• Title/Summary/Keyword: Point-to-Point

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Security of Ethernet in Automotive Electric/Electronic Architectures (차량 전자/전기 아키텍쳐에 이더넷 적용을 위한 보안 기술에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Yong;Lee, Dong-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2016
  • One of the major trends of automotive networking architecture is the introduction of automotive Ethernet. Ethernet is already used in single automotive applications (e.g. to connect high-data-rate sources as video cameras), it is expected that the ongoing standardization at IEEE (IEEE802.3bw - 100BASE-T1, respectively IEEE P802.3bp - 1000BASE-T1) will lead to a much broader adoption in future. Those applications will not be limited to simple point-to-point connections, but may affect Electric/Electronic(EE) Architectures as a whole. It is agreed that IP based traffic via Ethernet could be secured by application of well-established IP security protocols (e.g., IPSec, TLS) combined with additional components like, e.g., automotive firewall or IDS. In the case of safety and real-time related applications on resource constraint devices, the IP based communication is not the favorite option to be used with complicated and performance demanding TLS or IPSec. Those applications will be foreseeable incorporate Layer-2 based communication protocols as, e.g., currently standardized at IEEE[13]. The present paper reflects the state-of-the-art communication concepts with respect to security and identifies architectural challenges and potential solutions for future Ethernet Switch-based EE-Architectures. It also gives an overview and provide insights into the ongoing security relevant standardization activities concerning automotive Ethernet. Furthermore, the properties of non-automotive Ethernet security mechanisms as, e.g., IEEE 802.1AE aka. MACsec or 802.1X Port-based Network Access Control, will be evaluated and the applicability for automotive applications will be assessed.

Implementation of Massive FDTD Simulation Computing Model Based on MPI Cluster for Semi-conductor Process (반도체 검증을 위한 MPI 기반 클러스터에서의 대용량 FDTD 시뮬레이션 연산환경 구축)

  • Lee, Seung-Il;Kim, Yeon-Il;Lee, Sang-Gil;Lee, Cheol-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2015
  • In the semi-conductor process, a simulation process is performed to detect defects by analyzing the behavior of the impurity through the physical quantity calculation of the inner element. In order to perform the simulation, Finite-Difference Time-Domain(FDTD) algorithm is used. The improvement of semiconductor which is composed of nanoscale elements, the size of simulation is getting bigger. Problems that a processor such as CPU or GPU cannot perform the simulation due to the massive size of matrix or a computer consist of multiple processors cannot handle a massive FDTD may come up. For those problems, studies are performed with parallel/distributed computing. However, in the past, only single type of processor was used. In GPU's case, it performs fast, but at the same time, it has limited memory. On the other hand, in CPU, it performs slower than that of GPU. To solve the problem, we implemented a computing model that can handle any FDTD simulation regardless of size on the cluster which consist of heterogeneous processors. We tested the simulation on processors using MPI libraries which is based on 'point to point' communication and verified that it operates correctly regardless of the number of node and type. Also, we analyzed the performance by measuring the total execution time and specific time for the simulation on each test.

A Design of a Network Module supporting Primitive Messaging Operations for MOM (MOM의 Primitive Messaging Operation을 지원하는 네트워크 모듈 설계)

  • Kang, Tae-Gun;Sohn, Kang-Min;Ham, Ho-Sang
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.115-118
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    • 2003
  • 최근 MOM 기술은 비즈니스 로직을 수행하는 애플리케이션 서버의 필수적인 구성요소로서 자리잡고 있으며, 보통 수백에서 수천의 클라이언트 요청을 처리할 수 있는 능력을 제공한다. MOM 은 이러한 대용량의 클라이언트 요청을 효과적으로 처리하기 위해서 효율적이고 확장성있는(스케일러블) 네트워크 모듈이 필요하며, 다양한 네트워크 프로토콜을 지원해야 한다. MOM이 기본적으로 지원하는 메시징 기능은 PTP(Point-To-Point)와 publish/subscribe 메시징 도메인으로 나뉘는데 이 논문에서는 두 가지 메시징 도메인과 그룹통신 메시징 서비스 기능을 동시에 지원하는 MoIM-Message 시스템의 하부 통신 모듈의 설계에 대해 기술한다. PTP와 publish/subscribe 메시징을 지원하기 위해 세가지 프리미티브 메시징 오퍼레이션인 "synchronous send", "synchronous receive", "asynchronous receive"를 정의하였으며 하부 통신 모듈 역할을 하는 메시지 트랜스포트 관리 계층내의 트랜스포트 관리자 내에 구현되었다. 트랜스포트 관리자는 다양한 트랜스포트 프로토콜을 적용할 수 있도록 하기 위해 트랜스포트 어댑터로 설계되었으며, 대량의 통신 요청을 효과적으로 처리하기 위해 "polling with multiple service thread model" 기법을 적용하여 구현되었다. 또한, 모바일 클라이언트 환경을 지원하기 위해 클라이언트 측 통신 모듈을 IPaq PDA 상에 포팅하였다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 세 가지 프리미티브 메시징 오퍼레이션을 제공하는 통신 모듈은 MOM이 기본적으로 지원해야 할 메시징 도메인과 대용량의 클라이언트 요청을 효율적으로 처리할 수 있는 구조를 가진다.es}8$ 모드를 모두 사용한 경우와 $8{\times}8$ 단일모드를 사용한 경우보다 계산 시간이 감소하였음을 확인하였다.행중인 MoIM-Messge서버의 네트워크 모듈로 다중 쓰레드 소켓폴링 모델을 적용하였다.n rate compared with conventional face recognition algorithms. 아니라 실내에서도 발생하고 있었다. 정량한 8개 화합물 각각과 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 스피어만 상관계수는 벤젠을 제외하고는 모두 유의하였다. 이중 톨루엔과 크실렌은 총 휘발성 유기화합물과 좋은 상관성 (톨루엔 0.76, 크실렌, 0.87)을 나타내었다. 이 연구는 톨루엔과 크실렌이 총 휘발성 유기화합물의 좋은 지표를 사용될 있고, 톨루엔, 에틸벤젠, 크실렌 등 많은 휘발성 유기화합물의 발생원은 실외뿐 아니라 실내에도 있음을 나타내고 있다.>10)의 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 얻었다. 결론: $^{18}O(p,n)^{18}F$ 핵반응을 이용하여 친전자성 방사성동위원소 $[^{18}F]F_2$를 생산하였다. 표적 챔버는 알루미늄으로 제작하였으며 본 연구에서 연구된 $[^{18}F]F_2$가스는 친핵성 치환반응으로 방사성동위원소를 도입하기 어려운 다양한 방사성의 약품개발에 유용하게 이용될 수 있을 것이다.었으나 움직임 보정 후 영상을 이용하여 비교한 경우, 결합능 변화가 선조체 영역에서 국한되어 나타나며 그 유의성이 움직임 보정 전에 비하여 낮음을 알 수 있었다. 결론: 뇌활성화 과제 수행시에 동반되는 피험자의 머리 움직임에 의하여 도파민 유리가 과대평가되었으며 이는 이 연구에서 제안한 영상정합을 이용한 움직임 보정기법에

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Adaptive Limited Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for EPON (EPON 시스템의 적응적 Limited 동적 대역 할당 방식)

  • Hwang Jun-Ho;Yoo Myung-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5B
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    • pp.449-455
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    • 2006
  • Due to advance in multimedia applications and integrated Internet services, the optical access networks have been actively studied. In particular, Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) has received much attention due to high bandwidth provision with low cost. In EPON system, the data transmission is carried out in two directions: downstream (from OLT to ONU) and upstream (from ONU to OLT). The downstream data is broadcasted to every ONUs, while the upstream data is point-to-point transmitted between each ONU and OLT, where the uplink is shared by all ONUs in the form of TDMA. The bandwidth allocation algorithm is required to efficiently manage the bandwidth on the uplink. The limited algorithm was proposed to enhance the capability of dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this paper, we propose the adaptive limited algorithm to enhance the shortcomings of limited algorithm. The adaptive limited algorithm enhances the dynamics on bandwidth allocation, and at the same time controls the fairness on packet delay. Through the computer simulations, it is shown that the adaptive limited algorithm achieves high dynamic on bandwidth allocation, maintains a good fairness on packet delay between ONUs, and keeps the fairness on the bandwidth on the demand basis.

Unfairness of Congestion Control for Point-to-Multipoint Connections on ATM (ATM 상의 다중점 연결을 위한 폭주 제어 기법의 불공정성)

  • Choi, Won-Jeong;Lee, Mee-Jeong
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.1311-1319
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    • 1998
  • The methods of providing available bandwidth adaptively using feedback to maximize the utilization of network as well as the quality of service have been the focus of recent research activities for ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode). This study has been extended from the point-to-point connection to a point-to-multipoint environment as the number of applications requiring multicast service increases. It is known that the effectiveness of feedback based congestion control scheme diminishes as propagation delay increases. Especially for a multicast connection consisting of various paths and destinations with different performance and congestion status, the problem of unfairness due to different propagation delays may occur. The degree of such unfairness may change depending on various aspects of congestion control schemes. These has been, however, relatively little study on these problems. In this paper, we present how various aspects of control schemes-length of the interval between feedback generations, point of time to coalesce feedback cells from child paths, decreasing factor of source rate in case of congestion-affect the degree of unfairness. Simulation results show that degree of unfairness changes according to when the feedback coalescing happens. Expecially it is shown that the effect of feedback coalescing time to the degree of unfairness is more significant for the smaller feedback interval. It is also found that as the source rate decreasing factor becomes larger the average ACR(Allowed Cell Rate) at the source gets lower and the degree of unfairness grow larger.

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Effect of Interference in CSMA/CA Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Network (CSMA/CA 기반 수중 통신망에서 간섭의 영향 연구)

  • Song, Min-je;Cho, Ho-shin;Jang, Youn-seon
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.1631-1636
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    • 2015
  • With the advance of wireless communication technology in terrestrial area, underwater communication is also evolving very fast from a simple point-to-point transmission to an elaborate networked communications. Underwater acoustic channel has quite different features comparing with the terrestrial radio channel in terms of propagation delay, Doppler shift, multipath, and path loss. Thus, existing technologies developed for terrestrial communication might not work properly in underwater channel. Especially medium access control (MAC) protocols which highly depend on propagation phenomenon should be newly designed for underwater network. CSMA/CA has drawn lots of attention as a candidate of underwater MAC protocol, since it is able to resolve a packet collision and the hidden node problem. However, a received signal could be degraded by the interferences from the nodes locating outside the receiver's propagation radius. In this paper, we study the effects of interference on the CSMA/CA based underwater network. We derived the SNR with the interference using the sonar equation and analyzed the degradation of the RTS/CTS effects. These results are compared with the terrestrial results to understand the differences. Finally we summarized the design considerations in CSMA/CA based underwater network.