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Long-term forecasting reference evapotranspiration using statistically predicted temperature information (통계적 기온예측정보를 활용한 기준증발산량 장기예측)

  • Kim, Chul-Gyum;Lee, Jeongwoo;Lee, Jeong Eun;Kim, Hyeonjun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.54 no.12
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    • pp.1243-1254
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    • 2021
  • For water resources operation or agricultural water management, it is important to accurately predict evapotranspiration for a long-term future over a seasonal or monthly basis. In this study, reference evapotranspiration forecast (up to 12 months in advance) was performed using statistically predicted monthly temperatures and temperature-based Hamon method for the Han River basin. First, the daily maximum and minimum temperature data for 15 meterological stations in the basin were derived by spatial-temporal downscaling the monthly temperature forecasts. The results of goodness-of-fit test for the downscaled temperature data at each site showed that the percent bias (PBIAS) ranged from 1.3 to 6.9%, the ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation of the observations (RSR) ranged from 0.22 to 0.27, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ranged from 0.93 to 0.95, and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) ranged from 0.97 to 0.98 for the monthly average daily maximum temperature. And for the monthly average daily minimum temperature, PBIAS was 7.8 to 44.7%, RSR was 0.21 to 0.25, NSE was 0.94 to 0.96, and r was 0.98 to 0.99. The difference by site was not large, and the downscaled results were similar to the observations. In the results of comparing the forecasted reference evapotranspiration calculated using the downscaled data with the observed values for the entire region, PBIAS was 2.2 to 5.4%, RSR was 0.21 to 0.28, NSE was 0.92 to 0.96, and r was 0.96 to 0.98, indicating a very high fit. Due to the characteristics of the statistical models and uncertainty in the downscaling process, the predicted reference evapotranspiration may slightly deviate from the observed value in some periods when temperatures completely different from the past are observed. However, considering that it is a forecast result for the future period, it will be sufficiently useful as information for the evaluation or operation of water resources in the future.

A reevaluation of the castles and palaces of Goryeo Gangdo (江都) using GIS (고려 강도(江都)의 성곽과 궁궐 재고찰)

  • KANG, Dongseok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.174-191
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    • 2021
  • Gangdo (江都), a reproduction of Gaegyeong, was the capital of Goryeo for 39 years. However, due to the urgent wartime situation of the Mongol invasion and the geographical features of Ganghwa Island, the castle system and palace layout were somewhat different from those of Gaegyeong. Gangdo's castle can be understood as a triple castle system consisting of outer castle, middle castle, and inner castle. First, the outer castle was the first to be completed, and it was built at the forefront to prevent the Mongol army from invading in the first place. It is presumed that the section was between Huamdon and Hwadodon in the outer castle during the Joseon Dynasty. The middle castle can be seen as the present 'Middle Castle', a castle built of earth on the outskirts of the Ganghwa-mountain Castle. Considering the sophistication and robustness of the construction method confirmed in the archaeological research, this castle is thought to have been built under a meticulous plan. In other words, as the capital city, it was completed 'at last' as recorded in the Koryo History, after a long 18-year construction process to protect palaces, government offices, and private houses. The inner castle was a castle with the character of a palace. This corresponds to the Old Castle of Ganghwabu (江華府) during the Joseon Dynasty, and it almost coincided with the scale of the composition of Gaegyeong's palace castle. It was a complex functional space, featuring the integration of the palace and the imperial castle, where the main government offices and ancillary facilities, including the palace, were located. Based on the documentary record that these palaces were similar to Gaegyeong's palace, the palace map was overlapped with that of Gaegyeong. The central axis of the building from Seungpyeongmun (昇平門) to Seongyeongjeon (宣慶殿) coincided with Kim Sangyongsunjeol Monument in Ganghwa- Goryeo Palace. Therefore, it seems that the palace of Gangdo had the same basic structure as that of Gaegyeong. However, the inner palace and annexed buildings must have been arranged in consideration of the topographical conditions of Ganghwa, and this is estimated to be the Gunggol area in Gwancheong-ri.

National brand development research strategy using traditional Korean patterns (한국 전통 문양을 활용한 국가 브랜드 연구 개발 전략 - 금문(錦紋)을 중심으로 -)

  • KIM, Mihye
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.232-245
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    • 2021
  • The present study is about a brand development strategy that utilizes Korean traditional patterns. The global culturenomics phenomenon confirms the value of the cultural aspects of design when a national brand is established. People succeed with their unique aesthetic sense and reinterpret it in a modern view, and this design acts as today's national brands. In this way, people used traditional patterns and original designs, along with regional characteristics and formative style, in developing their designs. However, due to recent changes in the global environment, modern people live in an "untact" world, and consumption culture shifted toward online marketing. In this environment, where one is isolated from social activities, there needs to be a strong image that can dramatically change the mood of one's home. I would like to re-examine the Dan-Chung pattern, whose painting depends on the aesthetic characteristics of architecture to protect the wooden members of the framework in traditional architecture. The pattern and color of Dan-Chung, coated in traditional architecture, differs by the type of construction used, which includes a palace, a Buddhist temple, and a Confucianism Dan Chung. The Geummoon pattern contains aesthetic factors to add solemnity to the Main Buddhist Halls, which contain Buddha. This is a new medium that continues the current traditions instead of remaining in the past. Among different Dan Chung patterns, Geummoon has magnificent decoration consisting of the highest grade materials and unique composition; therefore, it is suitable to be reinterpreted in modern terms. The same pattern can be interpreted in different ways with different colors, so there is a great aesthetic impression in the Geummoon pattern. The value of preservation for exploration and theoretical study of the traditional pattern is important, but recreating the pattern into modern formative art can present a new angle of view and national brand, bearing pride in our cultural assets. The study used multidimensional molding methods for realistic presentation after going through the two-dimensional design process. The significant value of Korean molding beauty which hangs onto the past will play a crucial role in establishing our national brand.

Effects of Physical and Chemical Treatment as the Pretreatments on Microorganisms and Quality Characteristics of Allium monanthum (전처리 방법이 달래의 품질 특성과 미생물 저감에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim, Hyun-Jeong;Seong, Ok-Lan;Cho, Yong-Sik;Jang, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.510-519
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the microbial reduction and quality maintenance of the physical and chemical pretreatment of Allium monanthum. For physical treatment, handwash, bubble wash and ultrasonication were conducted at 50℃ and 60℃ for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively, and for chemical treatment the sample was immersed in fumaric acid and acetic acid of 1.5% and 2% concentrations for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, respectively. As a result of the microorganism and quality analysis, 3 minutes of bubble wash was the most effective physical pretreatment in reducing fungi although the effect on reducing total viable bacterial was small. Furthermore, 5 minutes of ultrasonication at 60℃ significantly reduced microorganisms, but also resulted in the reduction of the a value of chromaticity, which cause the green color to fade. With chemical pretreatment, it was found that treating with fumaric acid was more effective in reducing the total viable bacteria and fungi than acetic acid. The result shows that 1.5% concentration of fumaric acid is the most effective with 3 minutes of treatment time. The quality of Allium monanthum were compared in the combination of the two most effective microorganism reduction pretreatments: 3 minutes of bubble wash (B3) and 3 minutes in 1.5% fumaric acid (F153). As a result of analyzing the quality characteristics over 9 days of storage at 4℃ after the treatments, it was revealed that the BF treatment is more effective in reducing fungi than the total viable bacteria. The results shows that the BF treatment is more effective in reducing total viable bacteria, whereas the F153 treatment is more effective in reducing fungi. Also, it was found that the 𝚫E value in BF was the lowest, whereas F153 treatment showed the green color faded. The maximum cohesiveness changed more significantly in the green stems than in the roots. On the 9th day of storage, the hardness of the green stem was found to be maintained at the highest level (P<0.05) after F153 treatment, whereas that of the roots decreased (P<0.05) since the 6th day after the bubble wash. Considering the reduction of microorganisms and the quality maintenance of Allium monanthum, the most effective pretreatment methods were 3 minutes in 1.5% fumaric acid for reducing microorganisms and maintaining color and maximum cohesiveness, and the combined process could also be effective if the expiration period is within 3 days.

RAUT: An end-to-end tool for automated parsing and uploading river cross-sectional survey in AutoCAD format to river information system for supporting HEC-RAS operation (하천정비기본계획 CAD 형식 단면 측량자료 자동 추출 및 하천공간 데이터베이스 업로딩과 HEC-RAS 지원을 위한 RAUT 툴 개발)

  • Kim, Kyungdong;Kim, Dongsu;You, Hojun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.54 no.12
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    • pp.1339-1348
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    • 2021
  • In accordance with the River Law, the basic river maintenance plan is established every 5-10 years with a considerable national budget for domestic rivers, and various river surveys such as the river section required for HEC-RAS simulation for flood level calculation are being conducted. However, river survey data are provided only in the form of a pdf report to the River Management Geographic Information System (RIMGIS), and the original data are distributedly owned by designers who performed the river maintenance plan in CAD format. It is a situation that the usability for other purposes is considerably lowered. In addition, when using surveyed CAD-type cross-sectional data for HEC-RAS, tools such as 'Dream' are used, but the reality is that time and cost are almost as close as manual work. In this study, RAUT (River Information Auto Upload Tool), a tool that can solve these problems, was developed. First, the RAUT tool attempted to automate the complicated steps of manually inputting CAD survey data and simulating the input data of the HEC-RAS one-dimensional model used in establishing the basic river plan in practice. Second, it is possible to directly read CAD survey data, which is river spatial information, and automatically upload it to the river spatial information DB based on the standard data model (ArcRiver), enabling the management of river survey data in the river maintenance plan at the national level. In other words, if RIMGIS uses a tool such as RAUT, it will be able to systematically manage national river survey data such as river section. The developed RAUT reads the river spatial information CAD data of the river maintenance master plan targeting the Jeju-do agar basin, builds it into a mySQL-based spatial DB, and automatically generates topographic data for HEC-RAS one-dimensional simulation from the built DB. A pilot process was implemented.

A study on the characteristics of Goryeo dynasty cargo tag mokkans In comparison with mokkans of the Song and Yuan dynasty (고려시대 화물표 목간의 특징에 대한 고찰 - 중국 송·원대(宋·元代) 목간과의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • LEE, Yeonjae
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.60-77
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    • 2021
  • From 2007 to 2011, four Goryeo Dynasty vessels, namely the Taean treasure ship, Taean Mado Shipwreck No.1, No.2, No.3 were discovered in Taean area, Chungcheongnam-do province. From the shipwrecks, 175 pieces of mokkan (wooden tablet) were excavated. These mokkans are the only case of Goryeo Dynasty and represent the unique usage of mokkan as cargo tags, after the paper replaced the wooden tablets as writing materials. The Taean mokkans provide details, such as the year, recipient, port of origin, types of the cargo, quantity and unit, the name of the responsible person for shipment. Thus, they enable us to speculate about the characteristics of the cargo. Furthermore, through studying the writing style, form, material and manufacturing method, researchers can extract which form and characteristics were favored at that time. The Taean mokkans have no preset style for writing. Therefore, they can be written selectively and freely. And since the mokkan were attached to cargos, mokkans with furrows on upper side were favored, and efficiency and simplification of the manufacturing process were priorities in making mokkans. The Taean mokkans can be compared to those from the Shinan ship and the Quanzhou ship because those are of the same era and use. On the writing styles and information, Chinese mokkans are focused on the cargo owners, while The Taean mokkan includes more detailed information, such as the recipients. In forms, Chinese mokkans have maximum thickness of 1.0 centimeter and have pointed edges in lower parts, while mokkans from Taean do not have fixed thickness or edges. Furthermore, Chinese mokkans and Korean mokkans have different styles from manufacturing methods and material selections. These differences between Chinese and Goryeo mokkan are related to the differences between littoral-transport Goryeo ships and ocean-transport Chinese ships, such as shipping distances, types of cargo, shipping systems, packing methods, and transport operators. At the moment, because there are only small amount of data and materials of Chinese mokkan, comparative studies regarding Goryeo and Chinese mokkan can only be fragmentary. However, this article can be a base from which to expand the scope of Goryeo mokkan studies.

Optimization and Application Research on Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Wind Energy Based High Voltage Generation (정전발전 기반 바람에너지 수확장치의 최적화 및 고전압 생성을 위한 활용 방안)

  • Jang, Sunmin;Ra, Yoonsang;Cho, Sumin;Kam, Dongik;Shin, Dongjin;Lee, Heegyu;Choi, Buhee;Lee, Sae Hyuk;Cha, Kyoung Je;Seo, Kyoung Duck;Kim, Hyung Woo;Choi, Dongwhi
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 2022
  • As the scope of use of portable and wearable electronic devices is expanding, the limitations of heavy and bulky solid-state batteries are being revealed. Given that, it is urgent to develop a small energy harvesting device that can partially share the role of a battery and the utilization of energy sources that are thrown away in daily life is becoming more important. Contact electrification, which generates electricity based on the coupling of the triboelectric effect and electrical induction when the two material surfaces are in contact and separated, can effectively harvest the physical and mechanical energy sources existing in the surrounding environment without going through a complicated intermediate process. Recently, the interest in the harvest and utilization of wind energy is growing since the wind is an infinitely ecofriendly energy source among the various environmental energy sources that exist in human surroundings. In this study, the optimization of the energy harvesting device for the effective harvest of wind energy based on the contact electrification was analyzed and then, the utilization strategy to maximize the utilization of the generated electricity was investigated. Natural wind based Fluttering TENG (NF-TENG) using fluttering film was developed, and design optimization was conducted. Moreover, the safe high voltage generation system was developed and a plan for application in the field requiring high voltage was proposed by highlighting the unique characteristics of TENG that generates low current and high voltage. In this respect, the result of this study demonstrates that a portable energy harvesting device based on the contact electrification shows great potential as a strategy to harvest wind energy thrown away in daily life and use it widely in fields requiring high voltage.

The Operation Plan of the Community-Linked Extracurricular Education program for Lifelong Education for the Persons with Disabilities Based on the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of Extracurricular Education between Chosun University and Daegu University (조선대학교-대구대학교 비교과 교육 업무협약(MOU) 기반 지역 연계 장애인평생교육 비교과프로그램 운영 방략)

  • Kim, Young-Jun;Kim, Wha-Soo;Rhee, Kun-Yong
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 2022
  • Based on the MOU between Chosun University and Daegu University, this study was conducted with the aim of exploring the operation strategy of a extracurricular education program on the theme of lifelong education for the disabled in community connection. In front-line university sites, extracurricular education programs are often recognized as forms and procedures to assist in subject learning at the major or liberal arts level, but they have a very important status and identity considering that they are classified as "learning competency reinforcement support", "career psychological counseling support", "employment and start-up support", "subject-linked extracurricular education". Accordingly, the extracurricular education programs has the nature and advantage of covering not only the level of the one-time trend program itself, but also various community -linked problem-solving learning, including students' major learning and employment linkage. As part of the above, this study aims to present a strategy for the operation of a extracurricular education programs with the main theme and content of "lifelong education for the disabled" by viewing Chosun University and Daegu University. The contents of the study were largely presented as "organizational operation strategy between two universities," "operation strategy of curriculum between two universities," and "comprehensive system for extracurricular education programs operation of lifelong education for the disabled between the two universities". First, the first research content, "Organized Operation Strategy between Two Universities," was schematized in detail the process of collaborating and communicating with Chosun University's center of extracurricular activities, Daegu University Lifelong Education Center, and other committees and departments. The second research content, "The Curriculum Operation Strategy between Two Universities", is a detailed schematic diagram of the learning contents, methods, and procedures to be organized in the extracurricular education program. The third study, "Comprehensive System of extracurricular education program Operation for Lifelong Education for the Disabled between Two Universities," presents the results of synthesizing the basis elements essential for operating the extracurricular education program at the level of a roadmap. As a result of the study, it was possible to see the project tasks that could be promoted in-depth through the operation of a extracurricular education program on lifelong education for the disabled through the MOU between the two universities.

Video Analysis System for Action and Emotion Detection by Object with Hierarchical Clustering based Re-ID (계층적 군집화 기반 Re-ID를 활용한 객체별 행동 및 표정 검출용 영상 분석 시스템)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Yang, Seong-Hun;Oh, Seung-Jin;Kang, Jinbeom
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.89-106
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    • 2022
  • Recently, the amount of video data collected from smartphones, CCTVs, black boxes, and high-definition cameras has increased rapidly. According to the increasing video data, the requirements for analysis and utilization are increasing. Due to the lack of skilled manpower to analyze videos in many industries, machine learning and artificial intelligence are actively used to assist manpower. In this situation, the demand for various computer vision technologies such as object detection and tracking, action detection, emotion detection, and Re-ID also increased rapidly. However, the object detection and tracking technology has many difficulties that degrade performance, such as re-appearance after the object's departure from the video recording location, and occlusion. Accordingly, action and emotion detection models based on object detection and tracking models also have difficulties in extracting data for each object. In addition, deep learning architectures consist of various models suffer from performance degradation due to bottlenects and lack of optimization. In this study, we propose an video analysis system consists of YOLOv5 based DeepSORT object tracking model, SlowFast based action recognition model, Torchreid based Re-ID model, and AWS Rekognition which is emotion recognition service. Proposed model uses single-linkage hierarchical clustering based Re-ID and some processing method which maximize hardware throughput. It has higher accuracy than the performance of the re-identification model using simple metrics, near real-time processing performance, and prevents tracking failure due to object departure and re-emergence, occlusion, etc. By continuously linking the action and facial emotion detection results of each object to the same object, it is possible to efficiently analyze videos. The re-identification model extracts a feature vector from the bounding box of object image detected by the object tracking model for each frame, and applies the single-linkage hierarchical clustering from the past frame using the extracted feature vectors to identify the same object that failed to track. Through the above process, it is possible to re-track the same object that has failed to tracking in the case of re-appearance or occlusion after leaving the video location. As a result, action and facial emotion detection results of the newly recognized object due to the tracking fails can be linked to those of the object that appeared in the past. On the other hand, as a way to improve processing performance, we introduce Bounding Box Queue by Object and Feature Queue method that can reduce RAM memory requirements while maximizing GPU memory throughput. Also we introduce the IoF(Intersection over Face) algorithm that allows facial emotion recognized through AWS Rekognition to be linked with object tracking information. The academic significance of this study is that the two-stage re-identification model can have real-time performance even in a high-cost environment that performs action and facial emotion detection according to processing techniques without reducing the accuracy by using simple metrics to achieve real-time performance. The practical implication of this study is that in various industrial fields that require action and facial emotion detection but have many difficulties due to the fails in object tracking can analyze videos effectively through proposed model. Proposed model which has high accuracy of retrace and processing performance can be used in various fields such as intelligent monitoring, observation services and behavioral or psychological analysis services where the integration of tracking information and extracted metadata creates greate industrial and business value. In the future, in order to measure the object tracking performance more precisely, there is a need to conduct an experiment using the MOT Challenge dataset, which is data used by many international conferences. We will investigate the problem that the IoF algorithm cannot solve to develop an additional complementary algorithm. In addition, we plan to conduct additional research to apply this model to various fields' dataset related to intelligent video analysis.

Numerical Examinations of Damage Process on the Chuteway Slabs of Spillway under Various Flow Conditions (여수로 방류에 따른 여수로 바닥슬래브의 손상 발생원인 수치모의 검토)

  • Yoo, Hyung Ju;Shin, Dong-Hoon;Kim, Dong Hyun;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2021
  • Recently, as the occurrence frequency of sudden floods due to climate variability increased, the damage of aging chuteway slabs of spillway are on the rise. Accordingly, a wide array of field survey, hydraulic experiment and numerical simulation have been conducted to find the cause of damage on chuteway slabs. However, these studies generally reviewed the flow characteristics and distribution of pressure on chuteway slabs. Therefore the derivation of damage on chuteway slabs was relatively insufficient in the literature. In this study, the cavitation erosion and hydraulic jacking were assumed to be the causes of damage on chuteway slabs, and the phenomena were reproduced using 3D numerical models, FLOW-3D and COMSOL Multiphysics. In addition, the cavitation index was calculated and the von Mises stress by uplift pressure distribution was compared with tensile and bending strength of concrete to evaluate the possibility of cavitation erosion and hydraulic jacking. As a result of numerical simulation on cavitation erosion and hydraulic jacking under various flow conditions with complete opening gate, the cavitation index in the downstream of spillway was less than 0.3, and the von Mises stress on concrete was 4.6 to 5.0 MPa. When von Mises stress was compared with tensile and bending strength of concrete, the fatigue failure caused by continuous pressure fluctuation occurred on chuteway slabs. Therefore, the cavitation erosion and hydraulic jacking caused by high speed flow were one of the main causes of damage to the chuteway slabs in spillway. However, this study has limitations in that the various shape conditions of damage(cavity and crack) and flow conditions were not considered and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) was not simulated. If these limitations are supplemented and reviewed, it is expected to derive more efficient utilization of the maintenance plan on spillway in the future.