• Title, Summary, Keyword: Physicochemical properties

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Anti-inflammatory Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide Zophobacin 1 Derived from the Zophobas atratus (아메리카왕거저리 유래 항균 펩타이드 조포바신 1의 항염증활성)

  • Shin, Yong Pyo;Lee, Joon Ha;Kim, In-Woo;Seo, Minchul;Kim, Mi-Ae;Lee, Hwa Jeong;Baek, Minhee;Kim, Seong Hyun;Hwang, Jae Sam
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.804-812
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    • 2020
  • The giant mealworm beetle, Zophobas atratus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has been used as a protein source for small pets and mammals. Recently, it was temporarily registered in the list of the Food Code. We previously performed an in silico analysis of the Zophobas atratus transcriptome to identify putative antimicrobial peptides and identified several antimicrobial peptide candidates. Among them, we assessed the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of zophobacin 1 that was selected bio-informatically based on its physicochemical properties against microorganisms and mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells. Zophobacin 1 showed antimicrobial activities against microorganisms without inducing hemolysis and decreased the nitric oxide production of the lipopolysaccharide-induced Raw264.7 cells. Moreover, ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that zophobacin 1 reduced expression levels of pro-inflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also investigated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β) production through quantitative real time-PCR and ELISA. Zophobacin 1 markedly reduced the expression level of cytokines through the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. We confirmed that zophobacin 1 bound to bacterial cell membranes via a specific interaction with lipopolysaccharides. These data suggest that zophobacin 1 could be promising molecules for development as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide Papiliocin 3 Derived from the Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio xuthus (호랑나비 유래 항균 펩타이드 파필리오신 3의 항염증 활성)

  • Shin, Yong Pyo;Lee, Joon Ha;Kim, In-Woo;Seo, Minchul;Kim, Mi-Ae;Lee, Hwa Jeong;Baek, Minhee;Kim, Seong Hyun;Hwang, Jae Sam
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.886-895
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    • 2020
  • The development of novel peptide antibiotics with potent antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory activity is urgently needed. In a previous work, we performed an in-silico analysis of the Papilio xuthus transcriptome to identify putative antimicrobial peptides and identified several candidates. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of papiliocin 3, which was selected bioinformatically based on its physicochemical properties against bacteria and mouse macrophage Raw264.7 cells. Papiliocin 3 showed antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus without inducing hemolysis and decreased the nitric oxide production of the lipopolysaccharide-induced Raw264.7 cells. Moreover, ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that papiliocin 3 reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, we examined whether papiliocin 3 could inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β) in LPS-induced Raw264.7 cells. We found that papiliocin 3 markedly reduced the expression level of cytokines through the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. We also confirmed that papiliocin 3 binds to bacterial cell membranes via a specific interaction with lipopolysaccharides. Collectively, these findings suggest that papiliocin 3 could be a promising molecule for development as a novel peptide antibiotic.

Effects of Raising Periods on Physicochemical Meat Properties of Korean Native Black Goat (사육 개월령이 재래흑염소의 육질과 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwan-Woo;Kim, Hye-Jin;Lee, Jinwook;Lee, Eun-Do;Kim, Dong-Kyo;Lee, Sung-Soo;Jang, Aera;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.435-442
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different raising periods (24 and 48 months) on the physico-chemical quality and fatty acid composition of meat from Korean native black goats. In terms of proximate composition, the meat from the 24-month age-group of the goats contained lower moisture and protein content and higher fat and ash content than that from the 48-month age-group. With an increase in age, moisture and protein content increased, whereas fat and ash content decreased. The pH was higher as was the cooking loss in the meat from the 24-month age-group than in the meat from the 48-months age-group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the water-holding capacity and shear force of the meat from the two breeding periods (p > 0.05). A color analysis showed that the meat from the 24-month age-group had higher L*, a*, and b* values than the 48-month age-group (p < 0.05). The fatty acid composition and palmitic acid content increased with an increase in rearing periods, whereas stearic acid and oleic acid content decreased. The proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content was lower and higher, respectively, at 24 months of age and 48 months of age (p < 0.05).

Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties of Meat and Viscera of Dried Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Prepared using Different Drying Methods (건조방법에 따른 건조 전복 (Haliotis discus hannai)의 이화학적 특성 비교)

  • Park, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Young-Jae;Park, In-Bae;Shin, Gung-Won;Jo, Yeong-Cheol;Koh, So-Mi;Kang, Seong-Gook;Kim, Jeong-Mok;Kim, Hae-Seop
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.686-698
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    • 2009
  • We sought basic data for product development and storage improvement of abalone. We explored drying methodologies, such as shade drying, cold air drying, and vacuum freeze drying. We also examined various physicochemical features of both meat and viscera. Raw abalone meat had $78.88{\pm}1.01%$ moisture, $9.24{\pm}0.27%$ crude protein, and $10.05{\pm}0.81%$ carbohydrate (all w/w). The moisture level of dried abalone meat was highest after cold air drying, at $18.38{\pm}0.91%$, and lowest after vacuum freeze drying, at $1.05{\pm}0.05%$. The total amino acid content of raw abalone meat was $17,124.05{\pm}493.18\;mg%$, and fell after shade-drying to $12,969.92{\pm}583.65\;mg%$, and to $13,328.78{\pm}653.11\;mg%$ after cold air drying. The total free amino acid content of raw abalone meat was $4,261.99{\pm}106.55\;mg%$, and rose after shade-drying to $6,336.50{\pm}285.15\;mg%$, to $5,072.04{\pm}248.53\;mg%$ after cold air drying, and to $4,638.85{\pm}218.03\;mg%$ after vacuum freeze drying. The fatty acid proportions in raw abalone meat were $47.00{\pm}0.99%$ saturated, $22.18{\pm}1.05%$ monounsaturated, and $30.82{\pm}1.45%$ polyunsaturated. In the viscera, however, the proportions were $36.72{\pm}0.74%$ saturated, $25.44{\pm}1.12%$ monounsaturated, and $37.84{\pm}1.67%$ polyunsaturated. The contents of chondroitin sulfate in raw abalone were $11.95{\pm}0.35%$ in meat and $7.71{\pm}0.19%$ in viscera (both w/w). After shade-drying, the chondroitin sulfate content was $16.57{\pm}0.90%$ in meat and $9.24{\pm}0.50%$ in viscera. The figures after cold air drying were $16.17{\pm}0.79%$ and $12.44{\pm}0.61%$, and those after vacuum freeze drying $25.17{\pm}1.16%$ and $15.22{\pm}0.70%$ (thus including the highest meat content). The level of collagen in raw abalone was $69.80{\pm}3.07\;mg/g$ in meat and $40.62{\pm}1.79\;mg/g$ in viscera. Meat and viscera dried in the shade had $144.05{\pm}7.78\;mg/g$ and $44.16{\pm}2.39\;mg/g$ collagen, respectively, whereas the figures after cold air drying were $133.29{\pm}6.53\;mg/g$ and $69.20{\pm}3.39\;mg/g$, and after vacuum freeze drying $137.51{\pm}6.33\;mg/g$ and $60.61{\pm}2.79\;mg/g$. Volatile basic nitrogen values of raw abalone showed a higher content in viscera, at $19.01{\pm}0.84\;mg%$, compared to meat ($10.10{\pm}0.44\;mg%$). The value for shade-dried abalone meat was $136.77{\pm}7.37\;mg%$ and that of viscera $197.97{\pm}10.69\;mg%$. After cold air drying the meat and visceral values were $27.32{\pm}1.34\;mg%$ and $71.37{\pm}3.50\;mg%$, respectively.

Community Ecological Study on the Quercus acuta Forests in Bogildo-Island (보길도(甫吉島) 붉가시나무림(林)의 군락생태학적(群落生態學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Chong-Young;Lee, Jeong-Seok;Oh, Kwang-In;Jang, Seok-Ki;Park, Jin-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.5
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    • pp.618-629
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate ecological niche of Quercus acuta communities in Bogildo-island from July to October, 1998. This island is occupied by a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests. The study on community ecology of Q. acuta, mostly dominant species of subtropical forests, is very important for successful forest management. Sampling areas were selected in 16 quadrats, dominated by Q. acuta to examine the vegetation characteristics(plant identification, D.B.H.) and environmental elements (microtopography, altitude, slope degree, aspect, illumination and soil physicochemical properties). On the basis of data from field surveys, importance values were calculated for the dominance of Q. acuta and volume growth was analyzed by tree ring widths. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. The lists of vascular plants in the investigations were identified as 54 families, 91 genera, 113 species, 9 varieties, 1 formae. It appeared that 45 kinds were evergreen, 6 kinds(Camellia japonica, Ligustrum japonicum, Eurya japonica, Smilax china, Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium, Carex lanceolata) were commonly observed in all plots and 5 species(Cinnamomum japonicum, Ardisia japonica, Cymbidium goeringii, Dryopteris bissetiana, Viburnum erosum) were most highly observed in all plots(over 80%). 2. The dominating species per strata were, Quercus acuta, Castanopsis cuspidata sp. Quercus salicina, Pinus thunbergii, Prunus sargentii in tree layer, Camellia Japonica, Ligustrum japonicum, Quercus acuta, Eurya japonica, Castanopsis cuspidata sp. in subtree layer, Camellia japonica, Ligustrum japonicum, Smilax china, Cinnamomum japonicum, Viburnum erosum in shrub layer and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium, Ardisia japonica, Carex lanceolata, Camellia japonica(seedlings), Quercus acuta(seedlings) in herb layer, all in descending orders. 3. Quercus acuta could be suggested as shade intolerant tree, considering the distribution in southern, western, nothern and eastern slopes in the descending orders. 4. Mean relative illumination in the forest is 0.89 % and it is relatively low in brightness. 5. Sustainment of Quercus acuta community couldn't be confirmed by judging from their reverse J curve in even-aged forest, as shown in D.B.H. distribution analysis. 6. The result of annual ring width analysis(mean ; 2.44 mm) showed three stages, such as a gentle increasing(1~12 year ; 2.04 mm), a relatively steep increasing(13~22 year ; 2.95 mm) and decreasing or stagnating(23 year after ; 2.41 mm).

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Characteristics and Sensory Optimization of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Different Aging Conditions for Food Application of Black Taro (흑토란의 식품재료화를 위한 숙성 조건에 따른 토란의 특성 및 관능 최적화)

  • Jeon, Yu-Ho;Lee, Ji-Won;Son, Yang-Ju;Hwang, In-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2016
  • The physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and sensory optimization of taro (Colocasia esculenta) under different aging conditions were investigated to develop black taro. Black taro was processed in three steps (steaming: $95{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ for 1 h; aging: 85, 90, $95^{\circ}C$ for 20, 40, and 60 h; drying: $60^{\circ}C$ for 24 h) and ground into a powder for all experiments. Black taro showed an increased crude fiber content and browning index compared to raw taro. Calcium oxalate contents, reducing sugar contents, moisture contents, and lightness values were decreased during the processing of taro. Improvements in total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) were observed in the black taro samples aged at higher temperature. Response surface methodology was used for sensory optimization, and the optimum aging conditions with the highest acceptance values were found to be $88.73^{\circ}C$ for 39.50 h for taste, and $88.82^{\circ}C$ for 42.60 h for overall acceptance.

Study on the Manufacturing Properties of Korean-type Koumiss (한국형 Koumiss제조 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Ik;Song, Kwang-Young;Chon, Jung-Whan;Hyeon, Ji-Yeon;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2011
  • For this study, Korean-type Koumiss was made by the fermentation of mixed cultures, in which yeast, Kuyveromyces, and microflora, Streptococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, were inoculated into 10% skimmed milk with added whey powder(control: A, 2%: B, 4%: C, 6%: D, and 8%: E). Fat, protein, lactose, titratable acidity, pH, the number of lactic acid bacteria, the number of yeast, alcohol content, volatile fatty acids, volatile free amino acids and minerals were measured in the products. The results were as follows: As the dosage of whey powder increased, fat increased from 0.74% in the control to 2.30% in sample E, protein increased from 2.95% in the control to 4.39% in sample E and lactose increased from 3.10% in the control to 7.43% in sample E. Titratable acidity and pH increased gradually. The number of lactic acid bacteria increased from $10^9\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in the control to $3.8{\times}10^9\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in sample E, and the number of yeast increased from $6.1{\times}10^7\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in the control to $1.65{\times}10^8\;cfu/m{\ell}$ in sample E, according to the increase of whey powder content. For alcohol content, the average values were 0.863%, 0.967%, 0.890%, 1.290%, and 1.313% for the control and samples B, C, D, and E, respectively. As the dosage of whey powder increased, alcohol content showed a tendency to gradually increase. The average alcohol content of E was 1.313 and this was higher than the alcohol content of Kazahstana-type Koumiss with 1.08%. Sixteen types of free amino acids were detected. Glycine was the lowest in the control at $0.38mg/m{\ell}$ and sample E contained $0.64mg/m{\ell}$. Histidine was also low in the control at $0.42mg/m{\ell}$ and sample E contained $0.65mg/m{\ell}$. On the other hand, glutamic acid was highest at $4.13mg/m{\ell}$ in the control whereas sample E had $6.96mg/m{\ell}$. Proline was also high in the control at $1.71mg/m{\ell}$ in control, but E contained $2.80mg/m{\ell}$. Aspartic acid and leucine were greater in sample E than in the control. For volatile free fatty acids, content generally had a tendency to increase in the control, and samples B, C, D, and E. Content of acetic acid gradually increased from $12,661{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in the control to $37,140{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ in sample E. Butyric acid was not detected in the control and was measured as $1,950{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in sample E. Caproic acid content was $177{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in the control and $812{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$ in sample E, and it increased according to the increase of whey powder content. Valeric acid was measured in a small amount in the control as $22{\mu}g/100m{\ell}$, but it was not detected in any other case. Mineral contents of Ca, P, and Mg increased from 1,042.38 ppm, 863.61 ppm, and 101.28 ppm in the control to 1,535.12 ppm, 1,336.71 ppm, and 162.44 ppm in sample E, respectively. Na content was increased from 447.19 ppm in the control to 1,001.57 ppm in sample E. The content of K was increased from 1,266.39 ppm in the control to 2,613.93 ppm in E. Mineral content also increased with whey powder content. In sensory evaluations, the scores increased as whey powder content increased. Flavor was lowest in the control with 6.3 points and highest in E with 8.2 points. Body and texture were highest at 4.2 points in the control, which did not have added whey powder. In the case of appearance, there were no great differences among the samples.