• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pre-carbonization

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The Effect of Pre-carbonization Condition on the Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven Carbon/Phenolic Composites (전 열처리 조건이 탄소/페놀 부직포 복합재료의 역학적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • 정경호;박종규;이성호;강태진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.133-136
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    • 2001
  • The effect of pre-carbonization condition on the mechanical properties of nonwoven needle-punched carbon/phenolic composite was studied. The nonwoven Oxi-PAN felt was pre-carbonized at different temperature. The pre-carbonized Oxi-PAN felt was needle-punched and then carbonized. Needle-punched nonwoven carbon preforms were formed into composites with phenol resin. The tensile and flexural strengths showed maximum value with pre-carbonization temperature of $500^{\circ}C$. Compared with the non-pre-carbonized composite, the mechanical properties were slightly improved.

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Effect of carbonization temperature and chemical pre-treatment on the thermal change and fiber morphology of kenaf-based carbon fibers

  • Kim, Jin-Myung;Song, In-Seong;Cho, Dong-Hwan;Hong, Ik-Pyo
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 2011
  • Kenaf fibers, cellulose-based natural fibers, were used as precursor for preparing kenafbased carbon fibers. The effects of carbonization temperature ($700^{\circ}C$ to $1100^{\circ}C$) and chemical pre-treatment (NaOH and $NH_4Cl$) at various concentrations on the thermal change, chemical composition and fiber morphology of kenaf-based carbon fibers were investigated. Remarkable weight loss and longitudinal shrinkage were found to occur during the thermal conversion from kenaf precursor to kenaf-based carbon fiber, depending on the carbonization temperature. It was noted that the alkali pre-treatment of kenaf with NaOH played a role in reducing the weight loss and the longitudinal shrinkage and also in increasing the carbon content of kenaf-based carbon fibers. The number and size of the cells and the fiber diameter were reduced with increasing carbonization temperature. Morphological observations implied that the micrometer-sized cells were combined or fused and then re-organized with the neighboring cells during the carbonization process. By the pre-treatment of kenaf with 10 and 15 wt% NaOH solutions and the subsequent carbonization process, the inner cells completely disappeared through the transverse direction of the kenaf fiber, resulting in the fiber densification. It was noticeable that the alkali pre-treatment of the kenaf fibers prior to carbonization contributed to the forming of kenaf-based carbon fibers.

High-energy-density activated carbon electrode for organic electric-double-layer-capacitor using carbonized petroleum pitch

  • Choi, Poo Reum;Kim, Sang-Gil;Jung, Ji Chul;Kim, Myung-Soo
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.22
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    • pp.70-80
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    • 2017
  • Activated carbons (ACs) have been used as electrode materials of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) due to their high specific surface areas (SSA), stability, and ecological advantages. In order to make high-energy-density ACs for EDLC, petroleum pitch (PP) pre-carbonized at $500-1000^{\circ}C$ in $N_2$ gas for 1 h was used as the electrode material of the EDLC after KOH activation. As the pre-carbonization temperature increased, the SSA, pore volume and gravimetric capacitance tended to decrease, but the crystallinity and electrode density tended to increase, showing a maximum volumetric capacitance at a medium carbonization temperature. Therefore, it was possible to control the crystalline structure, SSA, and pore structure of AC by changing the pre-carbonization temperature. Because the electrode density increased with increasing of the pre-carbonization temperature, the highest volumetric capacitance of 28.4 F/cc was obtained from the PP pre-carbonized at $700^{\circ}C$, exhibiting a value over 150% of that of a commercial AC (MSP-20) for EDLC. Electrochemical activation was observed from the electrodes of PP as they were pre-carbonized at high temperatures above $700^{\circ}C$ and then activated by KOH. This process was found to have a significant effect on the specific capacitance and it was demonstrated that the higher charging voltage of EDLC was, the greater the electrochemical activation effect was.

The Influences of Temperature and Humidity in Storage Room, Moisture Content and Packing Weight of Leaf on the Carbonization of Processed Flue-cured Leaf Tobacco (저장실의 온습도, 제통수분함량 및 제통중량이 황색종 가공엽의 탄화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상범;안동명;이윤환;김용규;복진영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influences of environmental condition in storage room, moisture content and packing weight of leaf on the carbonization of processed flue-cured leaf tobacco, and find out a regression model able to pre-estimate the degree of carbonization. The influence of temperature and humidity in storage room on the carbonization was high,, while that of packing weight was relatively low, However, high moisture content and packing weight of leaf accelerated the carbonization under the high temperature and humidity condition. Thus the leaf tobacco under the condition of 4$0^{\circ}C$, 7$0^{\circ}C$ R.H. in storage room, 16% moisture content and 286 kg/box of packing weight could be carbonized within one month. The pH, total sugar content, lightness(L) and yellowness(b) of leaf were closely related to carbonization of leaf during storage. There were significant regression and yellowness of leaf. It is considered that the certification and/or pre-estimation of carbonization during storage may be possible by applying the regression equation.

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Preparation and Characterization of ACF Using Lyocell Adopting Surface Modification Process (리오셀 표면개질공정을 도입한 ACF 제조 및 특성)

  • Jo, Young Hyuk;Jin, Young Min;Lee, Soon Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2016
  • Lyocell fibers were used as a precursor in order to improve yield and strength of cellulose-based precursor while manufacturing activated carbon fiber(ACF). Lyocell fibers as a precursor for the preparation of ACF were surface-modified by reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane(APTES) and pre-treated with KOH and H3PO4. Using aforementioned precursor, ACFs were prepared by a series of stabilization, carbonization and activation process at high temperatures. On each process, FT-IR, TGA, UTM and SEM were used to observe fibers' physical properties including structure and porous surfaces. FT-IR results proved that surface modification was achieved during stabilization, carbonization and activation process. TGA results during carbonization process found that surface modified fibers with APTES 0.02 mol(A2) showed higher thermostability, and extended pre-treatment increased yield. Especially, yield was found to have an increase of 10~20 wt% with surface modification during activation process. UTM results showed that tensile strength has the same order of concentration of APTES after surface modification, however, was found to show lower tensile strength than lyocell fibers after stabilization process. SEM results revealed that more homogeneous porosity control could be proceed after modifying the surface for the effective removal of hazardous substances.

Manufacturing of Wood Charcoal Cup by Using Carbonization Method and Its Water Repellency (목재를 이용한 무할렬 숯잔 제조 및 발수특성)

  • Park, Sang Bum;Lee, Min
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2014
  • With increased interests in environmental issues, people are looking for new materials that serve special and bio-activated functions. One of interesting materials is charcoal which has excellent adsorption ability for harmful volatile organic compounds, fireproof performance, far-infrared ray emission, and electromagnetic shielding. Since non-crack carbonized board was developed from wood-based composite materials, carbonization method might be applied to woodcraft products such as wood cup and bamboo. In this study, manufacture of wood charcoal bowl was conducted with carbonization method developed in 2009 in order to activate wood products market. Ash tree(Fraxinus rhynchophylla) cup was carbonized at $600^{\circ}C$ with two pretreatments which were phenol resin and wood tar solution treatment. After carbonization of ash tree cup, non-crack charcoal cup were successfully manufactured. Phenol resin treatment affected on charcoal cup manufacturing both positively and negatively. For a positive way, it prevented shrinkage. For a negative way, it decreased water repellency. On the contrary, wood tar treatment accelerated shrinkage a bit and increased water repellency. Based on the results, wood tar can be used as pre-treatment solution for reducing post-treatment costs. We confirmed woodcraft products can be carbonized without deformation, so carbonization may provide a high value-added products from wood.

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Enhancing the oxidative stabilization of isotropic pitch precursors prepared through the co-carbonization of ethylene bottom oil and polyvinyl chloride

  • Liu, Jinchang;Shimanoe, Hiroki;Nakabayashi, Koji;Miyawaki, Jin;Choi, Jong-Eun;Jeon, Young-Pyo;Yoon, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.67
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    • pp.358-364
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    • 2018
  • An isotropic pitch precursor for fabricating carbon fibres was prepared by co-carbonization of ethylene bottom oil(EBO) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Various pre-treatments of EBO and PVC, and a high heating rate of $3^{\circ}C/min$ with no holding time, were evaluated for their effects on the oxidative stabilization process and the mechanical stability of the resulting fibres. Our stabilization process enhanced the volatilization, oxidative reaction and decomposition properties of the precursor pitch, while the addition of PVC both decreased the onset time and accelerated the oxidative reaction. Aliphatic carbon groups played a critical role in stabilization. Microstructural characterization indicated that these were first oxidised to carbon-oxygen single bonds and then converted to carbon-oxygen double bonds. Due to the higher heating rate and lack of a holding step during processing,the resulting thermoplastic fibers did not completely convert to thermoset materials, allowing partially melted, adjacent fibres to fuse. Fiber surfaces were smooth and homogeneous. Of the various methods evaluated herein, carbon fibers derived from pressure-treated EBO and PVC exhibited the highest tensile strength. This work shows that enhancing the naphthenic component of a pitch precursor through the co-carbonization of pre-treated EBO with PVC improves the oxidative properties of the resulting carbon fibers.

Thermal Characteristics Analysis of Pre-Treated Rayon Fibers for Preparing Activated Carbon Fibers (활성탄소섬유 제조시 전처리된 레이온 섬유의 열특성 분석)

  • Choi, Sang Seun;Lee, Soon Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study is to define the condition of optimal pre-treatment for preferable activated carbon fibers (ACFs), which are based on rayon fibers. This paper shows the ideal path of ACFs preparation process; implies that rayon fibers are pre-treated by various solvents with different times before the heating process. The pre-treated rayon fibers finally turned into desirable rayon fiber-based ACFs through optimal pre-treatment condition by heating processes. The thermal analysis method of pre-treated rayon fibers by thermo-gravimetry analyser (TGA) is an idealized tool, which analyzes the best thermal condition of pre-treatment process. Surface morphologies of resulting rayon fibers based ACFs were examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM). The results of TGA and SEM analyses show that the optimal pre-treatment condition for preparing ACFs was clearly defined, in terms of thermal stability and surface morphology.

Assessment of Methane Potential in Hydro-thermal Carbonization reaction of Organic Sludge Using Parallel First Order Kinetics (병열 1차 반응속도식을 이용한 유기성 슬러지 수열탄화 반응온도별 메탄생산퍼텐셜 평가)

  • Oh, Seung-Yong;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Hydrothermal carbonization reaction is the thermo-chemical energy conversion technology for producing the solid fuel of high carbon density from organic wastes. The hydrothermal carbonization reaction is accompanied by the thermal hydrolysis reaction which converse particulate organic matters to soluble forms (hydro-thermal hydrolysate). Recently, hydrothermal carbonization is adopted as a pre-treatment technology to improve anaerobic digestion efficiency. This research was carried out to assess the effects of hydro-thermal reaction temperature on the methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability in the thermal hydrolysate of organic sludge generating from the wastewater treatment plant of poultry slaughterhouse .METHODS AND RESULTS: Wastewater treatment sludge cake of poultry slaughterhouse was treated in the different hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 170, 180, 190, 200, and 220℃. Theoretical and experimental methane potential for each hydro-thermal hydrolysate were measured. Then, the organic substance fractions of hydro-thermal hydrolysate were characterized by the optimization of the parallel first order kinetics model. The increase of hydro-thermal reaction temperature from 170℃ to 220℃ caused the enhancement of hydrolysis efficiency. And the methane potential showed the maximum value of 0.381 Nm3 kg-1-VSadded in the hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 190℃. Biodegradable volatile solid(VSB) content have accounted for 66.41% in 170℃, 72.70% in 180℃, 79.78% in 190℃, 67.05% in 200℃, and 70.31% in 220℃, respectively. The persistent VS content increased with hydro-thermal reaction temperature, which occupied 0.18% for 170℃, 2.96% for 180℃, 6.32% for 190℃, 17.52% for 200℃, and 20.55% for 220℃.CONCLUSION: Biodegradable volatile solid showed the highest amount in the hydro-thermal reaction temperature of 190℃, and then, the optimum hydro-thermal reaction temperature for organic sludge was assessed as 190℃ in the aspect of the methane production. The rise of hydro-thermal reaction temperature caused increase of persistent organic matter content.

Effect of Carbonization Conditions on Gas Permeation of Methyl Imide Based Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membranes (탄화조건이 메틸이미드계 탄소 분자체 중공사 분리막의 기체 투과특성에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Seong, Ki Hyeok;Song, Ju Sub;Koh, Hyung Chul;Ha, Seong Yong;Han, Moon Hee;Cho, Churl Hee
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.332-342
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes were prepared by carbonizing a methyl imide hollow fiber precursor, which was spun by non-solvent induced phase separation process. And effects of carbonization parameters such as pre-oxidation, pyrolysis, and post-oxidation on the gas permeation were systematically investigated. CMS membrane having the highest gas flux was obtained by carbonizing the precursor through a combined process of air pre-oxidation at $250^{\circ}C$ for 2h, nitrogen pyrolysis at $550^{\circ}C$ for 2h, and oxygen post-oxidation at $250^{\circ}C$ for 2h. The optimized membrane showed a considerable gas permeance : the $H_2$, He, $CO_2$ permeances were 69.72, 35.61, 31.01 GPU, respectively, and the $O_2$ and $N_2$ permeances were ignorable. Therefore, it was clear that the prepared CMS hollow fiber membrane was a promising membrane for recovering small gases such as hydrogen and hellium and carbon dioxide.