• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pinus densiflora

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Growth Characteristics and Visible Injury of Container Seedling of Pinus densiflora by Fertilization Level (시비수준별 소나무 용기묘의 생장 특성 및 가시적 피해)

  • Cha, Young Geun;Choi, Kyu Seong;Song, Ki Seon;Gu, Da-Eun;Lee, Ha-Na;Sung, Hwan In;Kim, Jong Jin
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.66-77
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    • 2019
  • The present study investigated pine trees, which forms a major plantation species in Korea, with the objective of improving the survival rate of pine trees after planting. Growth responses and characteristics were assessed by controlling the level of fertilizer application, which is a basic controlling the growth of pine seedlings, to identify the optimal fertilization treatment. Pine tree seedlings were grown in 104 containers and were examined 8 weeks after planting. Stem height and were measured at 4-week intervals. In terms of fertilization treatment for 1-0 pine seedlings, the treatment group with gradually-increasing fertilizer concentration ($500{\rightarrow}1000{\rightarrow}1000{\rightarrow}1000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$) had the biggest increase in stem height and diameter at the root. The survey results indicated that the increased concentration treatment group and the gradually-increasing concentration treatment group had more growth compared with that in the fixed concentration treatment group. The gradually-increasing concentration treatment group ($500{\rightarrow}1000{\rightarrow}1000{\rightarrow}1000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$) had the highest total dry matter production. Nine weeks after fertilization, the tips of the pine leaves turned yellow in the fixed concentration treatment group ($3000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$). The same phenomenon was observed in the treatment group in which the concentration was increased to $2000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$, and in the gradually-increasing concentration treatment group, when the concentration was raised up to $2000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. We concluded that the optimal fertilization conditions for producing healthy pine 1-0 seedlings involve fertilizing once a week with Multifeed 19 at $500mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ during the seedling period, Multifeed 19 at $1000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ during the rapid growth period, and Multifeed 32 at $1000mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ during the maturation period.

Vascular Plant Diversity and Vegetation of Samusan Mt. in Jecheon-si, Korean Peninsula (사무산(제천시)의 식물다양성과 식생)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Seok;Nam, Gi-Heum;Jung, Eun-Hee;Lee, Kyeong-Ui;Hwang, Yo-Seob
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.396-418
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    • 2018
  • This study was carried out to investigate the flora and the vegetation of Samusan mountain on Jecheon-si, located in the middle part of the Korean peninsula. The vascular plants which were collected in 9 times from June 2014 to October 2015 were identified as 502 taxa in total, including 102 families, 314 genera, 445 species, 6 subspecies, 49 varieties, 1 form and 1 hybrid. The largest families were as follows; Asteraceae (70 taxa), Poaceae (52 taxa), Rosaceae (30 taxa), Fabaceae (28 taxa), and Cyperaceae (20 taxa). Of them, Korean endemic plants numbered 10 taxa, and vascular plants listed in the red data according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) numbered 14 taxa. The floristic regional indicator plants found in this area were 61 taxa in total. Among them, 5 taxa revealed the floristic grade V, 11 for floristic grade IV, 14 for floristic grade III, 10 for floristic grade II, and 21 for floristic grade I. The alien plants were identified as 43 taxa and the percentage of naturalized index (NI) was 8.6%, and urbanization index (UI) was 13.4%, respectively. Samples of the forest vegetation on the Samusan Mt. were mainly classified as Pinus densiflora, Quercus variabilis, Q. acutissima, Q. mongolica, Zelkova serrata and Robinia pseudoacacia forest. The vertical structures of the forest were stable and the DBH-Class analyses showed that the dominant tree species would be maintained. In the surveyed areas, high plant diversity was shown, and a number of endemic, rare, calcicole plants and phytogeographically important plants were found. Nonetheless, numerous and diverse biological resources native have been consistently disturbed or damaged by human activities without some form of protection. Therefore, it is needed to set up strategies for conservation forest vegetation in this study area.

A Study on the Distribution and Dynamics of Relict Forest Trees and Structural Characteristics of Forest Stands in Gangwon Province, Korea (강원지역 산림유존목의 분포, 동태 및 생육임분의 구성적 특성)

  • Shin, Joon-Hwan;Lee, Cheol-Ho;Bae, Kwan-Ho;Cho, Yong-Chan;Kim, Jun-Soo;Cho, Jun-Hee;Cho, Hyun-Je
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.165-175
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data such as distribution status, growth characteristics, and the structural characteristics of forest stands for the systematic conservation and management of relict forest trees (stem girth of 300cm or larger) established naturally in Gangwon Province, Korea. The survey showed that 434 individuals of 19 species (conifers: 228 individuals of 4 species, broad-leaved trees: 206 individuals of 15 species) were distributed in Gangwon Province, and Taxus cuspidata was the most abundant among them with 203 individuals or about 46.7 % of the total. The stem girth was average of 404cm (conifers: 373cm, broad-leaves: 421cm), and Tilia amurensis with multi-stemmed growing on Sorak mountain range had the largest stem girth at 1,113cm. The average height and the crown width of relict forest trees were 15.4m and 10.0m, respectively. Although the environments of relict forest trees showed a slight difference by species, the relative appearance frequencies of most trees were high in the environments where the altitude was higher than 1,000 m, slope degree was greater than $25^{\circ}$, the slope faced north, and microtopography was at the upper of slopes. Regarding the stand characteristics of relict forest trees per unit area ($/100m^2$), the average total coverage was 294% (max. 475%), the total average number of species was 36 species (max. 60 species), the average species diversity index (H') was 2.560 (max. 3.593), the average canopy closure was 84.8% (max. 94.6%), and the average basal area (/ha) was $52.7m^2$ (max. $116.4m^2$, relict trees $30.0m^2$, and other trees $22.7m^2$). The analysis of the dynamics of the forest stands where relict forest trees were growing showed four types of the maintenance mechanisms of relict forest trees depending on the supply pattern of succeeding trees: "Low-density but persistent type (Quercus mongolica, Abies holophylla, Tilia amurensis, and Pyrus ussuriensis)," "Long ago stopped type (Pinus densiflora)," "Recently stopped type (Abies nephrolepis, Quercus variabilis, and Betula schmidtii)," and "Periodically repeated types of supply and stop (Salix caprea and Quercus serrata).".

A Study on the Block Shear Strength according to the Layer Composition of and Adhesive Type of Ply-Lam CLT (Ply-Lam CLT의 층재 구성 및 접착제 종류에 따른 블록전단강도에 관한 연구)

  • CHOI, Gyu Woong;YANG, Seung Min;LEE, Hyun Jae;KIM, Jun Ho;CHOI, Kwang Hyeon;KANG, Seog Goo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.791-806
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    • 2020
  • In this study, a block shear strength test was conducted to compare and analyze the strength and failure mode on the glued laminated timber, CLT, and Ply-lam CLT, which are mainly used for the construction of wood construction as engineering wood. Through this, the Ply-lam CLT manufacturing conditions for optimum production, such as the type of lamina, plywood, adhesive, and layer composition, were investigated. The results are as follow. Through block shear strength test, it showed high strength in the order of glued laminated timber, Ply-lam CLT and CLT. In particular, the shear strength of Ply-lam CLT, which is made of a composite structure of larch plywood and larch lamina, passed 7.1 N/㎟, which is a Korean industrial standards for block shear strength of structural glued laminated timber. In addition, in this study, there was no different in shear strength according to the adhesive type used for glulam, CLT, and Ply-lam CLT adhesion. However, in the case of Ply-lam CLT, the difference in shear strength of Ply-lam CLT was shown according to the type of lamina and plywood. The results showed high strength in the order of Larix kaempferi > Mixed light hardwood ≒ Pinus densiflora, sieb, et, Zucc plywood. The optimal configuration of Ply-lam CLT is when larch plywood and larch lamina are used, and it is decided that the adhesive can be used by selecting PRF and PUR according to the application. The results of block shear strength failure mode by type of wood based materials were analyzed. The failure mode showed shear parallel-to-grain for glulam, rolling shear for CLT, and shear parallel-to-grain and rolling for ply-lam CLT. This is closely related to shear strength results and is decided to indicate higher shear strength in Ply-lam CLT than in CLT due to rolling shear.

Effectiveness of Controling Micro Climate by the Pine (Pinus Densiflora) Forests of the Temple in Southeast Area of Korea (영남권 사찰림일대 소나무장령림의 미기후 조절 효과 연구)

  • Hong, Suk-Hwan;An, Mi-Yeon;Kang, Rae-Yeol;Choi, Song-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.294-303
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to examine was conducted to the ability of microclimate control in old pine forests by surveying pine forest in Buddhist temples, where the pine forest are stably growing through active protection in the Gyeongnam region, and comparing variation characteristics of microclimate characteristics (temperature and humidity) and distribution of vegetation type. The study sites were pine forests protected well by Buddhist temples (Haein-sa, Beomeo-sa, Tongdo-sa, and Bulguk-sa) in the southeast region of Korea and thus known for stably growing young pine trees. According to the vegetation distribution status analysis, these pine forests did not have a high ratio of pine trees. Except for Tongdo-sa, the ratio of deciduous forest and mixed (deciduous and pine trees) forest had a much larger presence than that of pine forest. Measured data of microclimate showed that the Tongdo-sa area had significantly different characteristics compared to the other three areas. Tongdo-sa area showed a significantly higher diurnal range of temperatures and humidity than the other three areas, in both spring and summer. It is due to the difference in vegetation management. The forests around Tongdo-sa are mostly pine forests, except for the developed areas, while those in the other three areas have a dominant ratio of deciduous brad-leaved forests. Intensive control of pine forest is not effective in mitigating microclimate, i.e., temperature and air humidity. Stress caused by rising temperatures and decreasing air humidity is blamed for the decline of pine forests. Thus, the current active management of pine forests, such as the Tongdo-sa case, has been found to have a greater negative impact on the temperature and humidity stress. Therefore, we believe that a new change in forest management is necessary to increase the effect of mitigating the microclimate of pine forests.

A Study on Soil Characteristics of Poorly Vegetation Space for Landscape Remodeling Planning on Apartment Complex (아파트 조경 식생불량공간 리모델링 설계를 위한 토양특성 연구)

  • Han, Seung-Won;Kim, Kwang Jin;Yun, Ji Hye;Jeong, Na Ra;You, Soo Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to provide base information that can be utilized in surveying the status of landscape management within apartment complexes and grasping the conditions of the soil for planting plants, as a way to improve the quality of green spaces by repairing poorly vegetated spaces within apartment complexes and remodeling them with diverse species of plants. Considering that trees and shrubs of equal sizes are simultaneously planted upon the completion of apartment complexes, they were divided based on their completion year at the interval of 5 years and differences in the growth of trees and the components of soil over time were analyzed. Out of the species of trees planted in all the 9 apartment complexes surveyed in this study, the growth of 4 species of needleleaf trees and 4 species of broadleaf trees were surveyed. Juniperus chinensis 'Kaizuka' and Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. out of the needleleaf trees and Malus floribunda Siebold ex Van Houtte out of the broadleaf trees showed the highest growth rate when over 5 years passed after planting and their growth rate decreased when over 10 years passed. Platycladus orientalis and Acer palmatum Thunb. in the apartment complexes that were built over 10 years ago showed the highest growth rate, which indicates that the species require a relatively long period of time for growth. The hardness of the soil at the areas where trees were planted but their soil surface was bare was analyzed. When over 5 years passed after the completion of apartment complexes, over 20 mm of the soil was found to be stamped. The physicochemical properties of soil were also surveyed and the pH level was found to have been continuously high ever since the completion. The organic content in the surveyed soil was about 1/3 of the content in fertile soil, which means that additional fertilization is required. These results indicate that the stamped soil and the health of soil can be restored, when replanting plants in bare areas, by adding plans to improve soil, such as designing drain ways around the planted areas, transporting soil for the 50 cm depth of the ground and mixing organic matters such as chaff, and simply by planting groundcover plants in the lower part of tress and shrubs.

Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Kaolinite Opencast Mines and Adjacent Red Pine Forests in Sancheong-gun (산청군 고령토(백토) 노천 광산 채굴지와 인접 소나무 임분의 토양 물리·화학적 성질)

  • Kim, Kyung Tae;Baek, Gyeongwon;Choi, Byeonggil;Ha, Jiseok;Kim, Choonsig
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.4
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    • pp.382-389
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    • 2020
  • Soil properties in opencast mines are a key factor in reclamation (revegetation) of mining areas. In this study we determined the soil physical and chemical properties of kaolinite tailings, reclaimed areas, and adjacent natural red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) forests in kaolinite opencast mines in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Six sites were chosen for collection of soil samples to determine soil physical and chemical properties at a soil depth of 10 cm. Soil bulk density was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the kaolinite tailings (1.51 g·cm-3) than in the reclaimed areas (1.19 g·cm-3) and red pine forests (0.93 g·cm-3), whereas air phase in the kaolinite tailings (14.2%) was significantly lower than in the red pine forests (32.6%). Clay content in the red pine forests was significantly higher than in the reclaimed areas (18.7%) or kaolinite tailings (14.8%), whereas soil structural stability index was significantly lower in the reclaimed areas (1.61%) and kaolinite tailings (0.87%) than in the red pine forests (7.75%). Soil pH was significantly higher in the kaolinite tailings (pH 6.68) and reclaimed areas (pH 6.27) than in the red pine forests (pH 5.31). Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen were significantly higher in the red pine forests (C: 36.03 mg·g-1; N: 2.08 mg·g-1) than in the reclaimed areas (C: 5.00 mg·g-1; N: 0.31 mg·g-1) than in the kaolinite tailings (C: 2.12 mg·g-1; N: 0.07 mg g-1). The amount of available phosphorus was not significantly different among the three treatments. The concentration of exchangeable potassium was significantly lower in the kaolinite tailings (0.08 cmolc·kg-1) than in the reclaimed areas (0.21 cmolc·kg-1) and red pine forests (0.30 cmolc·kg-1). These results indicate that, because of high soil bulk density and low soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium in kaolinite tailings and reclaimed mining areas, soil nutrient management is needed in order to reclaim the vegetation in these type of areas.

Studies on the Effect of Diffusion Process to Decay Resistance of Mine Props (간이처리법(簡易處理法)에 의한 갱목(坑木)의 내부효력(耐腐効力)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Shim, Chong Supp;Shin, Dong So;Jung, Hee Suk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 1976
  • This study has been made to make an observation regarding present status of the coal mine props which is desperately needed for coal production, despite of great shortage of the timber resources in this country, and investigate the effects of diffusion process on the decay resistances of the mine props as applied preservatives of Malenit and chromated zinc chloride. The results are as follows. 1. Present status of the coal mine props Total demand of coal mine props in the year of 1975 was approximately 456 thousand cubic meters. The main species used for mine props are conifer (mainly Pinus densiflora) and hardwood (mainly Quercus). Portions between them are half and half. With non fixed specification, wide varieties of timber in size and form are used. And volume of wood used per ton-of coal production shows also wide range from 0.017 cubic meter to 0.03 cubic meter. 2. Decay resistance test a) The oven dry weight decreased between untreated specimen and treated specimen has not shown any significantly, although it has shown some differences in average values between them. It may be caused by the shorter length of the test. b) The strength of compression test between untreated specimen and treated specimen has also shown the same results as shown in case of weight decrease. Reasons assumed are the same. c) The amounts of the extractives in one percent of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) between untreated and treated specimen have shown the large value in case of untreated specimen than that of treated. 3. The economical benifit between untreated and treated wood when applied in field has seen better in long term base in case of treated wood, although the primary cost of treated wood add a little bit more cost than that of the untreated wood.

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The Absorption and Purification of Air Pollutants and Heavy Metals by Selected Trees in Kwangju (광주지역(光州地域)에서 주요(主要) 수목(樹木)의 대기오염물질(大氣汚染物質)과 중금속(重金屬) 흡수(吸收) 정화기능(淨化機能)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Hi Doo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.88 no.4
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    • pp.510-522
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    • 1999
  • The air pollutants ; $SO_2$, $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$, $Cl^-$ are absorbed into soils through falling with dusts and rain from the atmosphere. The sources of heavy metal contaminants in the environments are agricultural and horticultural materials, sewage sludges, fossil fuel combustion, metallurgical industries, electronics and waste disposal etc.. The soils and hydrosphere can be polluted on the way of the circulation of these heavy metals. Studied pollutant anions are $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$ and $Cl^-$ and heavy metals are Se, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, V, As, Cu and Ni which are the elements to be concerned with the essentials for plants, with animal and human health. This study is with the aim of selecting the species of roadside trees and green space trees which have excellent absorption of air pollutants and heavy metals from the atmosphere and the soils in the urban area. Two areas are designated to carry out this study : urban area ; Kwangju city and rural area ; the yard of Forest Environment Institute of Chollanam-do, at Sanje-ri, Sampo-myum, Naju city, Chollanam-do (23km away from Kwangju). This study is carried out to understand the movement of anions and heavy metals from the soils to the trees in both areas, the absorption of anions and heavy metals from atmosphere into leaves and the amounts of anions and heavy metals in leaves and fine roots(< 1mm dia.) of roadside trees and green space trees in Kwangju and trees in the yard of Forest Environment Institute of Chollanam-do. The tree species selected for this study in both areas are Ginkgo biloba, Quercus acutissima, Cedrus deodara, Platanus occidentalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus japonica. Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Zekova serrata. Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, and Pinus densiflora. The results of the study are as follows : 1. $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$ and $Cl^-$ concentrations are higher in the soils of the urban area than in those of the rural area, and $NO{_3}^-$ and $SO{_4}^{-2}$ are higher in the leaves than in the roots due to the absorption of the these pollutants through the stomata. 2. Ginkgo biloba, Robinia pseudoacacia. Zekova serrata, Quercus acutissima, and Platanus occidentalis can be adequated to the roadside trees and the environmental trees due to their good absorption of $NO{_3}^-$ and $SO{_4}^{-2}$. 3. Heavy metals in the soils of both areas are in the order of Mn > Zn > V > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Mo> Cd, and in the leaves and roots of the trees in the both areas are in the order of Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>V>Ni. Both orders are similar ones except V. There are more in the urban soils than in the rural soils in amount of Mn, Zn, Pb, V, Cu. 4. It is supposed that there is no antagonism between Mn and Zn in this study. 5. Se, Co and As are not detected in the soils, the leaves and the roots in both areas. Sn, Mo, Cd and Pb are also not detected in the leaves and roots in spite of considerable amount in the soils of both areas.

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The Gradient Variation of Thermal Environments on the Park Woodland Edge in Summer - A Study of Hadongsongrim and Hamyangsangrim - (여름철 공원 수림지 가장자리의 온열환경 기울기 변화 - 하동송림과 함양상림을 대상으로 -)

  • Ryu, Nam-Hyong;Lee, Chun-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.73-85
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the extent and magnitude of the woodland edge effects on users' thermal environments according to distance from woodland border. A series of experiments to measure air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, MRT and UTCI were conducted over six days between July 31 and August 5, 2015, which corresponded with extremely hot weather, at the south-facing edge of Hadongsongrim(pure Pinus densiflora stands, tree age: $100{\pm}33yr$, tree height: $12.8{\pm}2.7m$, canopy closure: 75%, N $35^{\circ}03^{\prime}34.7^{{\prime}{\prime}}$, E $127^{\circ}44^{\prime}43.3^{{\prime}{\prime}}$, elevation 7~10m) and east-facing edge of Hamyangsangrim (Quercus serrata-Carpinus tschonoskii community, tree age: 102~125yr/58~123yr, tree height: tree layer $18.6{\pm}2.3m/subtree$ layer $5.9{\pm}3.2m/shrub$ layer $0.5{\pm}0.5m$, herbaceous layer coverage ratio 60%, canopy closure: 96%, N $35^{\circ}31^{\prime}28.1^{{\prime}{\prime}}$, E $127^{\circ}43^{\prime}09.8^{{\prime}{\prime}}$, elevation 170~180m) in rural villages of Hadong and Hamyang, Korea. The minus result value of depth means woodland's outside. The depth of edge influence(DEI) on the maximum air temperature, minimum relative humidity and wind speed at maximum air temperature time during the daytime(10:00~17:00) were detected to be $12.7{\pm}4.9$, $15.8{\pm}9.8$ and $23.8{\pm}26.2m$, respectively, in the mature evergreen conifer woodland of Hadongsongrim. These were detected to be $3.7{\pm}2.2$, $4.9{\pm}4.4$ and $2.6{\pm}7.8m$, respectively, in the deciduous broadleaf woodland of Hamyansangrim. The DEI on the maximum 10 minutes average MRT, UTCI from the three-dimensional environment absorbed by the human-biometeorological reference person during the daytime(10:00~17:00) were detected to be $7.1{\pm}1.7$ and $4.3{\pm}4.6m$, respectively, in the relatively sparse woodland of Hadongsongrim. These were detected to be $5.8{\pm}4.9$ and $3.5{\pm}4.1m$, respectively, in the dense and closed woodland of Hadongsongrim. Edge effects on the thermal environments of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, MRT and UTCI in the sparse woodland of Hadongsongrim were less pronounced than those recorded in densed and closed woodland of Hamyansangrim. The gradient variation was less steep for maximum 10 minutes average UTCI with at least $4.3{\pm}4.6m$(Hadongsongrim) and $3.5{\pm}4.1m$(Hamyansangrim) being required to stabilize the UTCI at mature woodlands. Therefore it is suggested that the woodlands buffer widths based on the UTCI values should be 3.5~7.6 m(Hamyansangrim) and 4.3~8.9(Hadongsongrim) m on each side of mature woodlands for users' thermal comfort environments. The woodland edge structure should be multi-layered canopies and closed edge for the buffer effect of woodland edge on woodland users' thermal comfort.