• Title, Summary, Keyword: Respiratory gated

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Comparative Study Between Respiratory Gated Conventional 2-D Plan and 3-D Conformal Plan for Predicting Radiation Hepatitis (간암에서 호흡주기를 고려한 2-차원 방사선 치료 방법과 3-차원 입체조형 치료방법에서 방사선 간염 예측의 비교연구)

  • Lee Sang-wook;Kim Gwi Eon;Chung Kap Soo;Lee Chang Geol;Seong Jinsil;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.455-467
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To evaluate influences associated with radiation treatment planning obtained with the patient breathing freely. Materials and Methods : We compared reduction or elimination of planning target volume (PTV) margins with 2-D conventional plan with inclusion of PTV margins associated with breathing with 3-D conformal therapy. The respiratory non gated 3-D conformal treatment plans were compared with respiratory gated conventional 2-D plans in 4 patients with hepatocellular carcinomas. Isodose distribution, dose statistics, and dose volume histogram (DVH) of PTVs were used to evaluate differences between respiratory gated conventional 2-D plans and respiratory non gated 3-D conformal treatment plans. In addition. the risk of radiation exposure of surrounding normal liver and organs are evaluated by means of DVH and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Results : The vertical movement of liver ranged 2-3 cm in all patients. We found no difference between respiratory gated 2-D plans and 3-D conformal treatment plans with the patients breathing freely. Treatment planning using DVH analysis of PTV and the normal liver was used for all patients. DVH and calculated NTCP showed no difference in respiratory gated 2-D plans and respiratory non gated 3-D conformal treatment plans. Conclusion : Respiratory gated radiation therapy was very important in hepatic tumors because radiation induced hepatitis was dependent on remaining normal liver volume. Further investigational studies for respiratory gated radiation.

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Evaluation of the MEMS Based Portable Respiratory Training System with a Tactile Sensor for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy

  • Moon, Sun Young;Yoon, Myonggeun;Chung, Mijoo;Chung, Weon Kuu;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.71 no.8
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2017
  • In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, it is important to maintain the regular respiratory cycles of patients. If patients undergo respiration training, their regular breathing pattern is affected. Therefore, we developed a respiratory training system based on a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and evaluated the feasibility of the MEMS in radiotherapy. By comparing the measured signal before and after radiation exposure, we confirmed the effects of radiation. By evaluating the period of the electric signal emitted by a tactile sensor and its constancy, the performance of the tactile sensor was confirmed. Moreover, by comparing the delay between the motion of the MEMS and the electric signal from the tactile sensor, we confirmed the reaction time of the tactile sensor. The results showed that a baseline shift occurred for an accumulated dose of 400 Gy in the sensor, and both the amplitude and period changed. The period of the signal released by the tactile sensor was 5.39 and its standard deviation was 0.06. Considering the errors from the motion phantom, a standard deviation of 0.06 was desirable. The delay time was within 0.5 s and not distinguishable by a patient. We confirmed the performance of the MEMS and concluded that MEMS could be applied to patients for respiratory-gated radiotherapy.

A Non-invasive Real-time Respiratory Organ Motion Tracking System for Image Guided Radio-Therapy (IGRT를 위한 비침습적인 호흡에 의한 장기 움직임 실시간 추적시스템)

  • Kim, Yoon-Jong;Yoon, Uei-Joong
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.676-683
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    • 2007
  • A non-invasive respiratory gated radiotherapy system like those based on external anatomic motion gives better comfortableness to patients than invasive system on treatment. However, higher correlation between the external and internal anatomic motion is required to increase the effectiveness of non-invasive respiratory gated radiotherapy. Both of invasive and non-invasive methods need to track the internal anatomy with the higher precision and rapid response. Especially, the non-invasive method has more difficulty to track the target position successively because of using only image processing. So we developed the system to track the motion for a non-invasive respiratory gated system to accurately find the dynamic position of internal structures such as the diaphragm and tumor. The respiratory organ motion tracking apparatus consists of an image capture board, a fluoroscopy system and a processing computer. After the image board grabs the motion of internal anatomy through the fluoroscopy system, the computer acquires the organ motion tracking data by image processing without any additional physical markers. The patients breathe freely without any forced breath control and coaching, when this experiment was performed. The developed pattern-recognition software could extract the target motion signal in real-time from the acquired fluoroscopic images. The range of mean deviations between the real and acquired target positions was measured for some sample structures in an anatomical model phantom. The mean and max deviation between the real and acquired positions were less than 1mm and 2mm respectively with the standardized movement using a moving stage and an anatomical model phantom. Under the real human body, the mean and maximum distance of the peak to trough was measured 23.5mm and 55.1mm respectively for 13 patients' diaphragm motion. The acquired respiration profile showed that human expiration period was longer than the inspiration period. The above results could be applied to respiratory-gated radiotherapy.

Consideration of the Accuracy by Variation of Respiration in Real-time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (호흡동조 방사선치료에 사용되고 있는 RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System의 호흡변화에 따른 정확성에 대한 고찰)

  • Na, Jun Young;Kang, Tae Young;Baek, Geum Mun;Kwon, Gyeong Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) has been carried out using RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, varian, USA) in Asan Medical Center. This study was to analyze and evaluate the accuracy of Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) according to variation of respiration. Materials and Methods: Making variation of respiration using Motion Phantom:QUASAR Programmable Respiratory Motion Phantom (Moudus Medical Device Inc. CANADA) able to adjust respiration pattern randomly was varying period, amplitude and baseline by analyze 50 patient's respiration of lung and liver cancer. One of the variations of respiration is baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. The other variation of respiration is baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm. Experiments were performed in the same way that is used RPM Respiratory Gating System (phase gating, usually 30~70% gating) in Asan Medical Center. Results: It was all exposed radiation under one of the conditions of baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. Under the other condition of baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm equally radiation was exposed. Conclusion: The variations of baseline shifts didn't accurately reflect on phase gating in RPM Respiratory Gating System. This inexactitude makes serious uncertainty in Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. So, Must be stabilized breathing of patient before conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. also must be monitored breathing of patient in the middle of treatment. If you observe considerable changes of breathing when conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. Stopping treatment immediately and then must be need to recheck treatment site using fluoroscopy. If patient's respiration rechecked using fluoroscopy restabilize, it is possible to restart Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy.

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Quasi-breath-hold (QBH) Biofeedback in Gated 3D Thoracic MRI: Feasibility Study (게이트 흉부자기 공명 영상법과 함께 사용할 수 있는 의사호흡정지(QBH) 바이오 피드백)

  • Kim, Taeho;Pooley, Robert;Lee, Danny;Keall, Paul;Lee, Rena;Kim, Siyong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2014
  • The aim of the study is to test a hypothesis that quasi-breath-hold (QBH) biofeedback improves the residual respiratory motion management in gated 3D thoracic MR imaging, reducing respiratory motion artifacts with insignificant acquisition time alteration. To test the hypothesis five healthy human subjects underwent two gated MR imaging studies based on a T2 weighted SPACE MR pulse sequence using a respiratory navigator of a 3T Siemens MRI: one under free breathing and the other under QBH biofeedback breathing. The QBH biofeedback system utilized the external marker position on the abdomen obtained with an RPM system (Real-time Position Management, Varian) to audio-visually guide a human subject for 2s breath-hold at 90% exhalation position in each respiratory cycle. The improvement in the upper liver breath-hold motion reproducibility within the gating window using the QBH biofeedback system has been assessed for a group of volunteers. We assessed the residual respiratory motion management within the gating window and respiratory motion artifacts in 3D thoracic MRI both with/without QBH biofeedback. In addition, the RMSE (root mean square error) of abdominal displacement has been investigated. The QBH biofeedback reduced the residual upper liver motion within the gating window during MR acquisitions (~6 minutes) compared to that for free breathing, resulting in the reduction of respiratory motion artifacts in lung and liver of gated 3D thoracic MR images. The abdominal motion reduction in the gated window was consistent with the residual motion reduction of the diaphragm with QBH biofeedback. Consequently, average RMSE (root mean square error) of abdominal displacement obtained from the RPM has been also reduced from 2.0 mm of free breathing to 0.7 mm of QBH biofeedback breathing over the entire cycle (67% reduction, p-value=0.02) and from 1.7 mm of free breathing to 0.7 mm of QBH biofeedback breathing in the gated window (58% reduction, p-value=0.14). The average baseline drift obtained using a linear fit was reduced from 5.5 mm/min with free breathing to 0.6 mm/min (89% reduction, p-value=0.017) with QBH biofeedback. The study demonstrated that the QBH biofeedback improved the upper liver breath-hold motion reproducibility during the gated 3D thoracic MR imaging. This system can provide clinically applicable motion management of the internal anatomy for gated medical imaging as well as gated radiotherapy.

Usefulness of Gated RapidArc Radiation Therapy Patient evaluation and applied with the Amplitude mode (호흡 동조 체적 세기조절 회전 방사선치료의 유용성 평가와 진폭모드를 이용한 환자적용)

  • Kim, Sung Ki;Lim, Hhyun Sil;Kim, Wan Sun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : This study has already started commercial Gated RapidArc automation equipment which was not previously in the Gated radiation therapy can be performed simultaneously with the VMAT Gated RapidArc radiation therapy to the accuracy of the analysis to evaluate the usability, Amplitude mode applied to the patient. Materials and Methods : The analysis of the distribution of radiation dose equivalent quality solid water phantom and GafChromic film was used Film QA film analysis program using the Gamma factor (3%, 3 mm). Three-dimensional dose distribution in order to check the accuracy of Matrixx dosimetry equipment and Compass was used for dose analysis program. Periodic breathing synchronized with solid phantom signals Phantom 4D Phantom and Varian RPM was created by breathing synchronized system, free breathing and breath holding at each of the dose distribution was analyzed. In order to apply to four patients from February 2013 to August 2013 with liver cancer targets enough to get a picture of 4DCT respiratory cycle and then patients are pratice to meet patient's breathing cycle phase mode using the patient eye goggles to see the pattern of the respiratory cycle to be able to follow exactly in a while 4DCT images were acquired. Gated RapidArc treatment Amplitude mode in order to create the breathing cycle breathing performed three times, and then at intervals of 40% to 60% 5-6 seconds and breathing exercises that can not stand (Fig. 5), 40% While they are treated 60% in the interval Beam On hold your breath when you press the button in a way that was treated with semi-automatic. Results : Non-respiratory and respiratory rotational intensity modulated radiation therapy technique absolute calculation dose of using computerized treatment plan were shown a difference of less than 1%, the difference between treatment technique was also less than 1%. Gamma (3%, 3 mm) and showed 99% agreement, each organ-specific dose difference were generally greater than 95% agreement. The rotational intensity modulated radiation therapy, respiratory synchronized to the respiratory cycle created Amplitude mode and the actual patient's breathing cycle could be seen that a good agreement. Conclusion : When you are treated Non-respiratory and respiratory method between volumetric intensity modulated radiation therapy rotation of the absolute dose and dose distribution showed a very good agreement. This breathing technique tuning volumetric intensity modulated radiation therapy using a rotary moving along the thoracic or abdominal breathing can be applied to the treatment of tumors is considered. The actual treatment of patients through the goggles of the respiratory cycle to create Amplitude mode Gated RapidArc treatment equipment that does not automatically apply to the results about 5-6 seconds stopped breathing in breathing synchronized rotary volumetric intensity modulated radiation therapy facilitate could see complement.

Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy (간암 호흡동조 방사선치료 환자의 호흡신호분석)

  • Kang, dong im;Jung, sang hoon;Kim, chul jong;Park, hee chul;Choi, byung ki
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy Materials and Methods : May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40% ~ 60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Results : Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (${\pm}0.71sec$), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). Conclusion : This study is to analyze the acts after the breathing motion of the external markers recorded during the actual treatment was confirmed in a reproducible ratios of actual treatment of breathing motion during treatment, and Duty Cycle, planned respiratory gated window. Minimizing an error of the treatment plan using 4DCT and enhance the respiratory training and respiratory signal monitoring for effective treatment it is determined to be necessary.

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Evaluation of the Accuracy for Respiratory-gated RapidArc (RapidArc를 이용한 호흡연동 회전세기조절방사선치료 할 때 전달선량의 정확성 평가)

  • Sung, Jiwon;Yoon, Myonggeun;Chung, Weon Kuu;Bae, Sun Hyun;Shin, Dong Oh;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2013
  • The position of the internal organs can change continually and periodically inside the body due to the respiration. To reduce the respiration induced uncertainty of dose localization, one can use a respiratory gated radiotherapy where a radiation beam is exposed during the specific time of period. The main disadvantage of this method is that it usually requests a long treatment time, the massive effort during the treatment and the limitation of the patient selection. In this sense, the combination of the real-time position management (RPM) system and the volumetric intensity modulated radiotherapy (RapidArc) is promising since it provides a short treatment time compared with the conventional respiratory gated treatments. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the respiratory gated RapidArc treatment. Total sic patient cases were used for this study and each case was planned by RapidArc technique using varian ECLIPSE v8.6 planning machine. For the Quality Assurance (QA), a MatriXX detector and I'mRT software were used. The results show that more than 97% of area gives the gamma value less than one with 3% dose and 3 mm distance to agreement condition, which indicates the measured dose is well matched with the treatment plan's dose distribution for the gated RapidArc treatment cases.

Quality Verification for Respiratory Gated Proton Therapy (호흡동조 양성자치료의 Quality Verification)

  • Kim, Eun Sook;Jang, Yo Jong;Park, Ji Yeon;Kang, Dong Yun;Yeom, Doo Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To verify accuracy of respiratory gated proton therapy by measuring and analyzing proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed in our institute. Materials and Methods: The plan data of 3 patients who took respiratory gated proton therapy were used to deliver proton beam from proton therapy system. The manufactured moving phantom was used to apply respiratory gating system to reproduce proton beam which was partially irradiated. The key characteristics of proton beam, range, spreat-out Bragg peak (SOBP) and output factor were measured 5 times and the same categories were measured in the continuous proton beam which was not performed with respiratory gating system. Multi-layer ionization chamber was used to measure range and SOBP, and Scanditronix Wellhofer and farmer chamber was used to measure output factor. Results: The average ranges of 3 patients (A, B, C), who had taken respiratory gated proton therapy or not, were (A) 7.226, 7.230, (B) 12.216, 12.220 and (C) 19.918, 19.920 $g/cm^2$ and average SOBP were (A) 4.950, 4.940, (B) 6.496, 6.512 and (C) 8.486, 8.490 $g/cm^2$. And average output factor were (A) 0.985, 0.984 (B) 1.026, 1.027 and (C) 1.138, 1.136 cGy/MU. The differences of average range were -0.004, -0.004, -0.002 $g/cm^2$, that of SOBP were 0.010, -0.016, -0.004 $g/cm^2$ and that of output factor were 0.001, -0.001, 0.002 cGy/MU. Conclusion: It is observed that the range, SOBP and output factor of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed have the same beam quality with no significant difference compared to the proton beam which was continuously irradiated. Therefore, this study verified the quality of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy and confirmed the accuracy of proton therapy using this.

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