This study examines the effects of several factors indicating economic openness-imported intermediate goods, total imports, IFDI (inward foreign direct investment), and foreign ownership-on regular, irregular jobs and the ratio of irregular employment to regular employment. Findings revealed that imported intermediate inputs and IFDI affected neither regular nor irregular job figures. However, an increase in total imports led to a decrease in the number of irregular jobs without affecting regular full time jobs, leading to a decrease in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. On the other hand, changes in foreign ownership structure had a contrary effect, that is, a decrease in the number of regular jobs and an increase in irregular ones, and, thus, an increase in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. Overall results showed that a rise in imports results in depressed overall employment, irregular employment in particular, while more IFDI results in more irregular jobs replacing regular ones, effectively exacerbating job insecurity. The implication of this analysis is that greater economic openness may have a negative impact on the South Korean labor market overall.
This paper uses the Korean Labor Panel data to investigate changes in the employment types of male workers following their job changes with the classification of workers into three categories: regular wage workers, non-regular wage workers, and self-employed workers. It also estimates a competing-risks hazard model to analyze the determinants of employment types of workers. The results show that the type of employment of a worker at an immediate previous job has a critical importance in determining his employment type at a new job and that the types of employment at jobs other than the immediate previous job also play some role in determining the type of employment at a new job, although their impact declines as the number of intervening jobs increases. A job loser, who worked as a non-regular worker at his immediate previous job, for example, is considerably less likely to find a regular job, but more likely to get reemployed at another non-regular job than one who worked as a regular worker at his immediate previous job. Similarly, a worker who quit self-employment is much less likely to find a regular job but more likely to restart his own business than one who worked as a regular worker at his immediate previous job. These findings suggest that it is not easy at all for a worker who worked as either a non-regular worker or self-employed worker to become a regular worker, although it might be premature to assert that non-regular jobs or self-employed jobs are dead-end jobs. Another interesting finding of this analysis is that a high unemployment rate lowers a probability of reemployment at either regular jobs or self-employed jobs, but raises a non-regular job reemployment probability, which strongly implies that as labor market conditions become adverse to workers the proportion of non-regular employment can rise rapidly.
Fathers are increasingly expected to participate in parenting due to the higher participation of women in economic activities, the growing awareness of gender equality, and the greater emphasis on the role of fathers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paid work time and jobs' family-friendly policies on parenting participation in dual-earner families. Questionnaires were distributed to 577 fathers of dual earner families through a child care center in the Gyeongsangbukdo Province, and the results were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 for Windows. The statistical methods employed included mean, standard deviation, the Pearson correlation analysis, and a multiple regression analysis. The main results are as follows. First, the fathers of dual-earner families showed an above average level of participation in parenting (3.26). By category, they were less involved (2.89) in household chores, and more active in daily guidance and leisure activities (3.48). Second, the most significant variable affecting fathers' parenting participation was having a regular office-closing time. Fathers who were younger, had a higher level of education, had a regular office-closing time, had more vacation leave, and whose companies implemented family-friendly policies were more likely to participate more actively in parenting. Third, the key factors influencing fathers' parenting participation by sub-category were found to be having a regular office-closing time and jobs with family-friendly policies. Fathers with a greater awareness of gender equality were more inclined to participate in household chores, while those who were younger and more educated actively participated in daily guidance and leisure activities.
Objectives: This study compared the dietary behaviors of single-person households when eating alone according to the employment pattern and age. Methods: A total of 566 people aged 20~59 years old were collected from the status of workers and classified into three groups according to their employment pattern (regular, non-regular workers and business owner). The subjects were collected by purposive quota sampling on a Gallup panel from June to November in 2017. The dietary behavior and perception of eating alone of the subjects were surveyed via online and self-reported questionnaires. Results: The frequency of eating alone was significantly higher in the regular group than the non-regular group and business group (p<0.01). The place of eating alone was significantly higher in the regular and non-regular group in the convenience store, and business group in the office (p<0.001). Ramen, the menu when eating alone, was significantly higher in the non-regular group than the other groups (p<0.01). The preference for eating alone was lower in the older age group (p<0.05). The young aged group (aged 20~30) ate more fast food and felt more convenience than the older aged group aged 40~50 years (p<0.05). Conclusions: Single-person households with a non-regular job have poorer dietary behavior in eating alone than those who had regular employment. In a situation of an increasing number of non-regular workers aged in their 20s and 30s, there is a high likelihood of social problems, such as health and poverty. This study highlights the need for a healthy food selection environment to improve the dietary life of single-person households with non-regular jobs for the diverse types of single-person households.
This study was conducted to examine health behaviors in hypertensive patients and the factors that would affect these healthy life-styles. and to provide basic data for effective and continuous hypertension control in private medical facilities. Among those patients diagnosed as hypertension who had visited the Department of Internal Medicine of Yeungnam University Hospital during the two month period from August 2 to September 30, 1999, the present study included 222 patients who were in more than one month after the initial diagnosis of hypertension and those who had hypertension for less than 10 years. Using a structured questionnaire, the present study was conducted by a self-administered survey method, and the obtained data were analyzed with t-test, $x^2$-test and one-way analysis of variance using the SPSS statistical program. The scores on knowledge related to hypertension were higher as the education level of a patient was higher(p〈0.05). As for occupation, those who performed office or management jobs showed higher scores than those who were into manufacturing jobs, and as for economic status, although those patients who were in middle class showed highest scores, however, no statistical significance was observed. The scores of knowledge on hypertension was higher when the family history of hypertension was present(p〈0.05). The scores of health-related behaviors were higher with higher education level and higher economic status, higher in those with family history of hypertension, and higher in those with office or management jobs than those who had manufacturing jobs(p〈0.05). Blood pressure measurement on regular basis was performed most frequently in those who were between 50-59 years old with 83.3% and was least frequent in those who were older than 70 years old with 50%(p〈0.05). The frequency of regular blood pressure measurement was higher with higher education level, higher economic status, higher in those with family history of hypertension, and the highest in those with management position with 93.5%, however, on statistical significance was observed. Changes in health-related behaviors after hypertension diagnosis were higher with higher education level, higher economic status, and in those patients performed office or management work. In particular, diet change was observed in female and higher economic status and smoking cessation was observed in 60-69 years old. Housewives and office workers or managers have taken exercise more regularly and those who had management jobs and had high scores on knowledge related to hypertension would participate health education program more actively. Thus, for improving health-related behaviors for continuous management of hypertension, changes in health-related behaviors can be followed through conduction health education to improve understanding of knowledge related to hypertension as the method of helping to improve changes in health life-styles in those with little education and those in low economic status.
Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
This study investigates the way in which to what extent the creation of industrial park effects on regional economy, particularly in terms of employment. We carry out empirical research with the case of industrial parks being under construction in Gimhae, Yangsan, Haman and Geochang in Gyeongnam. First of all we analyze the number of jobs and the existing location of firms, which are currently confirmed to move to industrial parks. Then we attempt to evaluate employment effects given to its focus on the relevancy of employment, the possibility of employment retention and the quality of jobs. The findings are as follows. It is estimated that the relevancy of employment is higher in Haman and Geochang than in Gimhae and Yangsan. On the contrary, when it comes to the possibility of employment retention, it seems to be that Gimhae and Yangsan are more favourable than Haman and Gimhae. Regarding the quality of jobs, jobs created in the period of constructing industrial park tend to be by and large temporary, but regular jobs tend to be more and more increased during the period that full-scale production activities are operated.
Using the Korean Survey of Household Finances and Living Conditions panel data from 2012~2016, this study analyzed youth (19~34 years) poverty and employment and examined the factors that affect employment status. The analysis revealed an increase in the proportion of young people who are students or jobless; the economic conditions of the young people varied by factors such as marital status, education, job status, and loans; and the government public transfer policy had little impact on reducing the relative poverty rate of the youth. We also examined the factors affecting the youth's employment status and the risk of being employed in low-paid jobs, using multi-logit and logit regression model respectively. Considering employment status, the older and more educated the youth were, the less frequently they were employed in temporary or daily jobs instead of regular ones, but there was no difference between genders in terms of having temporary or daily jobs. A logit analysis on the determinants of low-paid jobs demonstrated that women, the less educated, spouses or children of the household, and temporary or daily workers have a greater probability of working at low-paid jobs. As women became older, their risk of having low-paid jobs increased, which demonstrated the phenomenon of "lock-in" at low-paid jobs. Temporary or daily workers of all age groups faced a higher risk of lowpaid employment, which stood out for the youth. Based on these results, we suggest that government employment and welfare policies should consider individual characteristics of the youth and their life cycle, along with efforts to supply decent jobs, continuously and stably.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
The study data used for the analysis of this study were obtained from the raw data during the 1st survey of the 2nd wave of the 2019 Panel Survey on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities conducted by the Korea Employment Agency for Persons with Disabilities. The results showed that, for regular workers, when there was a fixed term of employment contract, it was more likely that the job was retained for 12 months or longer. For the day laborers, workers without a fixed-term employment contract were more likely to retain their jobs for 12 months longer. This suggests that owing to the types of jobs that did not consider disabilities, people with disabilities were facing difficulties in terms of the options available in their job choices and their self-decisions. Therefore, the state would have to develop more job types and skills for these individuals to expand their career options. The growth in the employment of people with disabilities by small businesses that hire day laborers will depend on the diversification of the employment subsidy, which is again dependent on the size of the businesses.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a plan to expand the employment of the elderly in Small business as one of the ways to solve the problem of the supply and demand of the company due to the aging population and the problem of the elderly poverty. Research design, data and methodology: The method of this study is a qualitative research method, and the researcher visited a small and medium-sized company directly and collected data by conducting an in-depth interview with a business owner. The interview period was conducted on a total of 15 business owners from November 5, 2013 to November 18, 2013. Results: First, the reason why companies hire the elderly is because they are suitable people, and the reason why they are not employed is because the elderly are not suitable. Second, it was found that the most recruiting paths continued to work after retirement. Third, the strengths of the elderly in their businesses were diligence, integrity, leadership, wisdom, warmth, and skill. Disadvantages the elderly in their businesses include wanting to be treated as an adult, poor productivity, poor accuracy, and health risks. Fourth, in case of hiring the elderly, they were considering convergence with young employees, and it was suggested that there are no difficulties in being an elderly because the companies hiring the elderly use the elderly according to the characteristics of the elderly. Fifth, It is realistic to actively utilize the employment system after retirement. Sixth, it was found that, unlike young people, it is not easy to recruit people on the Internet, so it is necessary to improve the system. Lastly, some industries clearly distinguished between the jobs of the elderly and the jobs of the young, but in many industries, it was desirable to create jobs for the elderly by harmonizing the main and secondary jobs. Conclusion: Ultimately, the work of the elderly in small and medium-sized enterprises should be reborn as a high-quality job that can solve the poverty of the elderly by working as a regular worker in the enterprise, rather than simply working for the elderly.
Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
In this paper a free-form hull design program and performance prediction program for planing boat is introduced. This program enables the designer to do complex geometric hull shape design on a personal computer and accurately to predict power requirements for a given loading and velocity. For a free form design, Bezier curve model is adopted as a basic representation tool of curves and surfaces, and this program has versatile functions to do fairing jobs with a convenient graphical user interface. After creating a hull form the geometric data is provided in a manner compatible with a variety of analysis tools including 'Motion Analysis(by Zarnick)' for prediction of motion characteristics in regular waves, 'Running Attitude (by Savitsky)' for prediction of the running attitude and required power.
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