%, respectively, and 19.7% and 24.8% in the control group, respectively. The frequencies of the polymorphic genotypes or alleles showed a statistically significant difference between the COPD group and the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: A genetic polymorphism in SP-A is associated with the development of COPD in the Korean population.

The Antimicrobial Characteristics of McSSP-31 Purified from the Hemocyte of the Hard-shelled Mussel, Mytilus coruscus (참담치(Mytilus coruscus) 혈구(hemocyte)에서 분리한 McSSP-31의 항균 특성 분석)

  • Oh, Ryunkyoung;Lee, Min Jeong;Kim, Young-Ok;Nam, Bo-Hye;Kong, Hee Jeong;Kim, Joo-Won;Park, Jung-Youn;Seo, Jung-Kil;Kim, Dong-Gyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1276-1289
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    • 2017
  • This study isolated and purified the antimicrobial peptide McSSP-31 from an acidified hemocyte extract of a Mytilus coruscus. The antimicrobial peptide was purified by using a $C_{18}$ reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide was determined to be 3330.549 Da by matrix assisted-laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrophotometer (MALDI-TOF/MS). The N-terminus of a 14 amino-acid sequence was identified as P-S-P-T-R-R-S-T-S-R-S-K-S-R by Edman degradation method. The acquired sequence showed a 93% similarity with the sperm-specific protein Phi-1, which is from M. californianus. The identified open-reading frame (ORF) of peptide was 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids, which was analyzed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), cloning and sequencing analysis. We compared the full sequence with other known proteins that reveal the sperm-specific protein Phi-1 (93.5%) of M. californianus. Synthesized antimicrobial peptide (McSSP-31) showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria including B. subtilis, S. mutans, S. aureus and gram-negative bacteria including E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and fungi, C. albicans. Also, synthesized peptide showed strong antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant strains, including S. aureus. The cytotoxicity of the peptide was determined by using the HUVEC human cell line. The peptide did not exhibit any significant cytotoxic effects on the normal human cell line, and it had very low hemolytic activity with flounder hemoglobin. The results demonstrated that peptide purified from the hemocyte of a M. coruscus exhibits antibacterial activity against various bacteria and has the potential to be an alternative antibiotic agent.