• Title, Summary, Keyword: Photoacoustic microscopy

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Inspection of Ceramic Coatings Using Nanoindentation and Frequency Domain Photoacoustic Microscopy

  • Steen, T.L.;Basu, S.N.;Sarin, V.K.;Murray, T.W.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.390-402
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    • 2006
  • The elastic properties and thickness of mullite environmental barrier coatings grown through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon carbide substrates were measured using frequency domain photoacoustic microscopy. In this technique, extremely narrow bandwidth surface acoustic waves are generated with an amplitude modulated laser source. A photorefractive crystal based interferometer is used to detect the resulting surface displacement. The complex displacement field is mapped as a function of source-to-receiver distance in order to extract the wavelength of the surface acoustic wave at a given excitation frequency, and the phase velocity is determined. The coatings tested exhibited spatial variations in thickness and mechanical properties. The measured surface wave dispersion curves were used to extract an effective value for the elastic modulus and the coating thickness. Nanoindentation was used to validate the measurements of the effective elastic modulus. The average elastic modulus measured through the coating thickness using nanoindentation is compared to the effective modulus found using the photoacoustic system. Optical microscopy is used to validate the thickness measurements. The results indicate that the photoacoustic microscopy technique can be used to estimate the effective elastic properties in coatings exhibiting spatial inhomogeneities, potentially providing valuable feedback for the optimization of the CVD growth process.

Simultaneous Imaging Using Combined Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) (광간섭 단층 촬영 장치와 광음향 현미경의 결합을 통한 동시 이미지 획득 연구)

  • Kim, Sehui;Lee, Changho;Han, Seonghoon;Kang, Hyun Wook;Oh, Junghwan;Kim, Jeehyun;Kim, Chulhong
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we developed an integrated optical coherence tomography - photoacoustic microscopy (OCT-PAM) system to simultaneously provide optical absorption and scattering information. Two different laser sources, such as a pulsed laser for PAM and a superluminescent diode for OCT, were employed to implement the integrated OCT-PAM system. The performance of the OCT-PAM system was measured by imaging carbon fibers. We then imaged black and white hairs to demonstrate the simultaneous OCT-PAM imaging capabilities. As a result, OCT can produce 3-D images of both black and white hairs, whereas PAM is only able to image the black hair due to strong optical absorption of black hair.

Principles and Medical Applications of Biomedical Photoacoustic Tomography (의료용 광음향 단층촬영 원리와 의학적 응용)

  • Song, Chul-Gyu;Ryu, Sang-Hun;Kim, Do-Hyun
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.1209-1214
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    • 2011
  • Photoacoustics has been broadly studied in biomedicine, for both human and small animal tissues. Photoacoustics uniquely combines the absorption contrast of light or radio frequency waves with ultrasound resolution. Moreover, it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, and is the fastest growing new biomedical method, with clinical applications on the way. This paper provides a brief recap of recent developments in photoacoustics in biomedicine, from basic principles to applications. The emphasized areas include the new imaging modalities as well as translational research topics. A primary PA application in biomedicine is photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The past decade has seen fast developments in both theoretical reconstruction algorithms and innovative imaging techniques, and PAT has been implemented in imaging different tissues, from centimeter-large breast tumors to several micrometer-large single red blood cels (RBC). PAT now provides structural, functional and molecular imaging. Overall, PA techniques for biomedicine are maturing. They have been widely used to study both animal and human tissues. Recently, more and more research focuses on clinical applications. Commercialized PA systems are expected to be available in the near future, and wide clinical PA applications are foreseen.

Signal-Characteristic Analysis with Respect to Backing Material of PVDF-Based High-Frequency Ultrasound for Photoacoustic Microscopy (광음향 현미경을 위한 PVDF 기반 고주파수 초음파 변환기의 흡음층 소재에 따른 신호 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Junsu;Chang, Jin Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.112-119
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    • 2015
  • Photoacoustic microscopy is capable of providing high-resolution molecular images, and its spatial resolution is typically determined by ultrasonic transducers used to receive the photoacoustic signals. Therefore, ultrasonic transducers for photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) should have a high operating frequency, broad bandwidth, and high signal-reception efficiency. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a suitable material. To take full advantage of this material, the selection of the backing material is crucial, as it influences the center frequency and bandwidth of the transducer. Therefore, we experimentally determined the most suitable backing material among EPO-TEK 301, E-Solder 3022, and RTV. For this, three PVDF high-frequency single-element transducers were fabricated with each backing material. The center frequency and -6 dB bandwidth of each transducer were ascertained by a pulse-echo test. The spatial resolution of each transducer was examined using wire-target images. The experimental results indicated that EPO-TEK 301 is the most suitable backing material for a PAM transducer. This material provides the highest signal magnitude and a reasonable bandwidth because a large portion of the energy propagates toward the front medium, and the PVDF resonates in the half-wave mode.

CNT-PDMS Composite Thin-Film Transmitters for Highly Efficient Photoacoustic Energy Conversion

  • Song, Ju Ho;Heo, Jeongmin;Baac, Hyoung Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.297.2-297.2
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    • 2016
  • Photoacoustic generation of ultrasound is an effective approach for development of high-frequency and high-amplitude ultrasound transmitters. This requires an efficient energy converter from optical input to acoustic output. For such photoacoustic conversion, various light-absorbing materials have been used such as metallic coating, dye-doped polymer composite, and nanostructure composite. These transmitters absorb laser pulses with 5-10 ns widths for generation of tens-of-MHz frequency ultrasound. The short optical pulse leads to rapid heating of the irradiated region and therefore fast thermal expansion before significant heat diffusion occurs to the surrounding. In this purpose, nanocomposite thin films containing gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), or carbon nanofibers have been recently proposed for high optical absorption, efficient thermoacosutic transfer, and mechanical robustness. These properties are necessary to produce a high-amplitude ultrasonic output under a low-energy optical input. Here, we investigate carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite transmitters and their nanostructure-originated characteristics enabling extraordinary energy conversion. We explain a thermoelastic energy conversion mechanism within the nanocomposite and examine nanostructures by using a scanning electron microscopy. Then, we measure laser-induced damage threshold of the transmitters against pulsed laser ablation. Particularly, laser-induced damage threshold has been largely overlooked so far in the development of photoacoustic transmitters. Higher damage threshold means that transmitters can withstand optical irradiation with higher laser energy and produce higher pressure output proportional to such optical input. We discuss an optimal design of CNT-PDMS composite transmitter for high-amplitude pressure generation (e.g. focused ultrasound transmitter) useful for therapeutic applications. It is fabricated using a focal structure (spherically concave substrate) that is coated with a CNT-PDMS composite layer. We also introduce some application examples of the high-amplitude focused transmitter based on the CNT-PDMS composite film.

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3-D Analysis of Semiconductor Surface by Using Photoacoustic Microscopy (광음향 현미경법을 이용한 반도체 표면의 3차원적 구조 분석)

  • Lee, Eung-Joo;Choi, Ok-Lim;Lim, Jong-Tae;Kim, Ji-Woong;Choi, Joong-Gill
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.553-560
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    • 2004
  • In this experiment, a three dimensional structure analysis was carried out to examine the surface defects of semiconductor made artificially on known scale. It was investigated the three dimensional imaging according to the sample depth and the thermal diffusivity as well as the carrier transport properties. The thermal diffusivity measurement of the intrinsic GaAs semiconductor was also analyzed by the difference of frequency-dependence photoacoustic signals from the sample surface of different conditions. Thermal properties such as thermal diffusion length or thermal diffusivity of the Si wafer with and without defects on the surface were obtained by interpreting the frequency dependence of the PA signals. As a result, the photoacoustic signal is found to have the dependency on the shape and depth of the defects so that their structure of the defects can be analyzed. This method demonstrates the possibility of the application to the detection of the defects, cracks, and shortage of circuits on surface or sub-surface of the semiconductors and ceramic materials as a nondestructive testing(NDT) and a nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique.