• Title, Summary, Keyword: Proteoglycan

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Isolation and Characterization of Proteoglycan Derived From Human Placenta and its Biological Activities

  • Lee, Kyung-Bok;Kim, Jong-Sig;Yoo, Yung-Choon;Kwak, Sang-Tae;Song, Kyung-Sik;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2000
  • Chondroitin sulfates proteoglycans were isolated from human placenta. For the identification of enzymatic digestion products of isolated proteoglycan, strong anion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) was performed. By the action of chondroitin ABC and chondroitin B lyase, three unsaturated disaccharides 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-OS), 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gluco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-6-O-su lfo-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-6S) and 2-acetamide-2-deoxy-3-O-($\beta$-D-gl uco-4-enepyranosyluronic acid)-4-O-sulfo-D-galactose ($\delta$Di-4S) were produced from the human placenta proteoglycan. The anticoagulant activity of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay and thrombin time (TT) assay. The clotting times of aPTT and TT were increased from 72 to 144 sec and 19 to 27 sec, respectively. The Immune-modulating activity of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was examined by cell proliferation assay and these results suggest that it may play a role in suppression of the function of immune-related cells.

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Possible Mechanism Underlying the Antiherpetic Activity of a Proteoglycan Isolated from the Mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum in Vitro

  • Li, Zubing;Liu, Jing;Zhao, Yifang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2005
  • GLPG (Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan) was a bioactive fraction obtained by the liquid fermentation of the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, EtOH precipitation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. GLPG was a proteoglycan with a carbohydrate: protein ratio of 10.4: 1. Its antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) were investigated using a cytopathic inhibition assay. GLPG inhibited cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HSV-infected cells. In addition, it had no cytotoxic effect even at 2 mg/ml. In order to study the mode of action of the antiviral activity of GLPG, cells were treated with GLPG before, during, and after infection, and viral titer in the supernatant of cell culture 48 h post-infection was determined using a $TCID_{50}$ assay. The antiviral effects of GLPG were more remarkable before viral treatment than after treatment. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, our work suggests that GLPG inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early events of viral adsorption and entry into target cells. Thus, this proteoglycan appears to be a candidate anti-HSV agent.

Characteristics and purification of proteoglycan from Phellinus igniarius (Phellinus igniarius로부터 분리한 단백다당류의 분리 및 특성)

  • Kim, Seon-Hee;Jung, In-Chang;Kwon, Yong-Il;Kim, So-Yeun;Lee, Jong-Suk;Lee, Hang-Woo;Lee, Jae-Sung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2000
  • The proteoglycan, intracellular and extracellular, extracted from the liquid culture of Phellinus igniarius were purified and characterized. The mycelial productivity was proved to be better in shaking culture compared to standing culture. The productivity of intracellular proteoglycan of Phellinus igniarius appeared to be similar in two culturing methods. The standing culture of Phellinus igniarius produced 6 times as much extracellular proteoglycan compared to shaking culture. The proteoglycan were purified to a single peak by ion exchange chromatography(DEAE-cellulose) followed by gel filtration(Sepharose 2B). PIEPDG contained 79.0% total sugar and 7.2% protein. PIEPAG contained 56.7% total sugar and 40.8% protein. PIIPDG contained 64.8% total sugar and 17.4% protein. PIIPAG contained 56.9% total sugar and 41.5%n protein. The molecular weights of all the fractions were estimated to be above 100,000, from 134KDa of PIEPDG to 560 KDa of PIEPAG. The results of sugar analysis by HPLC showed that PIEPDG contains glucose only. The sugar part of PIIPDG and PIIPAG were consisted of glucose and inositol. The PIEPAG contained three kinds of monosaccharides, glucose, fructose and inositol.

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Biological Activities of Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (능이 자실체의 생리활성)

  • Woo, Eun-Rhan;Park, Young-Jun;Moon, Young-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2005
  • Sarcodon aspratus (Thelepholaceae), a native mushroom, is distributed in Korea and Japan, and has been widely used in traditional food and fork medicines. To confirm the biological activities of Sarcodon aspratus, the liver protecting activity, anti-clotting activity, and anti-complementary activity of the water extract, EtOH extract, and the water soluble proteoglycan part of S. aspratus were investigated. The EtOH, and water extract of S. aspratus decreased the GOT and GPT releases induced by $CCl_4$ in a dose-dependant manner. On the other hand, the water soluble proteoglycan part of S. aspratus showed weak inhibitory activity. In addition, the EtOH and water extract of S. aspratus prevented $CCl_4-induced$ hepatotoxicity, as described by a liver histopathologic study. To confirm the anti-clotting activity, the APTT and PT assay were carried out. As a result, only the crude proteoglycan part of S. aspratus showed the anti-coagulating activity, and this result might be due to the inhibition of intrinsic clotting system. Also, the crude proteoglycan part of S. aspratus showed the anti-complementary activity, and the $IC_{50}$ value was $50\;{\mu}l/ml$.

Effects of Clematidis Radix on Proteoglycan Degradation in Collagenase-induced Rat Osteoarthritis Model (위령선(威靈仙)이 흰쥐의 관절강내 Collagenase 투여로 인한 관절연골의 Proteoglycan 변성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dong-Yeul;Kim, Sun-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This study was to investigate the effects of Clematidis Radix on Proteoglycan(PG) degradation by measuring of body weight, Glycosaminoglycan(GAG), Interleukin-$1{\beta}$($IL-1{\beta}$) in synovial fluid, and PG content of articular cartilage of femur in collagenase-induced arthritis in rats. Methods : Arthritis was induced by injection of collagenase(0.1 ml) into knee joint of rats. Arthritic rats were divided into control(n=8) and treated(n=8) group. Control group was taken normal saline for 15 days and treated group was taken extracts of Clematidis Radix for same duration. Normal group(n=8) was injected with normal saline and was taken normal saline for 15 days. Body weight was measured at 0, 10, 15 days after injection. GAG, $IL-1{\beta}$ in synovial fluid were measured with ELISA kit at 15 days after injection. PG content of articular cartilage of femur, represented by safranine O staining, was measured at 15 days after injection. Histopathological study on the articular cartilage of knee joint was investigated at 15 days after injection. Results : Body weight, PG of treated group, taken Clematidis Radix, were significantly increased, and GAG was significantly decreased compared with control group. But $IL-1{\beta}$ was not significantly decreased. Conclusions : On the basis of these results, we concluded that Clematidis Radix has inhibiting effects on the proteoglycan degradation in collagenase-induced rat osteoarthritis model.

Retinoic Acid Potentiates Nitric Oxide-Induced Dedifferentiation through the ERK Pathway in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes (Retinoic acid의 ERK 신호전달경로를 통한 nitric oxide 유도 연골세포 탈분화 심화 기작)

  • Yu, Seon-Mi;Kim, Song-Ja
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.534-541
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    • 2011
  • Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is known to regulate dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes. The regulatory mechanism of dedifferentiation by RA is not yet understood. Thus, the effect of RA on the regulation of nitric oxide (NO)-induced dedifferentiation was investigated in rabbit articular chondrocytes. RA caused loss of the differentiated chondrocyte phenotype as demonstrated by inhibition of type II collagen expression and proteoglycan synthesis. RA also accelerated NO-induced dedifferentiation in rabbit articular chondrocytes as detected by expression of type II collagen and Sox-9 using Western blot analysis and production of sulfated proteoglycan using Alcain blue staining. Further, RA potentiated NO-induced activation of ERK. Inhibition of ERK with PD98059 (PD) recovered the expression of type II collagen and Sox-9 and production of sulfate proteoglycan in NO-induced dedifferentiated chondrocytes by RA treatment. Our findings suggest that RA accelerates NO-induced dedifferentiation of rabbit articular chondrocytes via the ERK pathway.

Antitumor Activity of a Water Soluble Proteoglycan Isolated from Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Sarcodon aspratus에서 분리한 수용성 단백다당체의 항암효과)

  • Woo, Eun-Rhan;Park, Young-Jun;Moon, Young-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2002
  • Sarcodon aspratus (Thelephoraceae), a native mushroom distributed in Korea and Japan has been widely used as a traditional food and folk medicines. Two proteoglycan polysaccharides, named SAP-A and SAP-B were isolated from the fruitbody of S. aspratus. Their molecular weight were determined as 6184.9 D, and 25749.2 D, respectively, by maldi-tof ms. The composition of sugar and amino acid of these compounds was also determined. The SAP-A showed potent antitumor activity. The $ID_{50}$ value of SAP-A was 8.2 mg/kg/day for ICR mice transplanted with solid sarcoma-180, and the elongation of lifespan effect was 167.4% for ICR mice transplanted with ascitic sarcoma-180. Moreover, the elongation life-span effect of SAP-A increased dose-dependently.

Properties of the High and Low Molecule of the Proteoglycan Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum IY009 (Ganoderma lucidum IY009 배양균사체 유래 단백다당류의 저분자와 고분자 분획의 특성)

  • Baek, Seong-Jin;Kim, Yong-Seuk;Chun, Uck-Han;Lee, Eun-Sook;Lee, June-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • To examine the structural properties of the proteoglycan (GMPG, Ganoderma lucidum mycelial proteoglycan) obtained from mycelia in Ganoderma lucidum IY009, we obtained the low and high molecular proteoglycan by ultrafiltration and sepharose CL-4B column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of these fractions were as follows. When the proteoglycan separated by ultrafiltration and sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, its was not fractionated completely. The molecular weight of high molecular proteoglycan by the gel column chromatography (CH) was 250 kD and 2,000 kD, and low molecular proteoglycan was 12kD. The total carbohydrate was consisted of 75.7% (UH) and 96.7% (CH), and the low fraction was 72.7% (UL) and 87.1% (CL), respectively. The sugar of high and low molecular proteoglycan composed of glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, xylose, ribose and arabinose. Glucose contents of all fraction were ranged from $46.9%{\sim}82.4%$ of the total sugar and the ratio of ${\alpha}$\;and\;{\beta}-glucose$ was $0.84{\sim}1.14$, and its indicated the proteoglycan to be ${\beta}-glucan$. Amino acids pattern showed that the fractions contained a large amount of aspartie acid, glutamic acid, alanine and leucine. These fractions showed the characteristics of IR absorption for ${\beta}-glucan$ at $890\;cm^{-1}\;and\;^{13}C-NMR$ spectroscopy showed the presence of the ${\beta}-1,3-glucan$ and a ${\beta}-1,6-glucan$.

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Moisturizing Effects and Composition Analysis of Proteoglycan Isolated from Chia (Salvia hispanica) Seed (치아 씨앗으로부터 분리한 단백다당체의 성분분석과 보습 효과)

  • Lee, Bum-Chun;Joo, Chul-Gue;Hur, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Keun-Ha;Kim, Young-Jin;Lee, Chan-Woo;Kim, Jin-Woong;Park, Yong-Il;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Choe, Tae-Boo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the effects of skin hydration and composition analysis of proteoglycan (chia seed polymer) produced from chia (Salvia hispanica) seed. The result showed that proteoglycan of chia seeds is composed of galactose (46.8 %), glucuronic acid (27.1 %), rhamnose (8.7 %), xylose (7.6 %), glucose (4.9 %), fructose (2.3 %), mannose (1.8 %), arabinose (0.9 %) and the amount of proteins contained is 31.3 mg/g with the constituent amino acid compositions (mg/g) of Asp (1.9), Glu (3.6), Ser (0.9), Gly (3.6), Thr (0.8), Arg (1.0), Ala (2.0), Tyr (0.4), Cys (4.8), Val (1.1), Phe (0.5), Ile (0.6), Leu (0.9). The molecular weight of the proteoglycan measured by GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography) is the range of 100,000~250,000 Da and the average molecular weight is 170,000 Da. The moisturizing effects and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of chia seed polymer in cosmetic products (O/W emulsion) were studied in vivo. Chia seed polymer showed good skin hydration effects when compared with sodium hyaluronate which is a common moisturizer. Taken all together, chia seed polymer should be a very useful cosmetic ingredient as a moisturizer and a protecting agent from various skin irritations.