• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phase encoding

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Time Resolution Improvement of MRI Temperature Monitoring Using Keyhole Method (Keyhole 방법을 이용한 MR 온도감시영상의 시간해상도 향상기법)

  • Han, Yong-Hee;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Chun, Song-I;Kim, Dong-Hyeuk;Lee, Kwang-Sig;Eun, Choong-Ki;Jun, Jae-Ryang;Mun, Chi-Woong
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : This study proposes the keyhole method in order to improve the time resolution of the proton resonance frequency(PRF) MR temperature monitoring technique. The values of Root Mean Square (RMS) error of measured temperature value and Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) obtained from the keyhole and full phase encoded temperature images were compared. Materials and Methods : The PRF method combined with GRE sequence was used to get MR temperature images using a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. It was conducted on the tissue-mimic 2% agarose gel phantom and swine's hock tissue. A MR compatible coaxial slot antenna driven by microwave power generator at 2.45GHz was used to heat the object in the magnetic bore for 5 minutes followed by a sequential acquisition of MR raw data during 10 minutes of cooling period. The acquired raw data were transferred to PC after then the keyhole images were reconstructed by taking the central part of K-space data with 128, 64, 32 and 16 phase encoding lines while the remaining peripheral parts were taken from the 1st reference raw data. The RMS errors were compared with the 256 full encoded self-reference temperature image while the SNR values were compared with the zero filling images. Results : As phase encoding number at the center part on the keyhole temperature images decreased to 128, 64, 32 and 16, the RMS errors of the measured temperature increased to 0.538, 0.712, 0.768 and 0.845$^{\circ}C$, meanwhile SNR values were maintained as the phase encoding number of keyhole part is reduced. Conclusion : This study shows that the keyhole technique is successfully applied to temperature monitoring procedure to increases the temporal resolution by standardizing the matrix size, thus maintained the SNR values. In future, it is expected to implement the MR real time thermal imaging using keyhole method which is able to reduce the scan time with minimal thermal variations.

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Optimizations of 3D MRI Techniques in Brain by Evaluating SENSE Factors (삼차원 자기공명영상법의 뇌 구조 영상을 위한 최적화 연구: 센스인자 변화에 따른 신호변화 평가)

  • Park, Myung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Wan;Lee, Kang-Won;Ryu, Chang-Woo;Jahng, Geon-Ho
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : A parallel imaging method provides us to improve temporal resolution to obtain three-dimensional (3D) MR images. The objective of this study was to optimize three 3D MRI techniques by adjusting 2D SESNE factors of the parallel imaging method in phantom and human brain. Materials and Methods : With a 3 Tesla MRI system and an 8-channel phase-array sensitivity-encoding (SENSE) coil, three 3D MRI techniques of 3D T1-weighted imaging (3D T1WI), 3D T2-weighted imaging (3D T2WI) and 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) imaging were optimized with adjusting SESNE factors in a water phantom and three human brains. The 2D SENSE factor was applied on the phase-encoding and the slice-encoding directions. Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), percent signal reduction rate(%R), and contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) were calculated by using signal intensities obtained in specific regions-of-interest (ROI). Results : In the phantom study, SENSE factor = 3 was provided in 0.2% reduction of signals against without using SENSE with imaging within 5 minutes for 3D T1WI. SENSE factor = 2 was provided in 0.98% signal reduction against without using SENSE with imaging within 5 minutes for 3D T2WI. SENSE factor = 4 was provided in 0.2% signal reduction against without using SENSE with imaging around 6 minutes for 3D FLAIR. In the human brain study, SNR and CNR were higher with SENSE factors = 3 than 4 for all three imaging techniques. Conclusion : This study was performed to optimize 2D SENSE factors in the three 3D MRI techniques that can be scanned in clinical time limitations with minimizing SNR reductions. Without compromising SNR and CNR, the optimum 2D SENSE factors were 3 and 4, yielding the scan time of about 5 to 6 minutes. Further studies are necessary to optimize 3D MRI techniques in other areas in human body.

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Optical security scheme using phase-encoded XOR operations (위상 변조 Exclusive-OR 연산을 이용한 광학적 암호화 방법)

  • 신창목;서동환;김수중
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.623-629
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, we have proposed a full phase encryption scheme based on phase-encoded XOR operation. The proposed scheme encrypts a gray-level image by slicing an original image and combining with XORed images which resulted from phase-encoded XOR operations between sliced images and phase-encoded binary random images. Then we produce an encrypted image by combining only XORed images and a key image by only phase-encoded binary random images. The encrypted image and key image are converted into encrypted data and key data by a phase-encoding method. The merits are that the proposed encryption scheme can basically fulfill a high-level encryption using a full phase encryption scheme which has nonlinear and invisible characteristics. The scheme also improves security by encrypting the phase information before full phase encryption. The decryption system based on the principle of interference between a reference wave and a direct pixel-to-pixel mapping image of encrypted data with key data can be simply implemented using a phase-visualization system. Simulation results indicate that our proposed encryption scheme is effective and simple for a gray-scale image and optical decryption system.

Practical Encryption and Decryption System using Iterative Phase Wrapping Method (반복적인 위상 랩핑 방법을 이용한 실질적인 암호화 및 복호화 시스템)

  • Seo, Dong-Hoan;Lee, Sung-Geun;Kim, Yoon-Sik
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.955-963
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we propose an improved practical encryption and fault-tolerance decryption method using a non-negative value key and random function obtained with a white noise by using iterative phase wrapping method. A phase wrapping operating key, which is generated by the product of arbitrary random phase images and an original phase image. is zero-padded and Fourier transformed. Fourier operating key is then obtained by taking the real-valued data from this Fourier transformed image. Also the random phase wrapping operating key is made from these arbitrary random phase images and the same iterative phase wrapping method. We obtain a Fourier random operating key through the same method in the encryption process. For practical transmission of encryption and decryption keys via Internet, these keys should be intensity maps with non-negative values. The encryption key and the decryption key to meet this requirement are generated by the addition of the absolute of its minimum value to each of Fourier keys, respectively. The decryption based on 2-f setup with spatial filter is simply performed by the inverse Fourier transform of the multiplication between the encryption key and the decryption key and also can be used as a current spatial light modulator technology by phase encoding of the non-negative values. Computer simulations show the validity of the encryption method and the robust decryption system in the proposed technique.

The global regulator GacS of a biological bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 regulates expression of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and reduces survival in oxidative stress.

  • Kang, Beom-Ryong;Cho, Baik-Ho;Kim, Young-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.100.2-101
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    • 2003
  • The global regulator, GacS (global antibiotic and cyanide sensor kinase), was required for the increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide occurring as cultures of the rhizobacterium, P. chlororaphis O6, matured. Specific stationary-phase peroxidase and catalase isozymes were absent in the GacS mutant, whereas a manganese-superoxide dismutase isozyme was expressed earlier and to a great extent than wild type. In the wild type cell, transcript accumulation of rpoS was higher in late logarithmic-phase cells than cells from mid logarithmic- or stationary-phase. Transcripts from rpoS in the GacS mutant were reduced in each of these growth phases compared to the wild type expression. The down stream sequence from rpoS lacked sequences encoding a small RNA, rsmZ, found in other pseudomonads and implicated in control of genes activated by the GacS system. These findings suggest that GacS-mediated regulation of RpoS plays role in control of oxidative stress in P. chlororaphis O6 by as yet an unknown mechanism.

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Increased Gamma-band Neural Synchrony by Pleasant and Unpleasant Visual Stimuli (긍정, 부정 감정 유발 시각자극에 의한 감마-대역 신경동기화 증가)

  • Yeo, Donghoon;Choi, Jeong Woo;Kim, Kyung Hwan
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.94-102
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    • 2018
  • It is known that gamma-band activity (GBA) and phase synchrony (GBPS) are induced by emotional visual stimuli. However, the characteristics of GBA and GBPS according to different emotional states have not been identified. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in gamma-band neuronal synchronization induced by positive and negative emotional visual stimuli using electroencephalograms (EEGs). Thirteen healthy male subjects have participated in the experiment. The induced spectral power in gamma-band was the highest for negative stimuli, and the lowest for neutral stimuli in 300-2,000 ms after the stimulus onset. The inter-regional phase synchronization in gamma-band was increased in 500-2,000 ms, mainly between the bilateral frontal regions and the parieto-occipital regions. Larger number of significant connections were found by negative stimuli compared to positive ones. Judging from temporal and spatial characteristics of the gamma-band activity and phase synchrony increases, the results may imply that affective visual stimuli cause stronger memory encoding than non-emotional stimuli, and this effect is more significant for negative emotional stimuli than positive ones.

An Efficient Mode Decision Method for Fast Intra Encoding in the SVC Enhancement Layer (SVC 향상 계층의 빠른 인트라 부호화를 위한 효율적인 모드 결정 방법)

  • Cho, Mi-Sook;Kang, Jin-Mi;Chung, Ki-Dong
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.872-883
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    • 2011
  • SVC is an emerging video coding standard as an extension of H.264/AVC. This standard uses inter prediction, intra prediction and a new inter-layer prediction to improve coding performance of enhancement layers. However, it has high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose an efficient intra prediction mode decision method in the spatial enhancement layer to reduce the computational complexity. The proposed method consists of two phases. In the first phase, Intra_BL mode is selected using the RD cost of Intra_BL in advance. We exploit the fact that the RD cost and prediction mode are similar to those of neighbor macroblocks. In the second phase, we predict the enhancement layer mode using correlation between intra mode of enhancement layer and that of the base layer. Experimental results show that the proposed method could save from 48.15% to 56.32% in encoding time while degradation in video quality is negligible.

Slow Feature Analysis for Mitotic Event Recognition

  • Chu, Jinghui;Liang, Hailan;Tong, Zheng;Lu, Wei
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.1670-1683
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    • 2017
  • Mitotic event recognition is a crucial and challenging task in biomedical applications. In this paper, we introduce the slow feature analysis and propose a fully-automated mitotic event recognition method for cell populations imaged with time-lapse phase contrast microscopy. The method includes three steps. First, a candidate sequence extraction method is utilized to exclude most of the sequences not containing mitosis. Next, slow feature is learned from the candidate sequences using slow feature analysis. Finally, a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model is applied for the classification of the sequences. We use a supervised SFA learning strategy to learn the slow feature function because the strategy brings image content and discriminative information together to get a better encoding. Besides, the HCRF model is more suitable to describe the temporal structure of image sequences than nonsequential SVM approaches. In our experiment, the proposed recognition method achieved 0.93 area under curve (AUC) and 91% accuracy on a very challenging phase contrast microscopy dataset named C2C12.

Parameter estimation of weak space-based ADS-B signals using genetic algorithm

  • Tao, Feng;Jun, Liang
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 2021
  • Space-based automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is an important emerging augmentation of existing ground-based ADS-B systems. In this paper, the problem of space-based ultra-long-range reception processing of ADS-B signals is described. We first introduce a header detection method for accurately determining the pulse position of a weak ADS-B signal. We designed a signal encoding method, shaping method, and fitness function. We then employed a genetic algorithm to perform high-precision frequency and phase estimations of the detected weak signal. The advantage of this algorithm is that it can simultaneously estimate the frequency and phase, meaning a direct coherent demodulation can be implemented. To address the computational complexity of the genetic algorithm, we improved the ratio algorithm for frequency estimation and raised the accuracy beyond that of the original ratio algorithm with only a slight increase in the computational complexity using relatively few sampling points.

Identification of a Gene Involved in the Negative Regulation of Pyomelanin Production in Ralstonia solanacearum

  • Ahmad, Shabir;Lee, Seung Yeup;Khan, Raees;Kong, Hyun Gi;Son, Geun Ju;Roy, Nazish;Choi, Kihyuck;Lee, Seon-Woo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1692-1700
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    • 2017
  • Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a wide variety of host plant species and produces a melanin-like blackish-brown pigment in stationary phase when grown in minimal medium supplemented with tyrosine. To study melanin production regulation in R. solanacearum, five mutants exhibiting overproduction of melanin-like pigments were selected from a transposon (Tn) insertion mutant library of R. solanacearum SL341. Most of the mutants, except one (SL341T), were not complemented by the original gene or overproduced melanins. SL341T showed Tn insertion in a gene containing a conserved domain of eukaryotic transcription factor. The gene was annotated as a hypothetical protein, given its weak similarity to any known proteins. Upon complementation with its original gene, the mutant strains reverted to their wild-type phenotype. SL341T produced 3-folds more melanin at 72 h post-incubation compared with wild-type SL341 when grown in minimal medium supplemented with tyrosine. The chemical analysis of SL341T cultural filtrate revealed the accumulation of a higher amount of homogentisate, a major precursor of pyomelanin, and a lower amount of dihydroxyphenylalanine, an intermediate of eumelanin, compared with SL341. The expression study showed a relatively higher expression of hppD (encoding hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) and lower expression of hmgA (encoding homogentisate dioxygenase) and nagL (encoding maleylacetoacetate isomerase) in SL341T than in SL341. SL341 showed a significantly higher expression of tyrosinase gene compared with SL341T at 48 h post-incubation. These results indicated that R. solanacearum produced both pyomelanin and eumelanin, and the novel hypothetical protein is involved in the negative regulation of melanin production.