• Title, Summary, Keyword: Principal Compound Analysis

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An Equilibrium Analysis to Determine the Speciation of Metals in the Incineration of Waste Containing Chlorine (염소를 함유한 폐기물의 소각시 생성되는 유해 중금속류 결정에 대한 화학 평형 계산)

  • ;;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.3372-3381
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    • 1995
  • An equilibrium analysis was carried out to determine principal species of heavy metals in waste incineration and their behaviors with variation of temperature, chlorine concentration, excess air ratio, and C/H ratio. The waste was assumed as a compound of hydrocarbon fuel, chlorine, and metals. Calculated results showed that the most important parameter to determine the principal species was temperature. Chlorine concentration also affected on mole fractions of the principal species. Generally principal species at high temperature were chlorides while there were some metals of which principal species were oxides. At low temperature mole fractions of the principal species increased, but at high temperature mole fractions of some metal species decreased. C/H ratio of the hydrocarbon fuel and excess air ratio had little effect on mole fractions of the metal species, compared to the temperature and chlorine concentration.

Development of a Compound Classification Process for Improving the Correctness of Land Information Analysis in Satellite Imagery - Using Principal Component Analysis, Canonical Correlation Classification Algorithm and Multitemporal Imagery - (위성영상의 토지정보 분석정확도 향상을 위한 응용체계의 개발 - 다중시기 영상과 주성분분석 및 정준상관분류 알고리즘을 이용하여 -)

  • Park, Min-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.28 no.4D
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is focused on the development of compound classification process by mixing multitemporal data and annexing a specific image enhancement technique with a specific image classification algorithm, to gain more accurate land information from satellite imagery. That is, this study suggests the classification process using canonical correlation classification technique after principal component analysis for the mixed multitemporal data. The result of this proposed classification process is compared with the canonical correlation classification result of one date images, multitemporal imagery and a mixed image after principal component analysis for one date images. The satellite images which are used are the Landsat 5 TM images acquired on July 26, 1994 and September 1, 1996. Ground truth data for accuracy assessment is obtained from topographic map and aerial photograph, and all of the study area is used for accuracy assessment. The proposed compound classification process showed superior efficiency to appling canonical correlation classification technique for only one date image in classification accuracy by 8.2%. Especially, it was valid in classifying mixed urban area correctly. Conclusively, to improve the classification accuracy when extracting land cover information using Landsat TM image, appling canonical correlation classification technique after principal component analysis for multitemporal imagery is very useful.

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An Equilibrium Analysis to Determine the Speciation of Metals in the Incineration of Waste Containing Chlorine and Sulfur (염소와 황을 함유한 폐기물의 소각시 생성되는 유해 중금속류 결정에 대한 화학평형 계산)

  • Lee, Jung-Jin;Hwang, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 1996
  • An equilibrium analysis was carried out to determine principal species in the incineration of hazardous waste, which was assumed as a compound of hydrocarbon fuel, chlorine, sulfur, and heavy metals, and their behaviors with variation of temperature, chlorine and sulfur concentrations. Calculated results showed that the most important parameter influencing the principal species was temperature. Chlorine concentration affected on mole fractions of the species, especially at high temperature. Existence of sulfur had a significant effect on the species at low temperature, regardless of surfur concentration. Generally, principal species at high temperature were chlorides and oxides, while the principal species at low temperature were sulfides. As temperature increased, mole fractions of the principal species increased at low temperature, however, mole fractions of some metal species decreased at high temperature.

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Marker compound contents and antioxidant capacities of the taproot and lateral root of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix)

  • Seong, Gi-Un;Chung, Shin-Kyo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the marker compound contents of both the taproot and lateral root of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix), which is cultivated in Korea, were investigated. The salvianolic acid B content was the highest in the taproot (5.17-6.75%) and lateral root (3.99-5.69%). The cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA contents were higher in the lateral root than in the taproot of Danshen (p <0.05). Principal component analysis results revealed that the taproot was correlated to the salvianic acid A, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, and salvianolic acid A contents, whereas the lateral root was correlated to the cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIA contents. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content of the taproot were higher than those of the lateral root (p <0.05); however, the antioxidant activities of the taproot and lateral root of Danshen were similar. The salvianolic acid B content was correlated to the TPC of the taproot (r=0.748) and the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity of the lateral root (r=0.847). This study could provide useful information for the classification of Danshen as a herbal medicinal product.

Comparative Investigation of Flavors in Cigarettes by Electronic Nose and GC/MS

  • Lee, Yelin;Park, Jin-Won;Lee, Hwan-Woo;Lee, Seung-Yong;Lee, Hyung-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2013
  • An Electronic Nose(E-Nose) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) are meanwhile conventional technique to analyze volatile materials in many industries (e.g., food, medicine, environment) and have broad acceptance in the analysis of tobacco products. In this study, an experiment where tin oxide gas sensor array responses and GC/MS profiles are used to characterize the volatile compounds of different cigarettes at the same time is performed and the measurements of two instruments are compared for cigarette samples with a known chemical information. E-Nose and GC/MS were employed to differentiate and match flavored cigarettes with commercial tobacco flavoring agents (lavender, vanilla, peppermint, orange, star anise). For verifying reliability of two systems, the analyses were conducted in terms of amount of flavors in each cigarettes using partial least squares (PLS) and with the principal components analysis (PCA). Various chemical sensors and GC/MS data was reduced into two principal factors (PC1, PC2) for being distinguished with visualized regions. Both systems provided adequate results for odor characteristics of cigarettes in this study with each instrument having its own advantages and disadvantages.

Content Comparative Analysis and Classification for Piniellia ternate, P. pedatisecta and Typhonium flagelliforme by HPLC-PDA analysis (HPLC-PDA를 이용한 반하, 호장남성, 수반하의 분류 및 함량분석)

  • Jo, Ji Eun;Lee, A Yeong;Kim, Hyo Seon;Moon, Byeong Cheol;Choi, Goya;Ji, Yunui;Kim, Ho Kyoung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : A quantitative method using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector(HPLC-PDA) was established for the quantitative analysis of the four main compound and pattern analysis to classification Piiellia ternate, P. pedatisecta and Typhonium flagelliforme. Methods : The analytical procedure for the determination of P. ternata, together with the known main compounds uracil, uridine, guanosine and adenosine was established. Optimum HPLC-PDA separation of these P. ternata was possible on Luna C18(2) column material, using water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was validated according to regulatory guidelines. In addition, this assay method were analyzed for the content of four main compound in P. ternata, P. pedatisecta and T. flagelliforme and by data obtained from the HPLC-PDA analysis was performed principal component analysis(PCA). Results : Validation results indicated that the HPLC method is well suited for the determination of the roots of P. ternata with a good linearity ($r^2$ > 0.999), precision and recovery rates. Analysis of HPLC-PDA, the average content of uracil, uridine, guanosine and adenosine was significantly higher in P. ternate>P. pedatisecta> T. flagelliforme order. The application of PCA to main compound data by HPLC-PDA permitted the effective discrimination among the three species. Conclusions : Analysis of both HPLC-PDA and PCA confirmed the fact that four main compound and pattern profiles of P. ternata, P. pedatisecta and T. flagelliforme were different from each other.

Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rd into Compound K by Lactobacillus pentosus DC101 Isolated from Kimchi

  • Quan, Lin-Hu;Cheng, Le-Qin;Kim, Ho-Bin;Kim, Ju-Han;Son, Na-Ri;Kim, Se-Young;Jin, Hyun-O;Yang, Deok-Chun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 2010
  • Ginsenosides are the principal components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rd was transformed into compound K using cell-free extracts of food microorganisms, with Lactobacillus pentosus DC101 isolated from kimchi (traditional Korean fermented food) used for this conversion. The optimum time for the conversion was about 72 h at a constant pH of 7.0 and an optimum temperature of about $30^{\circ}C$. The transformation products were identified by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their structures were assigned using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Generally, ginsenoside Rd was converted into ginsenoside F2 by 36 h post-reaction. Consequently, over 97% of ginsenoside Rd was decomposed and converted into compound K by 72 h post-reaction. The bioconversion pathway to produce compound K is as follows: ginsenoside Rd$\rightarrow$ginsenoside F2$\rightarrow$compound K.

Comparison of network pharmacology based analysis results according to changes in principal herb in Sagunja-tang (사군자탕(四君子湯)에서 군약(君藥)의 변화에 따른 네트워크 약리학적 분석 결과 비교)

  • Lee, Byoungho;Cho, Suin
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to confirm whether Codonopsis Radix(CR) could be used in the same way for expected indications or diseases of adaptation instead of Ginseng Radix(GR), which acts as a principal herb in Sagunja-tang. Methods : The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems pharmacology(TCMSP), a database for the study of systems biology related to Chinese medicine, screened potential active compounds in each quartet. By searching for all the proteins that each compound provides, the target of Sagunja-tang with GR(GRST) and the target of Sagunja-tang with CR(CRST) were compared using the network analysis method, and the top ranked target of each serving was selected. Results : Through TCMSP, a Chinese medicine database, the potential effective ingredients of GRST or CRST screened, and the target proteins related to these substances were found to be the most affected by Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome, an herbal medicine mixed in Sagunja-tang, and the target diseases were the same. And the same were found for the target protein, gene and target diseases of GRST and CRST. Conclusions : The prescription with similar composition is likely to have similar network pharmacology analysis results, and the analysis result may be controlled by the herbal medicines which are assumed to be the main function. Therefore, rich and reproducible basic studies is more important because network pharmacological studies can be dominated by data that has been done a lot of previous studies.

Simultaneous Quantification Analysis of Multi-components on Erycibae Caulis by HPLC (HPLC를 이용한 정공등의 다성분 동시함량분석)

  • Jeon, Hye Jin;Liu, Ting;Whang, Wan Kyunn
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.272-281
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we developed and validated the HPLC method using the isolated components from Erycibae caulis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, $^1H$-NMR, $^{13}C$-NMR, FAB-Mass and ESI-Mass as Compound 1 (crypto-chlorogenic acid), Compound 2 (scopolin), Compound 3 (neochlorogenic acid) and Compound 4 (3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid). Major three compounds and scopoletin were decided as representative components of Erycibae caulis. We established HPLC analytical method by using the representative components and 20 commercial samples which were collected considering to various cultivated area. The HPLC fingerprinting was successfully achieved with an AKZO NOBEL Kromasil 100-5C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.5% acetic acid in water (A) and methanol (B) using gradient method of 85(A) to 50(A) for 35min. The fingerprints of chromatograms were recorded at an optimized wavelength of 330 nm. This developed analytical method was validated with specificity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. And it is suggested that scopolin, scopoletin, neochlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were more than 0.162%, 0.133%, 0.057%, 0.044%, respectively. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the analytical data of 20 different Erycibae caulis samples in order to classify samples collected from different regions. We hope that this assay can be readily utilized as quality control method for Erycibae caulis.

Changes of Physical Characteristics of Chubu Perilla Leaves(Penilla Frutescens var. Japonica HARA)during Different Storage Conditions (저장조건에 따른 추부 깻잎의 물리적 특성 분석)

  • Hur, Sang-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.410-417
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    • 2017
  • The physical properties of perilla leaves cultivated in Geumsan province were analyzed according storage conditions. The a/b values of perilla leaves increased with increasing storage period. Electronic nose composed of 12 different metal oxide sensors was used to differentiate flavors of perilla leaves. Sensitivities(delta $R_{gas}/R_{air}$) of sensors from electronic nose were obtained by principal compound analysis(PCA). Proportion of the first principal component was 93.07% at $25^{\circ}C$ and 97.81% at $4^{\circ}C$, respectively. In our result, flavor patterns of perilla leaves can be differentiated according to the storage temperature.