• Title/Summary/Keyword: Reaching

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A variable structure controller with a PI-type reaching law (PI 형 도갈법칙을 가지는 가변구조 제어)

  • Chun, Kyung-Han;Lee, Yun-Jung;Choi, Bong-Yeol
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.214-218
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    • 1997
  • We propose a VSC(Variable Structure Controller) with a PI-type reaching law. In General, conventional VSCs with a reaching law including a discontinuous term have the chattering problem, and thus the system may be unstable due to the disregarded high frequency dynamics in the modeling process. To resolve this problem, the PI-type reaching law is proposed in this paper. The proposed reaching law makes it easy to determine the reaching dynamics as well as the reaching time by utilizing the 2nd-order system analysis. Furthermore, since the discontinous term is not involved in the reaching law, the chattering is considerably reduced. To show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the stability of the proposed system is proved by Lyapunov method and the computer simulations are performed for the Ball Balance System.

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Variable structure control with fuzzy reaching law method for nonlinear systems (비선형 시스템에 대한 퍼지 도달 법칙을 가지는 가변 구조 제어)

  • Sa-Gong, Seong-Dae;Lee, Yeon-Jeong;Choe, Bong-Yeol
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, variable structure control(VSC) based on reaching law method with fuzzy inference for nonlinear systems is proposed. The reaching law means the reaching condition which forces an initial state of system to reach switching surface in finite time, and specifies the dynamics of a desired switching function. Since the conventional reaching law has fixed coefficients, the chattering can be existed largely in sliding mode. In the design of a proposed fuzzy reaching law, we fuzzify RP(representative point)'s orthogonal distance to switching surface and RP's distance the origin of the 2-dimensional space whose coordinates are the error and the error rate. The coefficients of the reaching law are varied appropriately by the fuzzy inference. Hence the state of system in reaching mode reaches fastly switching surface by the large values of reaching coefficients and the chattering is reduced in sliding mode by the small values of those. And the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy reaching law method is showen by the simulation results of the control of a two link robot manipulator.

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The Effect of Upper Extremity Training with a Focus on Functional Reaching, on Trunk Control and ADL Performance in Post-Stroke Hemiplegic Patients

  • Song, Bo-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: In this study, we tried to determine the effect of upper extremity training such as functional reaching on improved trunk control and ADL performance in post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Methods: We randomly selected 11 stroke patients in the hospital, who had a problem with the upper extremity, trunk and ADL performance. The patients were divided into the conservative training group and the functional reaching training group. We applied general occupational therapy only in the conservative training group whereas we applied upper extremity training with a focus on functional reaching in the functional reaching training group. To compare the two groups we used several assessment tools such as Modified Barthel Index (MBI), total Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), static TIS, dynamic TIS and coordinative TIS. Results: The results obtained were as follows: (1) In the functional reaching training group, there was a statistically significant difference in the total TIS score, dynamic TIS score, and MBI. (2) We compared the results obtained before training with the changes in the results obtained after training and found that there was a relation between the assessment outcomes. Especially, static TIS score showed a relation in both groups. Conclusion: Functional reaching training influenced both the trunk control and ADL performance. Especially, the functional reaching training group demonstrated better static trunk control ability than the conservative treatment group.

The Effects of Direction Changes on the Muscular Activity of the Lower Extremities During Seated Reaching Exercises

  • Kim, Jwa-Jun;Kim, Dae-Kyung;Kim, Jae-Yong;Shin, Jae-Wook;Park, Se-Yeon
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Although multi-directional reaching exercises are commonly used clinically, the effects of specific movement directions on the muscle systems of the lower extremities have not been explored. We therefore investigated lower extremity muscle activity during reaching exercises with different sagittal and horizontal plane movements. Methods: The surface electromyography responses of the bilateral rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius muscles were measured during reaching exercises in three directions in the horizontal plane (neutral, $45^{\circ}$ horizontal shoulder adduction, and $45^{\circ}$ abduction) and three directions in the sagittal plane (neutral, $120^{\circ}$ flexion, and $60^{\circ}$ flexion). A total of 20 healthy, physically active participants completed six sets of reaching exercises. Two-way repeated ANOVA was performed: body side (ipsilateral and contralateral) was set as the intra-subject factor and direction of reach as the inter-subject factor. Results: Reaching at $45^{\circ}$ horizontal shoulder adduction significantly increased the activity of the contralateral rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, while $45^{\circ}$ horizontal shoulder abduction activated the ipsilateral rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles. The rectus femoris activity was significantly higher with reaching at a $120^{\circ}$ shoulder flexion compared to the other conditions. The gastrocnemius activity decreased significantly as the shoulder elevation angle increased from $60^{\circ}$ to $120^{\circ}$. Conclusion: Our results suggest that multi-directional reaching stimulates the lower extremity muscles depending on the movement direction. The muscles acting on two different joints responded to the changes in reaching direction, whereas the muscles acting on one joint were not activated with changes in reaching direction.

PI-type Variable Structure Control with High Speed Reaching Mode (빠른 도달 속도를 가지는 PI형 가변구조 제어)

  • Shin, Seung-Min;Jun, Kyung-Han;Jun, Hae-Jin;Choi, Bong-Yeol
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.236-239
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, we present the new PI-type VSC(variable structure control). In general, conventional VSCs with a discontinuous reaching law have a chattering problem, and with a PI-type reaching law have a slow reaching speed characteristic. To solve this problem, we propose the reaching law consists of a discontinuous and a PI-type reaching law to obtain a high speed reaching mode and a non-chattering characteristic at the same time. Simulation results show the effectiveness of a proposed scheme.

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Analysis of Movement Time and Trunk Motions According to Target Distances and Use of Sound and Affected Side During Upper Limb Reaching Task in Patients With Hemiplegia (편마비 환자의 팔 뻗기 과제 수행 시 목표거리와 건·환측 사용에 따른 운동시간과 체간의 움직임 분석)

  • Kim, Ki-Song;Yoo, Hwan-Suk;Jung, Doh-Heon;Jeon, Hye-Seon
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate effects of reaching distance on movement time and trunk kinematics in hemiplegic patients. Eight hemiplegic patients participated in this study. The independent variables were side (sound side vs. affected side) and target distance (70%, 90%, 110%, and 130% of upper limb). The dependent variables were movement time measured by pressure switch and trunk kinematics measured by motion analysis device. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used with Bonferroni post-hoc test. (1) There were significant main effects in side and reaching distance for movement time (p=.01, p=.02). Post-hoc test revealed that there was a significant difference between 110% and 130% of reaching distance (p=.01). (2) There was a significant main effect in side and reaching distance for trunk flexion (p=.01, p=.00). Post-hoc test revealed that there were significant differences in all pair-wise reaching distance comparison. (3) There was a significant side by target distance interaction for trunk rotation (p=.04). There was a significant main effect in target distance (p=.00). Post-hoc test revealed that there were significant differences between 70% and 110%, 70% and 130%, 90% and 110%, 90% and 130% of target distance. It was known that trunk flexion is used more than trunk rotation during reaching task in hemiplegic patients from the findings of this study. It is also recommended that reaching training is performed with limiting trunk movement within 90% of target distance whereas reaching training is performed incorporating with trunk movement beyond 90% of target distance in patients with hemiplegia.

The Design of a Sliding Mode Controller with Fuzzy PI-type Reaching Law (퍼지 PI 형 도달법칙을 가지는 가변 구조 제어기의 설계)

  • 이재호;조기원;채창현;이상재
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • pp.105-108
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, we proposed a variable structure controller with fuzzy PI-쇼pe reaching law. we fuzzified as inputs to fuzzy system Rf(representative point's orthogonal distance(rd) to switching surface and RP's distance(r) to the origin of the 2-dimensional space whose coordinates are the error and the error rate. The increments of the coefficients $k_{p}$ and $k_{i}$, of the reaching law are calculated appropriate by the simplified Mamdanl inference. The proposed fuzzy PI-type reaching law makes it reduce the chattering and has no need to tune the PI parameters of reaching law. The effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy PI-type reaching law is shown by the simulation results of the control of a Ball-balance System.

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The Influence of Different Objects and Target Locations of Dominant Hand on the Non-Dominant Hand Movement Kinematics in Bimanual Reaching (양손으로 물체 옮기기 과제 수행 시 우세손이 옮기는 물체의 종류와 목표점의 위치 변화가 비우세손의 팔뻗기 동작에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Hee;Jeon, Hye-Seon
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different objects and target location of dominant hand on the non-dominant hand movement kinematics in a bimanual reaching task. Fifteen right-handed volunteers were asked to reach from same starting point to the different target point of right and left hand with grasping the objects of different size. Independent variables were 1) three different object types (small mug cup, name pen, and PET bottle), and 2) three different target locations (shorter distance, same distance, and longer distance than the non-dominant hand) of the dominant hand. Dependent variables were movement time (MT), movement distance (MD), movement mean velocity ($MV_{mean}$), and movement peak velocity ($MV_{peak}$) of the non-dominant hand. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in the non-dominant hand movement kinematics during bimanual reaching. The results of this study were as follows: 1) MT of the non-dominant hand was increased significantly when traveling with grasping the mug cup and reaching the far target location, and was decreased significantly when traveling with grasping the PET bottle and reaching the near target location of the dominant hand. 2) MD of the non-dominant hand was significantly increased during reaching the far target location, and significantly decreased during reaching the near target location with dominant hand. 3) $MV_{mean}$ of the non-dominant hand was increased significantly when traveling with grasping the PET bottle, and was decreased significantly when traveling with grasping the mug cup of the dominant hand. Therefore, it can be concluded that the changes of the ipsilateral hand movement have influence on coupling of the contralateral hand movement in bimanual reaching.

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Design and Implementation of an Adaptive Sliding-Mode Observer for Sensorless Vector Controlled Induction Machine Drives

  • Zhang, Yanqing;Yin, Zhonggang;Liu, Jing;Tong, Xiangqian
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1304-1316
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    • 2018
  • An adaptive sliding-mode observer for speed estimation in sensorless vector controlled induction machine drives is proposed in this paper to balance the dilemma between the requirement of fast reaching transient and the chattering phenomenon reduction on the sliding-mode surface. It is well known that the sliding-mode observer (SMO) suffers from the chattering phenomenon. However, the reduction of the chattering phenomenon will lead to a slow transient process. In order to balance this dilemma, an adaptive exponential reaching law is introduced into SMO by optimizing the reaching way to the sliding-mode surface. The adaptive exponential reaching law is based on the options of an exponential term that adapts to the variations of the sliding-mode surface and system states. Moreover, the proposed sliding-mode observer considering adaptive exponential reaching law, which is called adaptive sliding-mode observer (ASMO), is capable for reducing the chattering phenomenon and decreasing the reaching time simultaneously. The stability analysis for ASMO is achieved based on Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation and experimental results both demonstrate the correctness and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

The Study of Muscle Activity on Functional Reaching (기능적 팔 뻗기 시 근 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Chae, Jung-Byung
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2013
  • Purpose : This study was assessed muscle activity and onset time in trunk and upper extremity on functional reaching. Methods : The participant was 18 female(young 10, old 8). As functional reaching, we collection data by using EMG(MP150) on transverse abdominis, external oblique, erector spinae, deltoid middle and serratus anterior. Results : 1) In functional reaching, transverse abdominis, external oblique, erector spinae and deltoid middle muscle activity was augmented on old female(p>.05). Serratus anterior was augmented on young female(p>.05). 2) In functional reaching, transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscle onset time is significantly faster old female than young female(p<.05). External oblique and serratus anterior muscle onset time is faster old female than young female(p>.05). 3) As increase of age muscle activity of external oblique was more increased that we found .511 a coefficient correlation and onset time more faster on transverse abdominis and erector spinae were each -.492 and -.554 coefficient correlation. Conclusion : The muscle activity and onset time was difference in functional reaching according to ageing and task context. It is necessary concentration and attention to old female than young female. Therefore, these results suggest that importance of anticipatory postural control and selective strategy of postural control.

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