• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pinus densiflora

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Syntaxonomy and Syngeography of Korean Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Forests in Korea (한국 소나무림의 군락분류와 군락지리)

  • Chun, Young-Moon;Lee, Ho-Joon;Hayashi, Ichiroku
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.257-277
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    • 2007
  • We carried out a phytosociological study on pine forests in Korea with the method of Zurich-Montpellier School. We collected the data of 252 $relev{\acute{e}}s$ from 45 sites in the pine forests throughout the Korean Peninsula and its attached islands. The vegetation of the pine forests was classified into one association, three communities and seven subcommunities as follows: A: Quercus mongolica-Pinus densiflora community, A-1: Typical subcommunity, A-2: Vaccinium korean urn subcommunity, A-3 : Rhododendron micranthum subcommunity, B: Quercus serrata-Pinus densiflora community, B-1: Typical subcommunity, B-2: Juniperus rigida subcommunity, B-3: Styrax japonica subcommunity, B-4: Eurya japonica subcommunity, C: Saso-Pinetum densiflorae Yim et al. 1990, and D: Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii-Pinus densiflora community. The former three communities were integrated into the Lindero-Quercion mongolicae Kim 1990 em. 1992. The Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii-Pinus densiflora community remained to be studied in future to determine the association. The communities of Quercus mongolica-Pinus densiflora community was distributed throughout the montane zone in central-northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Quercus serrata-Pinus densiflora community occupied widely in the sub-montane and hilly areas in central and Southern Korean Peninsula. The association of Saso-Pinetum densiflorae was found in Cheju Island. Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii-Pinus densiflora community were distributed in the warm-temperate zone including islands off the south-west coast of the Peninsula.

Structure of Forest Community in Mt. Busosan, Buyeo-Gun (부여군 부소산의 산림군락 구조)

  • Cheong, Yongmoon;Kim, Dongseok;Kim, Kwangdong;Lee, Sanghwa;Song, Hokyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to analyze community character and classify forest community with phytosociological method and quadrat method to forest of Mt. Busosan in Buyeo-Gun.1. Communities by phytosociological method were classified into Pinus densiflora community and Quercus sp. community. With the classification of TWINSPAN, the community was categorized into Pinus densiflora - Quercus variabilis community and Pinus densiflora - Styrax japonica community.2. The importance value of Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Prunus sargentii, Styrax japonica, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis, Pinus rigida, Quercus aliena in tree layer were 83.20, 41.87, 30.93, 24.85, 23.27, 20.97, 20.28, and 9.46, respectively. The relative coverage of Stephanandra incisa, Quercus serrata, Styrax japonica, Parthenocissua tricuspidata, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Lindera obtusiloba, Prunus sargentii, Quercus variabilis, Indigofera kirilowii, Quercus acutissima, Lespedeza maximowiczii, and Acer pseudosibolianum in shrub layer were 9.62%, 9.55%, 9.18%, 7.85%, 6.18%, 5.25%, 4.82%, 4.15%, 3.98%, 3.98%, 3.55%, and 2.98%, respectively.3. According to size distribution map of diameter breast height of dominant species, the dominant species of Mt. Busosan was Pinus densiflora, and Quercus sp. such as Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, and Quercus serrata may compete with the Pinus densiflora in the future.4. According to the ordination analysis of Mt. Busosan forest, Pinus densiflora - Styrax japonica community was found in moist site and Pinus densiflora - Quercus variabilis community was found in dry site.

Growth Characteristics and Vegetation Structure of the Pinus densiflora Forest for Sugumagi of Unmun Temple, Cheongdo-gun, Korea (청도군 운문사 입구 수구막이 소나무림 식생구조 및 생육 특성)

  • Kang, Gi Won;Lee, Do-I;Han, Bong-Ho;Kwak, Jeong-In
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2020
  • This study was designed to come up with a way of managing a cultural landscape forest by conducting research on the vegetation structure and growth characteristics. This study's target site, which was 45,201㎡ in size, was Pinus densiflora forest for Sugumagi placed at the entrance of Unmun Temple, Sinwon-ri, Unmun-myeon, and Cheongdo-gun in the southernmost part of Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Sugumagi means the water of the valley flows far away, and where no downstream is visible according to feng shui. The historical sources of the Sugumagi Pinus densiflora forest at the entrance of Unmun Temple isn't clear. It waw only found at that location. The Pinus densiflora forest at the entrance of Unmun Temple is located in the waterway in terms of Feng Shui. The present condition of growth was investigated through a grid surveys of 98 trees and Pinus densiflora growth. As a result of the analysis of growth status, Pinus densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Zelkova serrata, Celtis sinensis, and Rhus javanica were distributed in the conopy layer, and 28 species including Ailanthus altissima were grown in the understroy layer, and 92 species, including Ampelopsis brevipedunculata, in the shrub layer. The plant community structure was divided into low, medium and high-density Pinus densiflora forests in the study area, based on the number in the conopy layer and the grade of and the trees analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the Pinus densiflora dominated the low, medium and high-density Pinus densiflora forests, and there were no competitive species. The relative dominance of the low-density Pinus densiflora forests was 46.9% on average, medium-density was 62.6% and 50.2% was found in high-density. The mean species diversity of Shannon in the low-density study was 0.7055, medium-density study was 0.8966 and the average species diversity of Shannon in the high-density study was 0.8317. The analysis of the age and growth of 25 sample trees in the Sugumagi Pinus densiflora forest shows that the distribution of the chest diameter (DBH) of the sample Pinus densiflora is 38 to 77cm with the average chest diameter being 61.1cm. The age was 84-161 years and the average was 114 years. In the Pinus densiflora forest, most(670,659, or 98.3%) of the tree trunk wound was collected for rosins during the Japanese colonia Era, Of the total 670, 659 were Pinus densiflora, 98.3% of the total. 394 were surgically repaired in 2005. For the preservation of the Sugumagi Pinus densiflora forest, dead trees should be replaced with substitute trees appropriate to the middle and south topography. It is demanded that foreign species such as Larix leptolepis in the research area should be removed and Pinus densiflora that underwent surgical operations should be regularly sterilized. It is also emphasized that the management of insecticide is important.

The Experimental Study on Toxicity Effects of Pinus Densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini Herbal-acupuncture (송엽약침액(松葉藥鍼液)의 독성시험에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Soh, Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.123-140
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was carried out to study on the safety assessment of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini for Hebal-acupuncture. SD rats and ICR mice were used for acute toxicity test, the results were summerized as follows; 1. In rats and mice, $LD_{50}$ value could not be measured. 2. There were no abnormal finding in acute toxicity test treated Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini for Hebal-acupuncture.

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Distribution Pattern of Pinus densiflora and Quercus Spp. Stand in Korea Using Spatial Statistics and GIS (공간통계와 GIS를 이용한 소나무림과 참나무류림의 분포패턴)

  • Lee, Chong-Soo;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Yoon, Jeong-Ho;Song, Chul-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.6
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    • pp.663-671
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed for exploring the spatial distribution pattern of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. in Korea. Firstly, the spatial distribution map of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. was prepared in grid of $100m{\times}100m$ at national level, using digital forest type map and actual vegetation map. And thematic maps for topography, climate, and soil were also prepared in the raster form of $100m{\times}100m$. Through GIS based spatial analysis of the digital distribution map of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. and thematic maps, the spatial characteristics of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. distribution was explored in relation to the environmental factors such as topography, climate, and soil. And the occurrence frequency models of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. were derived. Pinus densiflora occurs more often than Quercus spp. at low elevation, low slope gradient, and high temperature areas. In addition, Pinus densiflora is mainly distributed at shallow and well-drained loamy soil from igneous rocks. In contrast, Quercus spp. is more common at shallow and well-drained loamy soil from metamorphic rocks. As a result, the prediction model for the spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. by topographical variables has proven successful with high statistical significance. The result of this study can contribute to rational management of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. stand in Korea, considering environmental factors such as topography, climate, and soil.

Diameter Growth and Key-Year in Pinus koraiensis and Pinus densiflora Trees (잣나무와 소나무의 직경생장(直徑生長)과 Key-Year)

  • Han, Sang Sup;Park, Wan Geun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.77 no.2
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 1988
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the diameter growth and Key-year in Pinus koraiensis and Pinus densiflora trees grown in Chuncheon and Hongcheon. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1. The diameter growth of Pinus koraiensis was better than that of Pinus densiflora grown in the same meteorological condition and site environment. 2. The influence of meteorological factors on the diameter growth of Pinus koraiensis was the highest in the descending order fog, hours of sunshine, precipitation, relative humidity, warm index, and evaporation. 3. The influence of meteorological factors on the diameter growth of Pinus densiflora was the highest in the descending order fog, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, precipitation, and warm index. But evaporation was not significant. 4. The Key-years for Pinus koraiensis and Pinus densiflora trees appeared in 1964 and 1913 when the diameter growth was influenced by the specific climate change.

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The Inter- and Intra-specific Comparison of Stereotyped Songs in Sympatric Gray-headed Bunting (Emberiza fucata) and Siberian-Meadow Bunting (Emberiza cioides) (동소성 붉은 뺨멧새 ( Emberiza fucata ) 와 멧새 ( Emberiza cioides ) 의 Stereotyped Song 의 비교)

  • Kim, Kil-Won;Shi-Ryong Park
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.317-327
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    • 1993
  • Stands profiles, yearly changes in growth of annual rings, age and diameter structure, and spatial distribution pattern of individuals in the Pinus densiflora stands around the Yeocheon industrial complex were investigated. Growth of annual ring in Pinus densiflora, which survived when vegetation of this area was damaged by air pollutants, was suppressed for about 10 years since 1974 when factories in this area began to operate, but since then such suppressed growth tended to be recovered. It was supposed that the suppresed growth was originated from air pollution and that improvement of growth since the suppressed period was due to the release from competition with them by death of neighbouring trees and the resuction of the amount of air pollutants. Physiognomy of Pinus densiflora stands showed mosaic pattern composed of different patches. Spatial distribution pattern of individuals an stand profiles were similar to those of Pinus densiflora stands regenerated after natural and artificial disturbances. In an age distribution diagram, age of Pinus densiflora population ranged from 1 to 33 years, Among these individuals were recrited corresponded to the suppresed period of growth of annual ring in Pinus densiflora survived when the vegetation was damaged by air pollution. On the other hand, from the result of analysis of frequency distribution diagram of diameter, it was postulated that even if whis Pinus densiflora community can be maintained as it is for the time being, it might be changed to Quercus community with the lapse of time. Regeneration; Pinus densiflora; Air pollution; Annual ring; Age structure; Diameter structure; Quercus spp. In these analyses, factors for individual recognition and species recognition were suggested.

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Topographical Analysis for Spatial Distribution of Pinus densiflora (소나무 공간분포의 지형학적 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Min;Lee, Woo-Kyun;Son, Yowhan;Yoo, Seongjin;Kim, So-Ra
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.98 no.6
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    • pp.764-771
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    • 2009
  • This research aimed at analyzing relationship between spatial distribution of Pinus densiflora, and topographical factors in Seorak and Chiak national park. 100 m grid size was proven to be suitable for analyzing spatial distribution characteristics of Pinus densiflora. Pinus densiflora appeared mainly on 400 m~800 m of elevation, $15^{\circ}{\sim}30^{\circ}$ of slope and 0~2 of TWI. There were no big differences in appearance frequency of Pinus densiflora area by aspect. There were differences in distribution characteristics of Pinus densiflora between below and above 400 m of elevation. There were no big differences in appearance frequency of Pinus densiflora area above 400 m of elevation but a big differences by topographical factors below 400 m of elevation.

Warty Layer Structure of Bordered Pits in Main Wood Species of Pinaceae Grown in Korea

  • Ahmed, Sheikh Ali;Chun, Su-Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2006
  • An investigation was done to know the warty layer structural difference in bordered pit of longitudinal tracheid in Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc., Pinus rigida Mill. and Larix kaempferi Carr. grown in Korea. Among the four wood species, warty layer was found in bordered pit of longitudinal tracheid of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and Pinus rigida Mill. The mean height and horizontal diameter of warty layer was found highest in Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. The height of warty layer was found the highest in juvenile wood of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. and it gradually decreased towards the matured wood.

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Plasticization of Domestic Wood Treated with Liquid Amonia(I)-Equipment and Preliminary Test (액체암모니아를 이용한 국산재의 가소화(I) -처리장치 및 기초실험)

  • 강호양
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2000
  • Liquid ammonia treatment known as the most effective Wood plasticization method, was applied to two typical domestic species, Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata. Small specimens of 30mm width, 300mm length and two thicknesses, 5 or 10mm, were used. For 5mm thick Specimens, Pinus densiflora was quite well plasticized iker 4 hour liquid ammonia treatment, while Castanea crenata was not plasticized even after 4 hour treatment. Specimens of 10mm thick Pinus densiflora were hardly plasticized, but those with kerfs were bent somewhat easily, With the increase of liquid ammonia treatment time the thermal conductivity of Pinus densiflora increased, while that of Castanea crenata didn't Presteaming before liquid ammonia treatment didn't improve the plasticization of both species.

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