• Title/Summary/Keyword: Quercus variabilis

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Syntaxonomy and Synecology of Quercus variabilis Forest in Daecheong-dam basin (대청댐 유역 굴참나무림의 군락분류학 및 군락생태학적 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Yeol;Moon, Geon-Soo;Song, Won-Kyong;Choi, Jaeyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.15-34
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    • 2021
  • Syntaxonomy and Synecology on Quercus variabilis forests in Daecheong-dam basin was carried out using the methods of Braun-Blanquet phytosociology. 6 syntaxa classified as species compositions described were Quercus variabilis community, Platycarya strobilacea-Quercus variabilis community(typicum subcommunity, dictamnus dasycarpus subcommunity), Quercetum variabili-serratae, Zelkova serrata-Quercus variabilis community and Dendranthema boreale-Quercus variabilis community. All syntaxa were shown habitat environmental conditions including steep inclination of more than 30°, high rock exposure rate of more than 50% and South-facing slope. These communities excepting Dendranthema boreale-Quercus variabilis community classified as natural vegetation were identified as low emergence rate of annual plants and species compositions composed native species, so it was confirmed that relatively natural succession were proceeding well. Quercetum variabili-serratae and Dendranthema boreale-Quercus variabilis community distributed forested hillslope of open water edge were representative Quercus variabilis syntaxa in Daecheong-dam basin.

Species Competetion and Productivity in a Natural Mixed Forest of Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis at Mt. Mohu Area (전남(全南) 모후산지역(母后山地域) 소나무-굴참나무 혼효림(混淆林)의 종간경쟁(種間競爭) 및 물질생산(物質生産))

  • Park, In Hyeop;Moon, Gwang Sun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.88 no.4
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    • pp.462-468
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    • 1999
  • A natural mixed forest of Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis in Mt. Mohu area was studied to investigate patterns of species competition and productivity. Ten $10m{\times}10m$ plots were set up and eight sample trees of each Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis were harvested for dimension analysis. Mean tree age of Pinus densiflora was 33 years and that of Quercus variabilis was 26 years. DBH and height of Quercus variabilis were larger than those of Pinus densiflora untill tree age 15. After tree age 15, height of Quercus variabilis was higher than height of Pines densiflora while DBH of Quercus variabilis was smaller than DBH of Pines densiflora. For a tree of a given DBH, there was little difference in leaf dry weight between Pines densiflora and Quercus variabilis. For a tree of a given DBH, dry weights of stem wood, stem bark and branches of Quercus variabilis weighed more than those of Pinus densiflora, and the differences between the dry weights of the two species became greater as DBH increased. Net assimilation ratio of Quercus variabilis was higher than that of Pinus densiflora, and biomass accumulation ratio of Quercus variabilis was lower than that of Pinus densiflora. It may be given as a conclusion that Quercus variabilis was superior to Pinus densiflora in species competition owing to faster height growth, higher net assimilation ratio, and lower biomass accumulation ratio. Aboveground stand biomass was 87.7t/ha and aboveground stand net production was 8.3t/ha/yr.

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Physical Properties of Domestic Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata - Comparison of Green Specific Gravities and Fiber Lengths (국산 굴참나무와 졸참나무의 물리적 성질 - 생재비중 및 섬유장 비교)

  • 강호양
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2004
  • Domestic oak trees of Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata were harvested from several forest sites and their green moisture contents, green specific gravities and fiber lengths were compared. The green specific gravities of Quercus serrata trees showed differences between the forest sites at 5% significance level while those of Quercus variabilis didn't. In the radial direction the green specific gravities of Quercus variabilis gradually increased from pith to bark. There was no discrepancy of the green specific gravities between the sapwood and heartwood of Quercus variabilis. And no difference of fiber length was found between individual trees and tree heights for both species.

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Combustion Properties of the Quercus variabilis and Zelkova serrata Dried at Room Temperature (II) (자연 건조된 굴참나무와 느티나무 목재의 연소성(II))

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin;Jin, Eui
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.469-474
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    • 2010
  • Wood has an essential drawback such as high combustion ability. The purpose of this paper is to examine the combustion properties of the quercus variabilis and zelkova serrata dried at room temperature. The cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1) was used to determine the heat release rate (HRR) and fire smoke index, as well as CO/$CO_2$ production and smoke obscuration. The total heat release (THR), $140.2\;MJ/m^2$ of the quercus variabilis under an external $50\;kW/m^2$ was high in comparison with THR $85.7\;MJ/m^2$ for the zelkova serrata. Furthermore, the quercus variabilis has high total smoke production (TSP), $3.50\;m^2$ compared with TSP $0.65\;m^2$ of zelkova serrata. Thease results depend on the bulk density of tested wood species. In addition, the CO/$CO_2$ production ratio of zelkova serrata and quercus variabilis was measured as 0.053, 0.043, respectively. Also, zelkova serrata showed an increase of fire-resistance attributed to char formation compared with that of quercus variabilis.

Analysis of Interspecific Association and Ordination on the Forest Vegetation of Mt. Odae (오대산 삼림식생의 종간친화력 및 서열분석)

  • 이호준;변두원;김창호
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1998
  • The forest vegetation of Mt. Odae based on the interspecific relationship was classified into 4 groups : Quercus mongolica, Pinus densiflora, Quercus variabilis and Patrinia saniculaefolia. Thirty-one species of Quercus mongolica group including Quercus mongolica and Acer mone, 12 species of Pinus densiflora group comprising Pinus densiflora and Spodiopogon sibiricus, 6 species of Quercus variabilis group and 4 species of Patrinia saniculaefolia were positively correlated. in the results of species ordination by principal component analysis, 7 clusters by the humidity and acidity of soil, 4 clusters by the humidity and light intensity and 7 clusters by the acidity and light intensity were formed. The plot ordination showed that the distribution of species based on the humidity, soil acidity and total organic matters was in the order of Pinus densiflora, Quercus variabilis and Quercus mongolica groups, and based on the light intensity was in the order of Quercus variabilis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica groups.

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Plant Community Structure of the Soguemgang Valley in Odaesan National Park (오대산국립공원 소금강 계곡부 식물군집구조)

  • Kang, SeongChil;Han, BongHo;Park, SeokCheol;Choi, JinWoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to the structure of plant community, and ecological succession sere of forest ecosystem in Soguemgang Valley, Odaesan National Park. Fifteenth plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up and the results analyzed by DCA which is one of the ordination technique showed that the plant communities were divided into seven groups which area community I(Quercus variabilis-Pinus densiflora community), II(Pinus densiflora community), III(Pinus densiflora-Quercus variabilis community), IV(Pinus densiflora-Quercus serrata community), V(Quercus serrata community), VI(Pinus densiflora-Deciduous broad-leaved plant community), VII(Cornus controversa-Carpinus laxiflora community). Shannon diversity index per $400m^2$ was to 0.7777 to 1.1440 and the age of Pinus densiflora 86 years old, Quercus variabilis was ranged from 66 to 87 years old, Quercus serrata was ranged from 51 to 62 years old, Carpinus laxiflora was 94 years old. In 2013, the succession trend was predicted Pinus densiflora${\rightarrow}$Quercus variabilis, Quercus serrata ${\rightarrow}$Cornus controversa, Carpinus laxiflora. The ecological sucession progress has declined power of the Pinus densiflora and the increased power of the deciduous broad-leaved and Quercus spp. in Soguemgang Valley, Odaesan National Park. Quercus serrata and Quercus variabilis communities that judged Pinus densiflora were progressing by direction of landform. The southern slopes vegetation were progressing for Quercus variabilis, the northern slopes vegetation were progressing for Quercus serrata. In flat Valley, mainly native species of Cornus controversa, Carpinus laxiflora are predicted ecological succession for deciduous broad-leaved tree community.

Forest Vegetation and Soil Environment on Mt. Mohu (모후산 삼림식생과 토양환경)

  • Lee, Ho-Joon;Kang, Jae-gu;Chun, Young-Moon;Kim, Jong-Hong;Bae, Byung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.367-383
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    • 1995
  • The relationship between floristic composition and soil environmental factors was investigated in the forest vegetation of Mt. Mohu.The forest vegetation unit of the Mt. Mohu could be divided into three communities, Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community and Quercus variabilis community. There were two subcommunities in Quercus mongolica community, which were Rhododendron schlippcubachii subcommunity and Stephanandra incisa subcommunity. The Quercus mongolica community was distributed at the altitude of 600~900 m, Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis communities were distributed on south-west slope at the altitudes of 430~520 m and 400~500 m, respectively.The DBH class of dominant species in each community showed that Quercus mongolica had 9 individuals/a at 11~15 cm class, Quercus variabilis 5.6 individuals/a at 11~15 cm class, and Pinus densiflora 8 individuals/a at 16~20 cm class. Quercus mongolica. Quercus variabilis and Pinus densiflora communities showed a bell-shape distribution.The contents of organic matter and soil water, and cation exchange capacity of the soil increased and the pH decreased in proportion to increased altitude. The soil environmental conditions of Quercus mongolica community were more favorable than those of Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis communities.The supposed successional sere of the forest vegetation of Mt. Mohu was as follows: Pinus densiflora community.Quercus variabilis community.Quercus mongolica community

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Biomass and Net Production of a Natural Quercus variabilis Forest and a Populus alba × P. glandulosa Plantation at Mt. Mohu Area in Chonnam (전남(全南) 모후산지역(母后山地域) 굴참나무천연림(天然林)과 현사시나무인공림(人工林)의 물질생산(物質生産)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Young Cheol;Park, In Hyeop
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.82 no.2
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 1993
  • A natural Quercus variabilis forest and a Populus alba${\times}$P. glandulosa plantation in Mt. Mohu area were studied to investigate aboveground biomass and net production. A $20m{\times}30m$ quadrat was set up in each stand, and 10 sample trees each of Quercus variabilis and Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa were cut for dimension analysis. There was little difference in accuracy among three biomass regression models of logWt=A+BlogD, $logWt=A+BlogD^2H$, and logWt=A+BlogD+ClogH, where Wt. D, and H were dry weight, DBH, and height, respectively. Aboveground total biomass of Quercus variabilis stand was 31,275kg/ha, and that of Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa was 55,581kg/ha. In both of Quercus variabilis stand and Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa stand, the proportion of each tree component to abovegound total biomass was high in order of stem wood, branches, stem bark, and leaves. Quercus variabilis stand was higher in the proportion of stem bark, branches and leaves than Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa stand, while the former was lower in that of stem wood than the latter. Aboveground total net production of Quercus variabilis stand was 4,267kg/ha/yr., and that of Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa stand was 3,903kg/ha/yr. The proportion of each tree component to aboveground total net production of Quercus variabilis stand was high in order of leaves, stem wood, branches, and stem bark. That of Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa stand was high in order of stem wood, leaves, branches, and stem bark. Net assimilation rate and efficiency of leaf to produce stem of Quercus variabilis stand were 2.121 and 0.840, respectively. Those of Populus alba ${\times}$ P. glandulosa stand were 3.376 and 2.085, respectively. Though Populus alba${\times}$P. glandulosa stand was lower in aboveground total net production than Quercus variabilis stand, the former was higher in aboveground total biomass than the latter. The reason was that Populus alba${\times}$P. glandulosa stand was higher in net production of stem wood of accumulation organs than Quercus variablis stand.

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Development of Biomass Allometric Equations for Pinus densiflora in Central Region and Quercus variabilis (중부지방소나무 및 굴참나무의 바이오매스 상대생장식 개발)

  • Son, Yeong-Mo;Lee, Kyeong-Hak;Pyo, Jung-Kee
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this research is to develop biomass allometric equation for Pinus densiflora in central region and Quercus variabilis. To develop the biomass allometric equation by species and tree component, data for Pinus densiflora in central region is collected to 30 plots (70 trees) and for Quercus variabilis is collected to 15 plots (32 trees). This study is used two independent values; (1) one based on diameter beast height, (2) the other, diameter beast height and height. And the equation forms were divided into exponential, logarithmic, and quadratic functions. The validation of biomass allometric equations were fitness index, standard error of estimate, and bias. From these methods, the most appropriate equations in estimating total tree biomass for each species are as follows: $W=aD^b$, $W=aD^bH^c$; fitness index were 0.937, 0.943 for Pinus densiflora in central region stands, and $W=a+bD+cD^2$, $W=aD^bH^c$; fitness index were 0.865, 0.874 for Quercus variabilis stands. in addition, the best performance of biomass allometric equation for Pinus densiflora in central region is $W=aD^b$, and Quercus variabilis is $W=a+bD+cD^2$. The results of this study could be useful to overcome the disadvantage of existing the biomass allometric equation and calculate reliable carbon stocks for Pinus densiflora in central region and Quercus variabilis in Korea.

Structure of Forest Community in Mt. Busosan, Buyeo-Gun (부여군 부소산의 산림군락 구조)

  • Cheong, Yongmoon;Kim, Dongseok;Kim, Kwangdong;Lee, Sanghwa;Song, Hokyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to analyze community character and classify forest community with phytosociological method and quadrat method to forest of Mt. Busosan in Buyeo-Gun.1. Communities by phytosociological method were classified into Pinus densiflora community and Quercus sp. community. With the classification of TWINSPAN, the community was categorized into Pinus densiflora - Quercus variabilis community and Pinus densiflora - Styrax japonica community.2. The importance value of Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Prunus sargentii, Styrax japonica, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis, Pinus rigida, Quercus aliena in tree layer were 83.20, 41.87, 30.93, 24.85, 23.27, 20.97, 20.28, and 9.46, respectively. The relative coverage of Stephanandra incisa, Quercus serrata, Styrax japonica, Parthenocissua tricuspidata, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Lindera obtusiloba, Prunus sargentii, Quercus variabilis, Indigofera kirilowii, Quercus acutissima, Lespedeza maximowiczii, and Acer pseudosibolianum in shrub layer were 9.62%, 9.55%, 9.18%, 7.85%, 6.18%, 5.25%, 4.82%, 4.15%, 3.98%, 3.98%, 3.55%, and 2.98%, respectively.3. According to size distribution map of diameter breast height of dominant species, the dominant species of Mt. Busosan was Pinus densiflora, and Quercus sp. such as Quercus acutissima, Quercus variabilis, and Quercus serrata may compete with the Pinus densiflora in the future.4. According to the ordination analysis of Mt. Busosan forest, Pinus densiflora - Styrax japonica community was found in moist site and Pinus densiflora - Quercus variabilis community was found in dry site.