• Title, Summary, Keyword: Polymer electrolyte membrane

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A Study on the Performance Recovery of $H_2S$ Poisoned PEMFC ($H_2S$ 피독 고분자 전해질막 연료전지의 연료극 성능 회복 연구)

  • Lee, Soo;Jin, Seok-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2012
  • The recovery of a Pt anode in a PEMFC through 30 ppm $H_2S/H_2$ exposure was evaluated by using a cyclic voltametry(CV) scan. First, the PEMFC unit cell performanc loss was measured three times under an anode feeding with 30 ppm $H_2S/H_2$ for 1hr at $0.5A/cm^2$ of current density. The initial cell performance was $1.16A/cm^2$ at 0.6 V without $H_2S$ poisoning. After first poisoning step for 1hr the cell performance was decrease to $0.77A/cm^2$, and the further poisoning steps decreased up 0.57 V. Finally, the recovery of the cell performance of $H_2S$ poisoned PEMFC was achieved up to 90.3% by applying CV scan. Moreover, we also found out that another possible approach for over 80% recovery of the cell performance of $H_2S$ poisoned anode Pt catalyst layer was to just inject fresh hydrogen into the anode feeding stream.

Effects of Calcination Temperature on Characteristics of Electrospun TiO2 Catalyst Supports for PEMFCs (열처리 온도가 전기방사방법을 이용하여 제조한 PEMFC용 TiO2 담체의 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Chorong;Yoo, Sungjong;Jang, Jonghyun;Kim, Hyoungjuhn;Kim, Jihyun;Cho, Eunae
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2013
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is a power generation system to convert chemical energy of fuels and oxidants to electricity directly by electrochemical reactions. As a catalyst support for PEMFCs, carbon black has been generally used due to its large surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, under certain circumstances (start up/shut down, fuel starvation, ice formation etc.), carbon supports are subjected to serve corrosion in the presence of water. Therefore, it would be desirable to switch carbon supports to corrosion-resistive support materials such as metal oxide. $TiO_2$ has been attractive as a support with its stability in fuel cell operation atmosphere, low cost, commercial availability, and the ease to control size and structure. However, low electrical conductivity of $TiO_2$ still inhibits its application to catalyst support for PEMFCs. In this paper, to explore feasibility of $TiO_2$ as a catalyst support for PEMFCs, $TiO_2$ nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning and calcinated at 600, 700, 800 and $900^{\circ}C$. Effects of calcination temperature on crystal structure and electrical conductivity of electrospun $TiO_2$ nanofibers were examined. Electrical conductivity of $TiO_2$ nanofibers increased significantly with increasing calcination temperature from $600^{\circ}C$ to $700^{\circ}C$ and then increased gradually with increasing the calcination temperature from $700^{\circ}C$ to $900^{\circ}C$. It was revealed that the remarkable increase in electrical conductivity could be attributed to phase transition of $TiO_2$ nanofibers from anatase to rutile at the temperature range from $600^{\circ}C$ to $700^{\circ}C$.

Preparation of CuO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalyst by sol-gel method and its application to preferential oxidation of CO (졸-겔법에 의한 CuO-CeO2 복합 산화물 촉매의 제조 및 CO의 선택적 산화반응에 응용)

  • Hwang, Jae-Young;Hahm, Hyun-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.883-891
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    • 2017
  • For the preferential oxidation of CO contained in the fuel of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel and co-precipitation methods to replace noble metal catalysts. In the catalyst preparation by the sol-gel method, Cu/Ce ratio and hydrolysis ratio were changed. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was compared with the catalytic activity of the noble metal catalyst($Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$). Among the catalysts prepared with different Cu/Ce ratios, the catalyst whose Cu/Ce ratio was 4:16 showed the highest CO conversion (90%) and selectivity (60%) at $150^{\circ}C$. As the hydrolysis ratio was increased in the catalyst preparation, surface area increased, and catalytic activity also increased. The highest CO conversions with the CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation method and the noble metal catalyst (1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$) were 82 and 81% at $150^{\circ}C$, respectively, whereas the highest CO conversion with the CuO-$CeO_2$ mixed oxide catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was 90% at the same temperature. This indicates that the catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method shows higher catalytic activity than the catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method and the noble metal catalyst. From the CO-TPD experiment, it was found that the catalyst having CO desorption peak at a lower temperature ($140^{\circ}C$) revealed higher catalytic activity.

A Study on Numerical Analysis for Internal PEMFC Cooling of Power Pack for UPS (UPS 파워 팩 내부 연료전지의 냉각특성에 대한 수치 해석)

  • Song, Jun-Seok;Kim, Byeong-Heon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.527-535
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    • 2017
  • Heat management is one of the most critical issues in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) installed inside the fuel cell power pack of a fuel cell battery hybrid UPS. If the heat generated by the chemical reaction in the fuel cell is not rapidly removed, the durability and performance of the fuel cell may be affected, which may shorten its lifetime. Therefore, the objective of this study is to select and propose a proper cooling method for the fuel cells used in the fuel cell power pack of a UPS. In order to find the most appropriate cooling method, the various design factors affecting the cooling performance were studied. The numerical analysis was performed by a commercial program, i.e., COMSOL Multiphysics. Firstly, the surface temperature of the 1 kW class fuel cell stack with the cooling fans placed at the top was compared with the one with the cooling fans placed at the bottom. Various rotation speeds of the cooling fan, viz. 2,500, 3,000, 3,500, and 4,000 RPM, were tested to determine the proper cooling fan speed. In addition, the influence of the inhaled air flow rate was investigated by changing the porous area of the grille, which is the entrance of the air flowing from the outside to the inside of the power pack. As a result, it was found that for the operating conditions of the 1 kW class PEMFC to be acceptable, the cooling fan was required to have a minimum rotating speed of 3500 RPM to maintain the fuel cell surface temperature within an acceptable range. The results of this study can be effectively applied to the development of thermal management technology for the fuel cells inside the fuel cell power pack of a UPS.

Manufacture and Evaluation of Small Size PEMFC Stack Using Carbon Composite Bipolar Plate (탄소복합소재 분리판을 이용한 소형 고분자전해질 연료전지 스택 제작 및 성능분석)

  • Han, C.;Choi, M.;Lee, J.J.;Lee, J.Y.;Kim, I.T.;An, J.C.;Shim, J.;Lee, H.K.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2010
  • Small size polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks were prepared using carbon composite and graphite bipolar plates and their performances were evaluated on reactant gas and operating time. In comparison to single cell and stack, it was identified that home-made bipolar plate was well-designed to maximize stack performance as high as that of single cell. During long-term operation, the performances of stacks using two different kinds of bipolar plates were compared. The decrease of performance in both stacks was accelerated with increasing load current. It was observed from stack test that the stack performance using carbon composite bipolar plate was very similar to that using graphite bipolar plate.

Development of Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for PEM URFC (고분자 전해질 막을 이용한 일체형 재생 연료전지용 촉매전극 개발)

  • Yim, Sung-Dae;Park, Gu-Gon;Sohn, Young-Jun;Yang, Tae-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Gi;Lee, Won-Yong;Kim, Chang-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2004
  • For the fabrication of high efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst of oxygen electrode for PEM URFC (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell), which is a promising energy storage and conversion system using hydrogen as the energy medium, several bifunctional electrocatalysts were prepared and tested in a single cell URFC system. The catalysts for oxygen electrode revealed fuel cell performance in the order of Pt black > PtIr > PtRuOx > PtRu ~ PtRuIr > PtIrOx, whereas water electrolysis performance in the order of PtIr ~ PtIrOx > PtRu > PtRuIr > PtRuOx ~ Pt black. Considering both reaction modes PtIr was the most effective elctrocatalyst for oxygen electrode of present PEM URFC system. In addition, the water electrolysis performance was significantly improved when Ir or IrOx was added to Pt black just 1 wt.% without the decrease of fuel cell performance. Based on the catalyst screening and the optimization of catalyst composition and loading, the optimum catalyst electrodes for PEM URFC were $1.0mg/cm^2$ of Pt black as hydrogen electrode and $2.0mg/cm^2$ of PtIr (99:1) as oxygen electrode.

Effect of Graphitized Carbon Supports on Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (탄소 담지체의 결정성에 따른 고분자전해질형 연료전지의 내구성 평가 연구)

  • Oh, Hyung-Suk;Sharma, Raj Kishore;Haam, Seung-Joo;Lee, Chang-Ha;Kim, Han-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.142-147
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    • 2009
  • The influence of graphitization of carbon support on the electrochemical corrosion of carbon and sintering of Pt particles are investigated by measuring $CO_2$ emission at a constant potential of 1.4 V for 30 min using on-line mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammogram. In comparison to commercial Pt/C (from Johnson Matthey), highly graphitized carbon nanofiber (CNF) supported Pt catalyst exhibits lower performance degradation and $CO_2$ emission. As the more carbon corrosion occurred, the more prominent changes were detected in electrochemical characteristics of fuel cell. This indicates that the carbon corrosion affects significantly the fuel cell durability. From the observed results, CNF is considered to be more corrosion resistant material as a catalyst support. However, CNF shows higher aggregation of Pt particles under repeated cyclic voltammetry between 0 and 0.8 V where the carbon corrosion is not initiated.

Effect of Acid Treatment of Graphitized Carbon on Carbon Corrosion in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (결정성 탄소의 산처리가 고분자연료전지의 성능과 내구성에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Oh, Hyung-Suk;Han, Hak-Soo;Kim, Han-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2009
  • Pt catalyst was adsorbed on Carbon nanofiber (CNF) by modified polyol method after acid treatment of the carbon support with $HNO_3$ and $H_{2}SO_{4}$. As the time for acid treatment increases, more oxygen functional groups on carbon surface were produced which improve the loading amount and dispersion of Pt catalyst on carbon supports. In order to inspect the effect of CNF acid treatment time on electrochemical corrosion, constant potential of 1.4 V was applied to a single cell for 30 min and the amount of $CO_2$ emitted was monitored with on-line mass spectrometry. According to the results of our experiment, more $CO_2$ was produced with Pt/ oxidized-CNF catalyst in compared to that with unoxidized-CNF. Increasing acid treatment time also induces the more $CO_2$ emission. Besides, performance degradation after corrosion test expanded with severer carbon corrosion. From the observed results, it can be concluded that the acid treatment of CNF is beneficial to catalyst loading, but it also is a significant factor declining the fuel cell durability by accelerating electrochemical oxidation of carbon support.

A Study on the External Fault Performance Evaluation of Grid-Connected Power Conditioning System for Residential Fuel Cell System (가정용 연료전지시스템 계통연계형 전력변환장치의 외부사고 성능평가에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Woon;Seo, Won-Seok;Kim, Young-Gyu
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.131-131
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    • 2009
  • 최근 환경규제가 강화되면서 친환경적인 전력생산 요구 등의 외부환경 변화에 따른 우리나라의 전력구조가 기존의 중압 집중형 발전을 탈피한 분산전원 발전에 대한 관심이 증대되고 있는 실정이다. 특히, 분산전원으로서의 전력생산은 공급의 안전성, 경쟁력 및 에너지의 지속성 등이 요구되어지는데, 재생에너지가 가지고 있는 에너지 지속성의 한계 및 설치의 제약성을 탈피할 수 있는 시스템으로 현재 연료전지시스템이 가장 근접해 있는 실정이다. 즉, 도시가스 인프라가 우수하고 인구조밀 지역이 많은 우리나라의 특성상 각 가정 및 건물에 쉽게 설치하고 공급의 안전성을 갖는 건물용 연료전지는 최근 가장 각광받고 있는 분산전원 시스템 중의 하나이다. 올해부터 모니터링사업의 일환으로 수용가에 설치 될 연료전지 시스템이 얼마나 안정적으로 전기와 열을 각 가정에 공급하고 시스템의 안전성을 확보하는 가는 건물용 연료전지의 분산전원으로서의 가능성 및 국민의 수용성을 증대시키는 중요한 역할을 할 것이다. 연료전지시스템은 상용전력과 연계되어 있기 때문에 시스템의 안정성 뿐만 아니라 상용전력의 변화에 대응하여 안정적인 운전을 하는지에 대한 평가가 필수적이다. 이에 따라 본 연구에서는 가정용 연료전지시스템의 성능 및 안전성평가의 일환으로 계통연계형 전력변환장치의 성능 및 안전성을 평가 하고자 한다. 연료전지 검사를 위한 계통연계형 전력변환장치의 시험평가 항목으로는 크게 정상특성성능시험, 보호기능성능시험, 과도응답특성성능시험 및 외부사고성능시험 등으로 나뉘어진다. 본 연구에서는 외부사고 성능시험 항목들인 출력측 단락시험, 계통전압 순간정전?순간강하시험 및 부하차단 시험 등을 통하여 외부사고에 대한 성능 및 안전성을 평가하였다. 외부사고 성능시험의 주 목적은 시스템의 이상 운전이 아니라 외부의 영향에 따른 시스템의 안전성 및 전력품질을 평가한다. 출력측 단락시험을 수행하기 위해서 전력변환장치를 정격 출력 전압, 정격 출력 주파수 및 정격 출력에서 운전한 후, 교류 전원장치는 단락 전류를 검출하여, 사고 발생 후 0.3초 이내에 개방하도록 설정하였다. 여기서, 단락 저항 Rsc를 정격 전류의 10배 이상에 해당하는 부하와 같은 값으로 설정하였다. 스위치 SWSC를 폐로하여 단락 상태를 만들며, 이 때 전력변환장치의 출력전류와 차단 또는 정지 시간을 측정하였다. 실험 결과에 대한 판정기준은 단락전류를 검출하여 0.5초 이내에 개폐기 개방 또는 게이트 블록 기능이 동작하여 시스템을 안정하게 정지시키고 시스템 어떤 부위에도 손상이 없어야 한다. 실험 결과 파워컨디셔너의 출력전류 및 차단 또는 정지된시간이 40ms로 나타났고, 출력전류의 파형도 매우 안정함을 볼 수 있었다. 이와 같이 모든 실험을 수행한 결과 외부사고에 대하여 시스템이 안전하게 정지하는 등 연료전지 시스템의 안전성을 확인하였다.

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Study on Hydrogen Production and CO Oxidation Reaction using Plasma Reforming System with PEMFC (고분자 전해질 연료전지용 플라즈마 개질 시스템에서 수소 생산 및 CO 산화반응에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Suck Joo;Lim, Mun Sup;Chun, Young Nam
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.656-662
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    • 2007
  • Fuel reformer using plasma and shift reactor for CO oxidation were designed and manufactured as $H_2$ supply device to operate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). $H_2$ selectivity was increased by non-thermal plasma reformer using GlidArc discharge with Ni catalyst simultaneously. Shift reactor was consisted of steam generator, low temperature shifter, high temperature shifter and preferential oxidation reactor. Parametric screening studies of fuel reformer were conducted, in which there were the variations of the catalyst temperature, gas component ratio, total gas ratio and input power. and parametric screening studies of shift reactor were conducted, in which there were the variations of the air flow rate, stema flow rate and temperature. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.64, total gas flow rate was 14.2 l/min, catalytic reactor temperature was $672^{\circ}C$ and input power 1.1 kJ/L, the production of $H_2$ was maximized 41.1%. And $CH_4$ conversion rate, $H_2$ yield and reformer energy density were 88.7%, 54% and 35.2% respectively. When the $O_2/C$ ratio was 0.3 in the PrOx reactor, steam flow ratio was 2.8 in the HTS, and temperature were 475, 314, 260, $235^{\circ}C$ in the HTS, LTS, PrOx, the conversion of CO was optimized conditions of shift reactor using simulated reformate gas. Preheat time of the reactor using plasma was 30 min, component of reformed gas from shift reactor were $H_2$ 38%, CO<10 ppm, $N_2$ 36%, $CO_2$ 21% and $CH_4$ 4%.