• Title, Summary, Keyword: Resonance

Search Result 10,412, Processing Time 0.074 seconds

Retrospective Evaluation of Discrepancies between Radiological and Pathological Size of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Masses

  • Tian, Fei;Wu, Jian-Xiong;Rong, Wei-Qi;Wang, Li-Ming;Wu, Fan;Yu, Wei-Bo;An, Song-Lin;Liu, Fa-Qiang;Feng, Li;Liu, Yun-He
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.21
    • /
    • pp.9487-9494
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: The size of a hepatic neoplasm is critical for staging, prognosis and selection of appropriate treatment. Our study aimed to compare the radiological size of solid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) masses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the pathological size in a Chinese population, and to elucidate discrepancies. Materials and Methods: A total of 178 consecutive patients diagnosed with HCC who underwent curative hepatic resection after enhanced MRI between July 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively identified and analyzed. Pathological data of the whole removed tumors wereassessed and differences between radiological and pathological tumor size were identified. All patients were restaged using a modified Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging system postoperatively according to the maximum diameter alteration. The lesions were classified as hypo-staged, iso-staged or hyper-staged for qualitative assessment. In the quantitative analysis, the relative pre and postoperative tumor size contrast ratio ($%{\Delta}size$) was also computed according to size intervals. In addition, the relationship between radiological and pathological tumor diameter variation and histologic grade was analyzed. Results: Pathological examination showed 85 (47.8%) patients were overestimated, 82 (46.1%) patients underestimated, while accurate measurement by MRI was found in 11 (6.2%) patients. Among the total subjects, 14 (7.9%) patients were hypo-staged and 15 (8.4%) were hyper-staged post-operatively. Accuracy of MRI for calculation and characterized staging was related to the lesion size, ranging from 83.1% to 87.4% (<2cm to ${\geq}5cm$, p=0.328) and from 62.5% to 89.1% (cT1 to cT4, p=0.006), respectively. Overall, MRI misjudged pathological size by 6.0 mm (p=0.588 ), and the greatest difference was observed in tumors <2cm (3.6 mm, $%{\Delta}size=16.9%$, p=0.028). No statistically significant difference was observed for moderately differentiated HCC (5.5mm, p=0.781). However, for well differentiated and poorly differentiated cases, radiographic tumor maximum diameter was significantly larger than the pathological maximum diameter by 3.15 mm and underestimated by 4.51 mm, respectively (p=0.034 and 0.020). Conclusions: A preoperative HCC tumor size measurement using MRI can provide relatively acceptable accuracy but may give rise to discrepancy in tumors in a certain size range or histologic grade. In pathological well differentiated subjects, the pathological tumor size was significantly overestimated, but underestimated in poorly differentiated HCC. The difference between radiological and pathological tumor size was greatest for tumors <2 cm. For some HCC patients, the size difference may have implications for the decision of resection, transplantation, ablation, or arterially directed therapy, and should be considered in staging or selecting the appropriate treatment tactics.

Detection Characteristics of Gamma-Irradiated Korean Medicinal Herbs by Using PSL, TL, and ESR (PSL, TL 및 ESR 분석에 의한 감마선 조사 한약재의 검지 특성)

  • Yang, Hee-Sun;Park, Yong-Dae;Jin, Chang-Hyun;Choi, Dae-Seong;Chung, Hyung-Wook;Byun, Myung-Woo;Jeong, Il-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.37 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1529-1533
    • /
    • 2008
  • The detection characteristics of gamma-irradiated ($0{\sim}10.0\;kGy$) medicinal herbs (Platycodon grandiflorum, Acanthopanax chiisanensis) were investigated by photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The results of the PSL, a first screening method in comparison with the TL, showed photon counts greater than 5,000 counts/60 s (positive) in the irradiated samples, while the non-irradiated samples yielded photon counts less than 700 counts/60 s (negative). The TL was also applied for the detection method of irradiated medicinal herbs and showed that the non-irradiated sample revealed a glow curve with a low intensity, while the irradiated samples showed a higher intensity. These results were normalized by re-irradiating the mineral grains with a irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy, and a second glow curve was recorded. The ratio of the intensity of the first glow curve ($TL_1$) to that after the normalization dose ($TL_2$) was determined and compared with the recommended threshold values. TL ratio ($TL_1/TL_2$) was below 0.007 for the non-irradiated sample and higher than 0.1 for all irradiated samples (above 1.0 kGy). ESR spectroscopy revealed specific signals (6.065 mT) derived from free radicals in cellulose containing irradiated medicinal herbs. The P. grandiflorum showed clearer signals than A. chiisanensis. From the results of our studies, the PSL, TL, and ESR determinations were found to be suitable for the detection of irradiated medicinal herbs such as P. grandiflorum and A. chiisanensis.

Effects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Human Body : Analysis of differences according to Dental Implant Material (자기공명영상이 인체에 미치는 영향 : 치아임플란트 재료에 따른 차이 분석)

  • Choe, Dea-yeon;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.481-489
    • /
    • 2018
  • In MRI examination, when irradiating the human body with RF Pulse to acquire images, the portion of the irradiated RF Pulse energy is absorded into the human body, and this will affect the temperature of the human body. If a metal is inserted into the human body even if the same RF Pulse energy is applied, the SAR value increases and the body temperature changes due to the increase in the electromagnetic wave conductivity of the metal. So we measure and compared with the change in the SAR and temperature in the implant material of the dental implant in Brain MRI examinations. Experiments were performed on a human head model using a 64MHz and 128 MHz RF Pulse frequency generated by a 3.0 Tesla MRI apparatus. And then changed material of dental implants to Titanium and $Al_2O_3$. Using the XFDTD program, the changes in SAR and body temperature around the head were examined. When with Titanium the SAR value and temperature of Brain increased, but with $Al_2O_3$ showed lower SAR and temperature as compared with Titanium. The dental implants were low in SAR and temperature of the head in $Al_2O_3$, which are electrical insulators with low electrical conductivity, compared to Titanium, which is an electrical conductor. It is necessary to study the biologic effect of patient with brain MRI when titanium dental implant material is inserted in the future. Because the maximum value of SAR is much higher than the limit when dental implant material is Titanium. In addition, it is necessary to use an implant of $Al_2O_3$ material to reduce the SAR value and temperature of the Brain in Brain MRI examination.

Feasibility of Quadruple Arterial Phase of Motion Insensitive Radial Volumetric Imaging Breath-Hold Examination with k-Space Weighted Image Contrast in the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease (만성 간질환 환자의 간세포암의 발견에 있어 움직임에 덜 민감한 k 공간강조영상대조도의 호흡정지 Radial 체적 영상을 이용한 사중 동맥기 간 자기공명영상의 시행 가능성 분석)

  • Lee, Min Ah;Kim, Bong Soo;Lee, Jeong Sub;Kim, Seung Hyoung;Choi, Guk Myung;Lee, Ho Kyu;Lee, Kyung Ryeol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.79 no.4
    • /
    • pp.181-190
    • /
    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the detection performance of hepatocellular carcinoma and image quality in patients with chronic liver disease with quadruple arterial MR imaging using radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination (VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC). Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients underwent liver MR examinations with quadruple arterial imaging using radial VIBE-KWIC sequence (full-frame and four sub-frame images). Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. The image quality and severity of artifact were scored by using the five-point scale. Results: The area under the ROC curve (Az) value of Hepatocelluar Carcinoma (HCC) detectability was the highest on third sub-frame images, followed by full-frame images. The Az values of third sub-frame and full-frame about the detection of HCC were statistically significantly different from the Az value of first sub-frame images. The full-frame and four sub-frame images showed acceptable image quality and low degree artifact with rating of higher than grade 3. Conclusion: Quadruple arterial MRI using radial VIBE-KWIC is a feasible method for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease without deterioration of image quality. The third sub-frame and full-frame image are superior to other sub-frame images in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

Correlation Analysis of Diffusion Metrics (FA and ADC) Values Derived from Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breast Cancer (유방암의 확산텐서 자기공명 영상에서 유도된 확산 지표(FA, ADC) 값의 연관성 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Heun;Lee, Hyo-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.12 no.6
    • /
    • pp.755-762
    • /
    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the FA(faractional anisotropy) and ADC(apparent diffusion coefficient) values, which were derived from diffusion tensor imaging in breast cancer patients. The diffusion gradient used in this study was derived from quantitative diffusion indices using 20 directions(b-value, 0 and $1,000s/mm^2$). Quantitative analysis was analyzed using Pearson's correction and qualitative analysis using for correction coefficients. As a result, $FA_{min}$, $FA_{mean}$ and $FA_{max}$ were $0.098{\pm}0.065$, $0.302{\pm}0.142$ and $0.634{\pm}0.236$, respectively(p > 0.05). The $ADC_{min}$, $ADC_{mean}$ and $ADC_{max}$ were $0.741{\pm}0.403$, $1.095{\pm}0.394$ and $1.530{\pm}0.447$, respectively(p > 0.05). The $FA_{min}$, $FA_{mean}$, and $FA_{max}$ mean values were $0.132{\pm}0.050$, $0.418{\pm}0.094$, and $0.770{\pm}0.164$ for Category 6 and Kinetic Curve Pattern III, respectively. $ADC_{min}$, $ADC_{mean}$, and $ADC_{max}$ were $0.753{\pm}0.189$, $1.120{\pm}0.236$, and $1.615{\pm}0.372$, respectively. Quantitative analysis showed negative correlation between $ADC_{mean}-FA_{mean}$ and $ADC_{max}-FA_{max}$(p = 0.001, 0.003). The qalitative analysis showed ADC 0.628(p = 0.001), FA 0.620(p = 0.001) in the internal evaluations, ADC 0.677(p = 0.001), FA 0.695(p = 0.001) in external evaluations. In conclusion, based on the morphological examination, time to signal intensity graph is the form of wash-out(pattern III) in the dynamic contrast enhance examination, As a result, the $ADC_{mean}$ $1.120{\pm}0.236$ and $FA_{mean}$ values were $0.032{\pm}0.142$ with a negative correlation (Y=1.44-1.12X). Therefore, If we understand the shape of time to signal intensity graph and the relationship between ADC and FA, It will be a criterion for distinguishing malignant diseases in breast cancer.

A Study on Symbolism and Appreciation of Plants through 'Xianqingouji Zhongzhibu' (『한정우기(閑情偶寄)』 「종식부(種植部)」를 통해 본 식물의 상징성과 완상(玩賞) 방식)

  • Zhang, Lin;Yang, Yoo-Sun;Sung, Jong-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.30-39
    • /
    • 2019
  • In this study, 27 representative plants with symbolism and appreciation were extracted from 68 plants collected in Li Yu (1611-1680)'s monograph named 'Xianqingouji Zhongzhibu'. The interpretations were as follows. First, symbolism of plants could be summarized as 1) Li Yu thought that Paeonia suffruticosa was called 'the king of flowers', not only because of its beauty, but also because of its upright character. The only flower that could compete against Paeonia suffruticosa was Paeonia lactiflora Pall.. This flower was called 'the flower prime minister' by common people. But Li Yu thought that Paeonia lactiflora Pall. should also be included in the feudal princes. 2) Prunus persica and Camellia japonica were compared to 'beautiful cheeks', and Malus spectabilis (Ait.)Borkh, Jasminum sambac, Rosa multiflora var. platyphylla, Narcissus tazetta, Papaver rhoeas were compared to 'beautiful women', expressing his love for flowers. 3) Li Yu called Nelumbo nucifera a 'gentleman in flowers' and Buxus sinica Rehd. et Wils. Cheng a 'gentleman in trees'. On the contrary, Daphne odora was compared to 'villain in flowers'. 4) Ilex integra was compared to a hermit, and Campsis grandiflora was compared to an immortal. Second, appreciation of plants could be organized by 1) Appreciation of plants required assistive tools. When going to suburb to enjoy the scenery, tents needed to be prepared. Paper screens should be used to appreciate Prunus mume in the courtyard so as to gain more elegant. Li Yu also proposed that ornamental objects should be properly placed near Orchidaceae so as to gain more elegant. 2)Li Yu took Lagerstroemia indica and Prunus armeniaca L. as examples to interpret that plants were as perceptive as animals and human beings. 3) Li Yu took Salix pierotii and Albizia julibrissin as examples to interpret that people should communicate with plants through five senses to produce resonance. And took Nelumbo nucifera and Rosa rugosa to emphasize the ornamental and practical value of plants. 4) Plants were metaphored sth. similar to them. An interesting example was Celosia cristata L. which was more like an auspicious cloud in the sky than the crest on the cock's head. To sum up, Li Yu personified plants and thought that people should communicate with plants by multi-sensory world when appreciating plants. Through this, it fully showed his love for plants. Meanwhile, Li Yu's symbolism and appreciation of plants, to some extent, reflected the elegant life of literati in the early Qing Dynasty.

Ginsenosides from the fruits of Panax ginseng and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines (인삼(Panax ginseng) 열매로부터 분리한 ginsenoside의 동정 및 암세포독성 효과)

  • Gwag, Jung Eun;Lee, Yeong-Geun;Hwang-Bo, Jeon;Kim, Hyoung-Geun;Oh, Seon Min;Lee, Dae Young;Baek, Nam-In
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.61 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-377
    • /
    • 2018
  • The fruits of Panax ginseng were extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH and the concentrates were partitioned into EtOAc, n-BuOH, and $H_2O$ fractions. The repeated $SiO_2$ and octadecyl $SiO_2$ column chromatographies for the EtOAc fraction led to isolation of five ginsenosides. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined as ginsenoside F1 (1), ginsenoside F2 (2), ginsenoside F3 (3), ginsenoside Ia (4), notoginsenoside Fe (5) based on spectroscopic analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance, MS, and infrared. Compounds 2-5 were isolated for the first time from the fruits of P. ginseng in this study. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines such as HCT-116, SK-OV-3, human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), HepG2, and SK-MEL-5. Among them compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed significant cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Compound 2 exhibited cytotoxicity on SK-MEL-5, HepG2, and HeLa cells with $IC_{50}$ values of 82.8, 86.8, and $78.3{\mu}M$, respectively. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity on HCT-116, SK-MEL-5, SK-OV-3, HepG2, and HeLa cells with $IC_{50}$ values of 24.5, 25.4, 26.3, 22.0, and $24.9{\mu}M$, respectively. Compound 5 did on SK-MEL-5 cell with $IC_{50}$ value of $81.7{\mu}M$. The cytotoxicity of ginsenoside 2, 4, and 5 isolated from the fruits of Panax ginseng showed strong inhibition effect against on cancer cells, all of which have a glucopyranosyl moiety on C-3.

Differences in Ability to Predict the Success of Motor Action According to Dance Expertise - Focusing on Pirouette En Dehors (무용 숙련성에 따른 동작결과예측 능력의 차이: 삐루엣 앙 디올 동작을 중심으로)

  • Han, Siwan;Ryu, Je-Kwang;Yi, Woojong;Yang, Jonghyun
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-135
    • /
    • 2018
  • Dancers' motions are perceived by observers through visual processes with visual information forming the basis for the observers' appreciation and evaluation of the dancers' motions. There have been many discussions as to whether or not observers' personal athletic capabilities form an essential basis for accurate assessment of the motions of others but, so far, no valid conclusions have been reached. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the ability to predict motions of others varies depending on the athletic expertise of the observers. Participants of this research were ballet dancers of varying athletic expertise. Twenty seven participants were divided into three groups with nine in each: beginners, intermediate experts and experts. The participants watched the same dance video and then evaluated whether the motion would be successful or not. The movement related visual information required to evaluate the success of the motion was systematically adjusted by controlling the length of the video. Using the temporal occlusion method, this study measured the response accuracy of the participants by category of expertise. Under the circumstance with insufficient visual information to utilize, the experts showed higher rates of correct response than the intermediate experts and the beginners. The beginners showed higher rates of wrong response than the experts and the intermediate experts. These results showed that the ability to predict success or failure of a dance motion varied depending on motion expertise of the observers, although they had similar level of expertise in perception. Participants considered to have high athletic expertise showed high prediction ability on the result of the motion. In addition, high expertise in perception reduced the likelihood that participants would make hasty responses under the circumstance with insufficient information and helped to reduce wrong response rate. In conclusion, this study showed that motor expertise and perceptual expertise contribute to prediction accuracy of observed motions.

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Microorganism (미생물을 이용한 은 나노입자 생합성)

  • Yoo, Ji-Yeon;Jang, Eun-Young;Hong, Chang-Oh;Kim, Keun-Ki;Park, Hyean-Cheal;Lee, Sang-Mong;Kim, Young-Gyun;Son, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1354-1360
    • /
    • 2018
  • The aim of this study was to develop a simple, environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) without the use of chemical reducing agents by exploiting the extracellular synthesis of SNPs in a culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis CH3. Addition of 5 mM $AgNO_3$ to the culture supernatant at a ratio of 1:1 caused a change in the maximum absorbance at 418 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of the SNPs. Synthesis of SNPs occurred within 8 hr and reached a maximum at 40-48 hr. The structural characteristics of the synthesized SNPs were investigated by various instrumental analysis. FESEM observations showed the formation of well-dispersed spherical SNPs, and the presence of silver was confirmed by EDS analysis. The X-ray diffraction spectrum indicated that the SNPs had a face-centered cubic crystal lattice. The average SNP size, calculated using DLS, was about 51.3 nm and ranged from 19 to 110 nm. The synthesized SNPs exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against C. albicans, a human pathogenic yeast. The FESEM observations determined that the antimicrobial activity of the SNPs was due to destruction of the cell surface, cytoplasmic leakage, and finally cell lysis. This study suggests that B. thuringiensis CH3 is a potential candidate for efficient synthesis of SNPs, and that these SNPs have potential uses in a variety of pharmaceutical applications.

Mineralogical Studies of the Tourmaline for Medicinal Applications by Production Localities (본초 광물로서의 활용을 위한 산지별 전기석의 광물학적 연구)

  • Jie, Yan;Kim, Seon-ok;Park, Hee Yul;Park, Maeng-Eon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
    • /
    • v.51 no.4
    • /
    • pp.345-358
    • /
    • 2018
  • In this study, we have performed electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA), X-ray differaction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), far-infrared (FIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and pH-DO Analyses for characterizing medicinal mineralogy aspect of the black tourmaline (Shantung, china), black and pink tourmaline (Minas Geraris, Brazil), black touemaline (Daeyu mine, Korea). In addition, heating effects of the tourmaline sauna as well as the effects of tourmaline powder-added soap on skin troubles have been investigated. It has been revealed that chemical composition of the tourmaline is either high in Fe-, Al-, B-rich types. Ratio of the K-Ca, Na-K, and Fe-B reflects the component change property of solid solution. $CaO/CaO+Na_2O$ and MgO/FeO+MgO ratio show high positive correlation. When tourmaline reacts with distilled water, extended reaction time DO values approximately decrease and it stabilizes at DO = 10. Otherwise, pH values increase until 6 hours and it stabilizes at pH = 8 after 24 hours. Distilled water changes to alkaline when it reacts with tourmaline powder and particles. Tourmaline showed lower absorption spectrum strength and transmittance at short wave, where absorption spectrum wavelength and strength were determined by the content of the composition elements and characteristics of crystallography. Increase of the Fe content has been confirmed to be the cause for the reduction of irradiation. For the chemical composition and spectral property of the tourmaline particle samples, it has been found that Si and Fe contents show positive correlation with Far-Infrared irradiation, while Al and Mg contents show negative correlation. For tourmaline powder, it has been confirmed that $^{17}O-NMR$ FWHM (full width at half maximum) decreases when reacts with distilled water. Tourmaline sauna (approximately $100^{\circ}C$) was found to increase $0.5-1.5^{\circ}C$ of body temperature, average of 12 heartbeat, and 10mg Hg of blood pressure. Tourmaline soap had very good aesthetic effect to skin and was confirmed to have above the average improvements to skin troubles (e.g., allergy or atopy).