• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pinus densiflora

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Analysis of relationship between spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora and topographical factors (소나무 공간분포와 지형인자간의 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Min;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Jung, Sung-Eun;Kwak, Han-Bin
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.359-372
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    • 2008
  • This research estimated Pinus densiflora distribution and suggested an optimal grid size of DEM for ecologically better explaining spatial distribution and appearance pattern of Pinus densiflora and analyze appearance frequency of Pinus densiflora by topographical factors. And this work ultimately aimed at topographically analyzing spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora by comparing impact of topographical factors. The aspect was analyzed in detail, east, west, south, north, from DEM with 1m grid size, and simply, east, west, south or east, south from DEM with bigger grid size. As a result of distribution of Pinus densiflora by aspect, Pinus densiflora appeared in all aspect with smaller grid size, while distribution in specific aspect decreased with bigger grid size. The analysis of appearance frequency with 100m grid size represented spatial distribution characteristics of Pinus densiflora as visual interpretation showed. The results of comparing impact of aspect, slope, TWI proved that aspect have more impact on distribution of Pinus densiflora than slope and there was not enough a difference between impact of slope and TWI.

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Plant Community Structure of the Soguemgang Valley in Odaesan National Park (오대산국립공원 소금강 계곡부 식물군집구조)

  • Kang, SeongChil;Han, BongHo;Park, SeokCheol;Choi, JinWoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to the structure of plant community, and ecological succession sere of forest ecosystem in Soguemgang Valley, Odaesan National Park. Fifteenth plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up and the results analyzed by DCA which is one of the ordination technique showed that the plant communities were divided into seven groups which area community I(Quercus variabilis-Pinus densiflora community), II(Pinus densiflora community), III(Pinus densiflora-Quercus variabilis community), IV(Pinus densiflora-Quercus serrata community), V(Quercus serrata community), VI(Pinus densiflora-Deciduous broad-leaved plant community), VII(Cornus controversa-Carpinus laxiflora community). Shannon diversity index per $400m^2$ was to 0.7777 to 1.1440 and the age of Pinus densiflora 86 years old, Quercus variabilis was ranged from 66 to 87 years old, Quercus serrata was ranged from 51 to 62 years old, Carpinus laxiflora was 94 years old. In 2013, the succession trend was predicted Pinus densiflora${\rightarrow}$Quercus variabilis, Quercus serrata ${\rightarrow}$Cornus controversa, Carpinus laxiflora. The ecological sucession progress has declined power of the Pinus densiflora and the increased power of the deciduous broad-leaved and Quercus spp. in Soguemgang Valley, Odaesan National Park. Quercus serrata and Quercus variabilis communities that judged Pinus densiflora were progressing by direction of landform. The southern slopes vegetation were progressing for Quercus variabilis, the northern slopes vegetation were progressing for Quercus serrata. In flat Valley, mainly native species of Cornus controversa, Carpinus laxiflora are predicted ecological succession for deciduous broad-leaved tree community.

Pinus densiflora for. erecta - Can It Be Treated Genetically as a Distinct Group? - Reconsideration Based on Allozyme Data - (금강소나무 - 유전적으로 별개의 품종으로 인정될 수 있는가? - 동위효소분석 결과에 의한 고찰 -)

  • Kim, Zin Suh;Lee, Seok Woo;Hwang, Jae Woo;Kwon, Ki Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.82 no.2
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    • pp.166-175
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    • 1993
  • The genetic variation patterns at 23 loci coding for 16 isozymes in eight natural populations of Pinus densiflora for. erects distributed in Kangwon-Kyungbuk region and 17 populations of Pinus densiflora and 13 populations of Pinus thunbergii were compared. The absence of marker alleles specific to P. thunbergii and almost the same allele-frequency distributions to those of P. densiflora did not support the hypothesis that P. densiflora for. erecta is a introgressive hybrid between P. densiflora and P. thunbergii. From the results of the hierarchial analysis of population differentiation using Wright's F statistics(1978), the frequency distributions of single-locus distance coefficients and other genetic analysis (genetic distance, cluster analysis, factor analysis, resin duct analysis), it was concluded that Pinus densiflora for. erecta cannot be treated genetically as a distinct group from other natural populations of P. densiflora.

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A Study on the Change and Management of Historical Landscape Forest of Taeneung, Joseon Dynasty Royal Tomb, Seoul, Korea (조선왕릉 태릉(泰陵)의 역사경관림 변화와 관리방안)

  • Kim, Myoung-Sin;Lee, Kyong-Jae;Kim, Jong-Yup;Hur, Ji-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.56-72
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    • 2015
  • This study area for this research was the Taereung of the 2009 World Heritage-listed Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. The Taereung space was divided into that of the royal tomb space, religious service space, transposition space and entry space. The original vegetation is assumed to have been planted at the right, left and backside of the tomb based on historical research literature. Regarding the original vegetation landscape of Taeneung, it was assumed that Pinus densiflora was distributed around the tomb lines and tomb space, Pinus densiflora was distributed in the religion services space and transposition and Alnus japonica was distributed in the entry space. By the present status of vegetation in Taeneung, the Pinus densiflora forest was the widest area with 50.3% with the broadleaf forest at 33.7%. Quercus aliena, Quercus acutissima, and Quercus mongolica were the main species found in Taeneung. The planting area was 7.9% and Pinus densiflora were the main species planted. To analyze the plant community structure of Taeneung, 108 plots were set and divided into four spaces. The importance of the percentage of those districts was analyzed on a spatial basis and it was found that the current dominant species of the tomb space was Pinus densiflora. However, as Pinus densiflora began dying out, the power of Quercus acutissima increased and an ecological succession from the Pinus densiflora forest to Quercus aliena forest was made. In the spaces of religious services and transposition, Pinus densiflora was decreasing and Quercus spp. was expanded. In the space of entry, the dominant species were Pinus densiflora and Quercus aliena, Pinus densiflora and Quercus aliena. As soil of this area is argillaceous, Pinus densiflora is expected to disappear in the end. The prior vegetation(assumed) and present vegetation of Taeneung were compared and analyzed and a goal of vegetation management and the way in which to manage vegetation were suggested. The goal of vegetation landscape management was to analyze ecological characteristics and vegetation changes, maintain and restore a landscape suitable for historical landscape forests by space. About the space of the tomb, Pinus densiflora forests and Pinus densiflora planting zones forests should be maintained and there should be efforts to restore and manage the Pinus densiflora forests, instead of the Quercus spp. forests. About the space of religious services, Pinus densiflora forests and Pinus densiflora planting zones should be maintained and managed and there should be efforts to restore and manage Pinus densiflora forests to replace Quercus spp. Pinus densiflora forests in the space of transposition should be maintained and managed and Pinus densiflora forests should be restored to replace Quercus spp. trees. Alnus japonica forests should be restored in the space of entry.

The Effect of Pinus densiflora Root System on Stability of Damaged Slopes (소나무의 근계특성이 사면안정화에 미치는 영향)

  • Suh, Dong-Jun;Kim, Se-Geon;Kim, Dong-Geun
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 2010
  • To analyze the effects of tree roots on the stability of damage slope, distributional and physical properties of five-year Pinus densiflora roots were investigated. In the composition of roots, the proportion of main root to lateral root was 1 to 9 in slope condition. Root tensile force was increased in accordance with increased proportion to diameter of Pinus densiflora roots. However, tensile strength was decreased in proportion to diameter of roots. Root shear strength showed that soil containing Pinus densiflora roots was higher than that of non-treated soils. This result shows that Pinus densiflora roots significantly stabilize the surface-soil rather than sub-soil in damage slopes.

Phytosociological Studies of Pinus densiflora Forest in Islets of Southwestern Coast, Korea (한국 서남해 도서의 소나무 (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.)림에 대한 식물사회학적 연구)

  • 양효식
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to analyze Pinus densiflora forest in islets of southwestern coast of the Korean peninsula by the phytosociological methods. As a result of the investigation of 26 quadrats, the pine forest was classified two communities and six subcommunities : Ardisia japonica - Pinus densiflora community and lsodon japonicus - Pinus densiflora community, and Farfugium japonicum subcommunity, Quercus serrata subcommunity, Typical subcommunity of Ardisia japonica - P. densiflora community, Juniperus rigida subcommunity, Pourthiaea villosa subcommunity and Typical subcommunity of lsodon japonicus - P. densiflora community. The subsidiary knowledges from this study provide practical information to clarify the syntaxonomy of natural pine forest of the Korean peninsula by the phytosociological methods.

Biogenetic Differences in Essential Oil Constituents from the Leave of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis (소나무와 잣나무잎 정유성분의 생체학적 차이)

  • Song, Hong-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 1995
  • The terpenoids are one of the secondary metabolities in Pinus species and functioned the protection them from insects or/and fungus etc. Since Pinus koraiensis has not any damage by Pine needle gall midge but Pinus densiflora has great injury by them in South Korea. It may great helf to find these reasons to analize their monoterpenenoids and to compare the seasonal variation of their amounts. Terpenoids were analized by GC, GC/MS. Some biogenetic analysis of terpenoids also was elucidated. The seasonal variation of terpenoid was distinguished at March and August and/or September. Most of major component of monoterpenes were increased or decreased in these periods in Pinus koraiensis. Especially 3-carene was showed significant variation between the period of physiological activity and the period of domain. The effect of infection by Pine needle gall midge was significant in Pinus densiflora for amount of monoterpene during the period of infection. The components of p-menthane series between Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis was recognized a significant difference during the experiment. Biogenetic cooccurrance of pmenthane series also was recognized between 3-carene and terpinolene in Pinus koraiensis.

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Genetic Variation of Several Isoenzymes in Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis (반송(Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis)의 몇 가지 동위효소(同位酵素)의 유전변이(遺傳變異))

  • Hwang, Jae Woo;Lee, Seok Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.85 no.3
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    • pp.409-415
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    • 1996
  • Isozyme variations in 4 enzyme systems in Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis in 31 individual trees collected throughout the country were studied by starch gel electrophoresis using haploid megagametophyte tissue to compare with those of Pinus densiflora. A minimum of 7 loci were found to code for isozymes of the enzyme systems. No variation was found at locus GOT-A; at the remaining 6 variable loci(GDH-A, GOT-B, GOT-C, IDH-A, LAP-,A, LAP-B) and 2 to 4 alleles were identified. We could not find any marker alleles to distinguish Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis from Pinus densiflora at the isozymes studied here. Allele frequency distributions at each loci were almost all the same as those of P. densiflora. The percentage of polymorphic loci(99% level), the number of alleles per locus, the observed and expected heterozygosities were 85.7, 2.3, 0.165 and 0.186%, respectively. The level of genetic diversity in Pinus densiflora for. multicaulis seemed to be less than that of P. densiflora.

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Effects of Supplementation with Needles of Pinus densiflora on the Fermentation Characteristics of Honey Wine (솔잎 첨가 벌꿀주의 발효 특성)

  • Lee, Je-Hyuk;Han, Woo-Cheul;Kim, In-Chul;Cheong, Chul;Kang, Soon-Ah;Jang, Ki-Hyo
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2011
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with the needles of Pinus densiflora on the fermentation characteristics of honey wine (Pinus densiflora-honey wine). Honey without supplementation with needles of Pinus densiflora (honey wine) was included as a control. Physiochemical changes were investigated during 30 days of fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$, and following aging. At the beginning of fermentation, pH and viable cell counts of Pinus densiflora-honey wine changed rapidly, while $^{\circ}Bx$ decreased gradually. Viable yeast counts reached maximum levels at 5 to 10 days of fermentation. At day 0, the pH of Pinus densiflora-honey wine was 3.8, while the non-supplemented honey wine had a pH of 3.4. Decease in $^{\circ}Bx$ was faster in Pinus densiflora-honey wine than in non-supplemented honey wine. Supplementation of honey with needles of Pinus densiflora prior to fermentation shifted the initial pH to a more neutral pH, and the presence of Pinus densiflora needles increased the fermentation speed. The final $^{\circ}Bx$, pH, ethanol content, and total titratable acidity of Pinus densiflora-honey wine were $13.7^{\circ}Bx$, pH 3.05, 13.5%, and 0.37%, respectively. A sensory evaluation demonstrated that addition of 4% (w/v) fructose to honey wine supplemented with neddles of Pinus densiflora raised the level of product acceptability.

Chemometrics Approach For Species Identification of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki - Species Classification Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in combination with Multivariate Analysis - (소나무와 금강송의 수종식별을 위한 화학계량학적 접근 - 근적외선 분광법과 다변량분석을 이용한 수종 분류 -)

  • Hwang, Sung-Wook;Lee, Won-Hee;Horikawa, Yoshiki;Sugiyama, Junji
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.701-713
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    • 2015
  • A model was designed to identify wood species between Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki and Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. using the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In the PCA using all of the spectra, Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki and Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. could not be classified. In the PCA using the spectrum that has been measured in sapwood, however, Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki and Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. could be identified. In particular, it was clearly classified by sapwood in radial section. And more, these two species could be perfectly identified using PLS-DA prediction model. The best performance in species identification was obtained when the second derivative spectra was used; the prediction accuracy was 100%. For prediction model, the $R_p{^2}$ value was 0.86 and the RMSEP was 0.38 in second derivative spectra. It was verified that the model designed by NIR spectroscopy with PLS-DA is suitable for species identification between Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki and Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.